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Journal of medical toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30296897/cardiovascular-pharmacogenomics-does-it-matter-if-you-re-black-or-white
#1
Tanima De, C Sehwan Park, Minoli A Perera
Race and ancestry have long been associated with differential risk and outcomes to disease as well as responses to medications. These differences in drug response are multifactorial with some portion associated with genomic variation. The field of pharmacogenomics aims to predict drug response in patients prior to medication administration and to uncover the biological underpinnings of drug response. The field of human genetics has long recognized that genetic variation differs in frequency between ancestral populations, with some single nucleotide polymorphisms found solely in one population...
October 8, 2018: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30296896/molecular-pharmacology-and-neurobiology-of-rapid-acting-antidepressants
#2
Todd D Gould, Carlos A Zarate, Scott M Thompson
For decades, symptoms of depression have been treated primarily with medications that target the monoaminergic brain systems, which typically take weeks to exert measurable effects and months to exert remission of symptoms. Low, subanesthetic doses of (R,S)-ketamine (ketamine) result in the rapid improvement of core depressive symptoms, including mood, anhedonia, and suicidal ideation, occurring within hours following a single administration, with relief from symptoms typically lasting up to a week. The discovery of these actions of ketamine has resulted in a reconceptualization of how depression could be more effectively treated in the future...
October 8, 2018: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216745/the-neurobiology-and-pharmacotherapy-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#3
Chadi G Abdallah, Lynnette A Averill, Teddy J Akiki, Mohsin Raza, Christopher L Averill, Hassaan Gomaa, Archana Adikey, John H Krystal
New approaches to the neurobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are needed to address the reported crisis in PTSD drug development. These new approaches may require the field to move beyond a narrow fear-based perspective, as fear-based medications have not yet demonstrated compelling efficacy. Antidepressants, particularly recent rapid-acting antidepressants, exert complex effects on brain function and structure that build on novel aspects of the biology of PTSD, including a role for stressrelated synaptic dysconnectivity in the neurobiology and treatment ofPTSD...
September 14, 2018: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148697/muscle-wasting-diseases-novel-targets-and-treatments
#4
Regula Furrer, Christoph Handschin
Adequate skeletal muscle plasticity is an essential element for our well-being, and compromised muscle function can drastically affect quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. Surprisingly, however, skeletal muscle remains one of the most under-medicated organs. Interventions in muscle diseases are scarce, not only in neuromuscular dystrophies, but also in highly prevalent secondary wasting pathologies such as sarcopenia and cachexia. Even in other diseases that exhibit a well-established risk correlation of muscle dysfunction due to a sedentary lifestyle, such as type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular pathologies, current treatments are mostly targeted on non-muscle tissues...
August 27, 2018: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30125127/moving-from-the-trial-to-the-real-world-improving-medication-adherence-using-insights-of-implementation-science
#5
Leah Zullig, Mieke Deschodt, Jan Liska, Hayden B Bosworth, Sabina De Geest
Medication nonadherence is a serious public health concern. Although there are promising interventions that improve medication adherence, most interventions are developed and tested in tightly controlled research environments that are dissimilar from the real-world settings where the majority of patients receive health care. Implementation science methods have the potential to facilitate and accelerate the translation shift from the trial world to the real world. We demonstrate their potential by reviewing published, high-quality medication adherence studies that could potentially be translated into clinical practice yet lack essential implementation science building blocks...
August 20, 2018: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113875/organoids-for-drug-discovery-and-personalized-medicine
#6
Toshio Takahashi
A wide variety of organs are in a dynamic state, continuously undergoing renewal as a result of constant growth and differentiation. Stem cells are required during these dynamic events for continuous tissue maintenance within the organs. In a steady state of production and loss of cells within these tissues, new cells are constantly formed by differentiation from stem cells. Today, organoids derived from either adult stem cells or pluripotent stem cells can be grown to resemble various organs. As they are similar to their original organs, organoids hold great promise for use in medical research and the development of new treatments...
August 16, 2018: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30044726/environmental-obesogens-mechanisms-and-controversies
#7
Jerrold J Heindel, Bruce Blumberg
Obesity is a worldwide pandemic in adults as well as children and adds greatly to health care costs through its association with type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and cancers. The prevailing medical view of obesity is that it results from a simple imbalance between caloric intake and energy expenditure. However, numerous other factors are important in the etiology of obesity. The obesogen hypothesis proposes that environmental chemicals termed obesogens promote obesity by acting to increase adipocyte commitment, differentiation, and size by altering metabolic set points or altering the hormonal regulation of appetite and satiety...
July 25, 2018: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926389/the-virtual-toxicology-journal-club-the-dissemination-and-discussion-of-noteworthy-manuscripts-using-twitter
#8
Peter R Chai, Anne-Michelle Ruha, Kelly E Wong, Derek L Monette, Meghan B Spyres, Jeff Lapoint, Howard Greller, Mark B Mycyk
BACKGROUND: Twitter-based chat groups (tweetchats) structured as virtual journal clubs have been demonstrated to provide value to learners. In order to promote topics in medical toxicology, we developed the #firesidetox tweetchat as a virtual journal club to discuss and disseminate topics in medical toxicology. METHODS: A group of medical toxicologists from the American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT) Public Affairs Committee and editorial board of the Journal of Medical Toxicology (JMT) developed a quarterly one hour tweetchat featuring JMT manuscripts...
September 2018: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750249/zolpidem-and-zolpidem-carboxylic-acid-results-from-medication-monitoring
#9
Sheng Feng, Oneka T Cummings, Gregory McIntire
Zolpidem (Ambien®) is one of the "Z" drugs often used to improve sleep in older patients and those suffering from insomnia. Schwope, D.M., DePriest, A., Black, D.L., Caplan, Y.H., Cone, E.J., Heltsley, R. (2014) Determing zolpidem compliance: urinary metabolite detection and prevalence in chronic pain patients . Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 38, 513-518 reported that zolpidem in urine is not very prevalent being present <23% of the time in patient urine while the major metabolite, zolpidem 4-phenyl carboxylic acid (ZCA), is much more prevalent in urine with positive rates as high as 50% of the patient samples reviewed...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501674/traditional-uses-phytochemistry-pharmacology-and-toxicology-of-codonopsis-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Shi-Man Gao, Jiu-Shi Liu, Min Wang, Ting-Ting Cao, Yao-Dong Qi, Ben-Gang Zhang, Xiao-Bo Sun, Hai-Tao Liu, Pei-Gen Xiao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Species of the genus Codonopsis are perennial herbs mainly distributed throughout East, Southeast and Central Asia. As recorded, they have been used as traditional Chinese medicines since the Qing Dynasty, where they were claimed for strengthening the spleen and tonifying the lung, as well as nourishing blood and engendering liquid. Some species are also used as food materials in southern China and Southeast Asia, such as tea, wine, soup, plaster, and porridge...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490646/a-bibliometric-analysis-of-the-published-road-traffic-injuries-research-in-india-post-1990
#11
REVIEW
Neeraj Sharma, Mohan Bairwa, B Gowthamghosh, S D Gupta, D K Mangal
BACKGROUND: Globally, road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death among those aged 15-29 years. However, road traffic injury research has not received adequate attention from the scientific community in low- and middle-income countries, including India. The present study aims to provide a bibliometric overview of research assessing road traffic injuries in India. METHODS: We used Scopus to extract relevant research in road traffic injuries published from 1991 to 2017...
March 1, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420800/yesterday-and-today-the-impact-of-research-conducted-at-camp-detrick-on-botulinum-toxin
#12
Frank J Lebeda, Michael Adler, Zygmunt F Dembek
Introduction: This review summarizes the research conducted on botulinum toxin (BoTx) from 1943 to 1956 by a small group of Camp Detrick investigators and their staff. A systematic, cross-disciplinary approach was used to develop effective vaccines against this biological warfare threat agent. In response to the potential need for medical countermeasures against BoTx during World War II, the refinement of isolation and purification techniques for BoTx successfully led to the large-scale production of botulinum toxoid vaccines...
May 1, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446067/the-chemical-disruption-of-human-metabolism
#13
REVIEW
Stephen J Genuis, Edmond Kyrillos
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence highlights the reality of unprecedented human exposure to toxic chemical agents found throughout our environment - in our food and water supply, in the air we breathe, in the products we apply to our skin, in the medical and dental materials placed into our bodies, and even within the confines of the womb. With biomonitoring confirming the widespread bioaccumulation of myriad toxicants among population groups, expanding research continues to explore the pathobiological impact of these agents on human metabolism...
September 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717067/one-health-transdisciplinary-opportunities-for-setac-leadership-in-integrating-and-improving-the-health-of-people-animals-and-the-environment
#14
REVIEW
A Alonso Aguirre, Val R Beasley, Tom Augspurger, William H Benson, Janet Whaley, Niladri Basu
One Health is a collaborative, transdisciplinary effort working locally, nationally, and globally to improve health for people, animals, plants, and the environment. The term is relatively new (from ∼2003), and it is increasingly common to see One Health included by name in interinstitutional research partnerships, conferences, communications, and organizational frameworks, particularly those championed by the human health and veterinary medical communities. Environmental quality is arguably the least developed component within the One Health framework, but can be guided by expertise within the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC)...
October 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618739/don-t-worry-be-happy-endocannabinoids-and-cannabis-at-the-intersection-of-stress-and-reward
#15
REVIEW
Nora D Volkow, Aidan J Hampson, Ruben D Baler
Cannabis enables and enhances the subjective sense of well-being by stimulating the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which plays a key role in modulating the response to stress, reward, and their interactions. However, over time, repeated activation of the ECS by cannabis can trigger neuroadaptations that may impair the sensitivity to stress and reward. This effect, in vulnerable individuals, can lead to addiction and other adverse consequences. The recent shift toward legalization of medical or recreational cannabis has renewed interest in investigating the physiological role of the ECS as well as the potential health effects, both adverse and beneficial, of cannabis...
January 6, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610592/correlation-between-antibodies-to-bisphenol-a-its-target-enzyme-protein-disulfide-isomerase-and-antibodies-to-neuron-specific-antigens
#16
Datis Kharrazian, Aristo Vojdani
Evidence continues to increase linking autoimmunity and other complex diseases to the chemicals commonly found in our environment. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic monomer used widely in many forms, from food containers to toys, medical products and many others. The potential for BPA to participate as a triggering agent for autoimmune diseases is likely due to its known immunological influences. The goal of this research was to determine if immune reactivity to BPA has any correlation with neurological antibodies...
April 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27266771/comparing-cognitive-behavioural-psychotherapy-and-psychoeducation-for-non-specific-symptoms-associated-with-indoor-air-a-randomised-control-trial-protocol
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sanna Selinheimo, Aki Vuokko, Markku Sainio, Kirsi Karvala, Hille Suojalehto, Heli Järnefelt, Tiina Paunio
INTRODUCTION: Indoor air-related conditions share similarities with other conditions that are characterised by medically unexplained symptoms (MUS)-a combination of non-specific symptoms that cannot be fully explained by structural bodily pathology. In cases of indoor air-related conditions, these symptoms are not fully explained by either medical conditions or the immunological-toxicological effects of environmental factors. The condition may be disabling, including a non-adaptive health behaviour...
June 6, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239618/an-investigation-of-the-emergency-medicine-journals-published-in-turkey
#18
Veysi Eryigit, Ulas Karaaslan, Melih Yuksel, Caner Saglam, Mehmet Can Girgin, Yoldas Demirtas
INTRODUCTION: There are many academic journals in Turkey and the world. Medical journals have a significant place among those publications. The aim of this study is to examine qualitatively and categorize the scientific studies of the two journals in Turkey. It also aims to contribute the related literature in the area. MATERIAL-METHOD: Academic journals of medical emergencies published in Turkey between January 1, 2003 and December 20, 2014 were investigated in detail...
December 2015: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27144265/-the-analysis-of-the-articles-concerning-toxicological-forensic-chemistry-published-in-the-journal-sudebno-meditsinskaya-ekspertiza-forensic-medical-expertise-during-the-period-from-2004-to-2013-part-2-the-analysis-and-assessment-of-the-publications-peculiarities
#19
REVIEW
A M Orlova
The author presents the results of the analysis of the publications concerning toxicological (forensic) chemistry issues published in the journal "Sudebno-meditsinskaya ekspertiza" during the period from 2004 to 2013 with their assessment making use of scientometrical methods. Special emphasis is laid on the publications devoted to the development and improvement of the approaches to the investigation into narcotic and psychotropic drugs as well as other toxic substances. Specific features of such investigations are described...
January 2016: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27139288/an-audit-of-top-citations-published-in-pediatric-emergency-care
#20
Muhammad Waseem, Harrison Uffer, Elaine Josephson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify and compare the 100 articles published in Pediatric Emergency Care (PEC) from its inception in 1985 to date that are most often cited. METHODS: Three online citation indices, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar, were examined to identify the 100 top cited articles from PEC. Mean citation numbers were used to rank the studies, due to differences in the results among the 3 citation indexes. Median citation number, country of origin, study topic within the field of pediatric emergency medicine, and year of publication were compiled, compared, and analyzed...
May 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
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