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'Multiple Sclerosis'

Krishnadas Madhu, Prakash T
BACKGROUND: During the development of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) there is a marked activation of microglia and astrocyte, leading to progressive inflammation and degeneration of myelin sheath which results in axonal loss and neuron damage. PURPOSE: In this study, we have explored the action of Asiaticoside A against the activated microglia and astrocytes. METHODS: Primary microglia and astrocyte cultures were used for the study and the activity were evaluated using cell proliferation assay, nitrate assay and TNFα estimation using ELISA...
August 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Hannah Lowes, Angela Pyle, Martin Duddy, Gavin Hudson
Recent studies have linked cell-free mitochondrial DNA (ccf-mtDNA) to neurodegeneration in both Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, raising the possibility that the same phenomenon could be seen in other diseases which manifest a neurodegenerative component. Here, we assessed the role of circulating cell-free mitochondrial DNA (ccf-mtDNA) in end-stage progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS), where neurodegeneration is evident, contrasting both ventricular cerebral spinal fluid ccf-mtDNA abundance and integrity between PMS cases and controls, and correlating ccf-mtDNA levels to known protein markers of neurodegeneration and PMS...
August 8, 2018: Mitochondrion
Ben J Gu, James S Wiley
The P2X7 receptor (P2X7 or P2X7R) has been widely studied for ATP-induced proinflammation, but in the absence of ligand, P2X7 has a second function as a scavenger receptor which is active in the development of human brain. The scavenger activity of P2X7 is only evident in the absence of serum but is fully active in cerebrospinal fluid. P2X7 on the cell surface is present as a membrane complex and an attachment to nonmuscle myosin of the cytoskeleton is required for particle engulfment. Selective antagonists of P2X7 proinflammatory function have little effect on phagocytosis but coinheritance of a haplotype spanning in P2RX7 and P2RX4 genes has been associated with loss of P2X7 mediated phagocytosis...
August 10, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Khwaja Salahuddin Siddiqi, Azamal Husen, Sayed Sartaj Sohrab, Mensur Osman Yassin
Nanomaterials (NMs) are receiving remarkable attention due to their unique properties and structure. They vary from atoms and molecules along with those of bulk materials. They can be engineered to act as drug delivery vehicles to cross blood-brain barriers (BBBs) and utilized with better efficacy and safety to deliver specific molecules into targeted cells as compared to conventional system for neurological disorders. Depending on their properties, various metal chelators, gold nanoparticles (NPs), micelles, quantum dots, polymeric NPs, liposomes, solid lipid NPs, microparticles, carbon nanotubes, and fullerenes have been utilized for various purposes including the improvement of drug delivery system, treatment response assessment, diagnosis at early stage, and management of neurological disorder by using neuro-engineering...
August 10, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Jinping Cheng, Nils Korte, Ross Nortley, Huma Sethi, Yamei Tang, David Attwell
Many central nervous system diseases currently lack effective treatment and are often associated with defects in microvascular function, including a failure to match the energy supplied by the blood to the energy used on neuronal computation, or a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. Pericytes, an under-studied cell type located on capillaries, are of crucial importance in regulating diverse microvascular functions, such as angiogenesis, the blood-brain barrier, capillary blood flow and the movement of immune cells into the brain...
August 10, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Carla Roberta Nunes Polachini, Roselia Maria Spanevello, Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger, Vera Maria Morsch
Multiple sclerosis (MS) commonly affects young adults and leads to a decreased quality of life due to different signs and symptoms that induce physical, cognitive, social, and psychological challenges. This disease, an autoimmune neurological disorder, is characterized by chronic inflammatory demyelination and axonal degeneration of the central nervous system (CNS). To date, its etiology is unknown. A large number of physiological functions are regulated by the cholinergic system because the acetylcholine (ACh) is released from cholinergic neurons and acts on other neurons, most of them not cholinergic in the brain, as well as in various nonneuronal cells, such as those of the immune system and blood; thus, it is considered an important modulatory pathway of both the central and peripheral nervous systems...
September 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Justine Orr, Charles N Bernstein, Lesley A Graff, Scott B Patten, James M Bolton, Jitender Sareen, James J Marriott, John D Fisk, Ruth Ann Marrie
BACKGROUND: Within the multiple sclerosis (MS) population, depression and anxiety are highly prevalent comorbidities that are associated with adverse outcomes such as diminished quality of life and disability progression. In the general population, many people who do not meet formal diagnostic criteria for depression or anxiety disorders still identify a need for mental health care. Limited data are available regarding the perceived need for mental health care among persons with MS. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine factors associated with a perceived need for mental health care in the MS population...
July 29, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
L Lavorgna, M De Stefano, M Sparaco, M Moccia, G Abbadessa, P Montella, D Buonanno, S Esposito, M Clerico, C Cenci, F Trojsi, R Lanzillo, L Rosa, V Brescia Morra, D Ippolito, G Maniscalco, A Bisecco, G Tedeschi, S Bonavita
BACKGROUND: Over the last few decades, patients have increasingly been searching for health information on the Internet. This aspect of information seeking is important, especially for people affected by chronic pathologies and require lifelong treatment and management. These people are usually very well informed about the disease but are nonetheless vulnerable to hopes of being cured or saved, often amplified by misinformation, myths, legends, and therapies that are not always scientifically proven...
July 31, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Edgardo Cristiano, Juan Ignacio Rojas, Patricio Abad, Tarso Adoni, Jorge Barahona, Jefferson Becker, Adriana Carrá, José Flores, Manuel Fruns, Nora Fernández Liguori, Orlando Garcea, Juan García Bónito, Diego Giunta, Fernando Gracia, Fernando Hamuy, Miguel A Macias Islas, Cárlos Navas, Liliana Ordoñez Boschetti, Liliana Patrucco, Douglas K Sato, Jorge Correale
Despite the availability of a large amount of information regarding the management and care of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients, there is scant information about recommendations on how to care for primary progressive MS (PPMS) patients. The objective of this study was to review how PPMS patients should be assessed and cared for in Latin America (LATAM). METHODS: A panel of neurology experts from LATAM dedicated to the diagnosis and care of MS patients gathered virtually during 2017 and 2018 to carry out a consensus recommendation on the diagnosis and treatment of PPMS patients in LATAM...
July 31, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Sharon S Lehman, Judith B Lavrich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pediatric optic neuritis may be challenging to diagnose and treat. Significant clinical investigation of optic neuritis occurring in adults guides current clinical practices. Differences in presentation and prognosis exist for pediatric patients with optic neuritis when compared with adults including the risk of developing multiple sclerosis. The aim of this review is to provide an update on latest advances in the diagnosis, treatment and current research concerning pediatric optic neuritis...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
S Melamed-Gal, P Loupe, B Timan, V Weinstein, S Kolitz, J Zhang, J Funt, A Komlosh, N Ashkenazi, O Bar-Ilan, A Konya, O Beriozkin, D Laifenfeld, T Hasson, R Krispin, T Molotsky, G Papir, L Sulimani, B Zeskind, P Liu, S Nock, M R Hayden, A Gilbert, I Grossman
For more than 20 years, Copaxone (glatiramer acetate, Teva), a non-biological complex drug, has been a safe and effective treatment option for multiple sclerosis. In 2016, a follow-on glatiramer acetate product (FOGA, Synthon) was approved in the EU. Traditional bulk-based methods and high-resolution assays were employed to evaluate the physicochemical, functional, and bio-recognition attributes, as well as the in vivo toxicity profile of the active substances in Copaxone and Synthon EU FOGA lots. These tests included quality control tests applied routinely in release of Copaxone lots, as well as additional characterization assays, gene expression studies and a rat toxicity study...
September 2018: ENeurologicalSci
David J Epstein, Jeffrey Dunn, Stan Deresinski
Multiple sclerosis therapies include interferons, glatiramer, and multiple immunosuppressive drugs. Discerning infectious risks of immunosuppressive drugs requires understanding their mechanisms of action and analyzing interventional studies and postmarketing observational data. Though identical immunosuppressive therapies are sometimes used in non-neurologic conditions, infectious risks may differ in this population. Screening for and treatment of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection should be prioritized for patients receiving alemtuzumab; ocrelizumab is likely not associated with an increased risk of TB...
August 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Elisabeth Solana, Eloy Martinez-Heras, Elena H Martinez-Lapiscina, Maria Sepulveda, Nuria Sola-Valls, Nuria Bargalló, Joan Berenguer, Yolanda Blanco, Magi Andorra, Irene Pulido-Valdeolivas, Irati Zubizarreta, Albert Saiz, Sara Llufriu
Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) display reduced structural connectivity among brain regions, but the pathogenic mechanisms underlying network disruption are still unknown. We aimed to investigate the association between the loss of diffusion-based structural connectivity, measured with graph theory metrics, and magnetic resonance (MR) markers of microstructural damage. Moreover, we evaluated the cognitive consequences of connectivity changes. We analysed the frontoparietal network in 102 MS participants and 25 healthy volunteers (HV)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Hagen H Kitzler, Hannes Wahl, Judith C Eisele, Matthias Kuhn, Henning Schmitz-Peiffer, Simone Kern, Brian K Rutt, Sean C L Deoni, Tjalf Ziemssen, Jennifer Linn
We performed a longitudinal case-control study on patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) with the aid of quantitative whole-brain myelin imaging. The aim was (1) to parse early myelin decay and to break down its distribution pattern, and (2) to identify an imaging biomarker of the conversion into clinically definite Multiple Sclerosis (MS) based on in vivo measurable changes of myelination. Imaging and clinical data were collected immediately after the onset of first neurological symptoms and follow-up explorations were performed after 3, 6, and, 12 months...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
U Rot, Å Sandelius, A Emeršič, H Zetterberg, K Blennow
Background/Objective: Novel biomarkers identifying and predicting disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) would be valuable for primary diagnosis and as outcome measures for monitoring therapeutic effects in clinical trials. Axonal loss is present from the earliest stages of MS and correlates with disability measures. Growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) is a presynaptic protein with induced expression during axonal growth. We hypothesized this protein could serve as a biomarker of axonal regeneration capacity in MS...
July 2018: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
Emanuela Calandri, Federica Graziano, Martina Borghi, Silvia Bonino
BACKGROUND: Although multiple sclerosis (MS) is often diagnosed during young adulthood (18-30 years), there is a lack of knowledge on the psychological adjustment to the illness among recently diagnosed young adult patients. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The aims of the study were to describe the adjustment to MS (depression, positive and negative affect) in a group of young adult patients and to investigate the role of identity satisfaction and self-efficacy in MS on adjustment...
August 1, 2018: Disability and Health Journal
Hui-Ju Young, Tapan S Mehta, Cassandra Herman, Fuchenchu Wang, James H Rimmer
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of two 12-week exercise training interventions, movement-to-music (M2M) and adapted yoga (AY), on physical and psychosocial outcomes in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). DESIGN: Three-arm randomized controlled proof-of-concept trial. SETTING: A community-based fitness facility. PARTICIPANTS: Participants (N=81) with MS (Patient Determined Disease Steps [PDDS] self-reported disease status scores: 0-6) between ages of 18 and 65 years were randomized to: M2M (n=27), AY (n=26), or waitlist control (n=28)...
August 6, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Jing Zhi Guan, Wei-Ping Guan, Toyoki Maeda
Systemic peroxidation status has been reported as a pathogenic factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). Systemically elevated oxidation levels are associated with serum lipid peroxidation and somatic telomere length (TL) shortening. We investigated whether vitamin E (VE) administration suppresses peroxidation and improves clinical symptoms in 34 MS patients. We analyzed serum lipid peroxidation and degree of TL in circulating leukocytes of MS patients before and after VE treatment. The oxidation level was enhanced and TL was shortened in MS...
August 9, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Yeona Kang, David Schlyer, Ulrike W Kaunzner, Amy Kuceyeski, Paresh J Kothari, Susan A Gauthier
Chronic active multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions have a rim of activated microglia/macrophages (m/M) leading to ongoing tissue damage, and thus represent a potential treatment target. Activation of this innate immune response in MS has been visualized and quantified using PET imaging with [11C]-(R)-PK11195 (PK). Accurate identification of m/M activation in chronic MS lesions requires the sensitivity to detect lower levels of activity within a small tissue volume. We assessed the ability of kinetic modeling of PK PET data to detect m/M activity in different central nervous system (CNS) tissue regions of varying sizes and in chronic MS lesions...
2018: PloS One
G O Omotoso, R M Kolo, T Afolabi, R Jaji-Sulaimon, I T Gbadamosi
Cuprizone-induced neurotoxicity has severally been used to study demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis(MS), adversely affecting both the white and grey matters of the brain. Lesions have been observed in different regions ofthe brain including, corpus callosum, neocortex and the hippocampal formation. The current study explored the role ofMoringa oleifera leaf extract in restoring the resultant histomorphological changes in cuprizone-induced hippocampaldamage in Wistar rats. Twenty adult female Wistar rats with average weight of 163...
June 30, 2018: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
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