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Microbiota And Chronic Kidney Disease

Qi Yue, Fei-Ting Yin, Qian Zhang, Chao Yuan, Mei-Yan Ye, Xiao-Ling Wang, Ji-Jun Li, Ye-Hua Gan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the carious status and the microbial profiles of supragingival plaque in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis. METHODS: This study included 30 patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis as well as 30 control subjects. Dental examination was performed and the decayed-missing-filled-teeth was recorded. Supragingival plaque was taken and analyzed using 16S rRNA gene amplicon by Illumina MiSeq sequencing to detect microbial composition and community diversity and structure...
2018: PloS One
Simona Mihai, Elena Codrici, Ionela Daniela Popescu, Ana-Maria Enciu, Lucian Albulescu, Laura Georgiana Necula, Cristina Mambet, Gabriela Anton, Cristiana Tanase
Persistent, low-grade inflammation is now considered a hallmark feature of chronic kidney disease (CKD), being involved in the development of all-cause mortality of these patients. Although substantial improvements have been made in clinical care, CKD remains a major public health burden, affecting 10-15% of the population, and its prevalence is constantly growing. Due to its insidious nature, CKD is rarely diagnosed in early stages, and once developed, its progression is unfortunately irreversible. There are many factors that contribute to the setting of the inflammatory status in CKD, including increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and acidosis, chronic and recurrent infections, altered metabolism of adipose tissue, and last but not least, gut microbiota dysbiosis, an underestimated source of microinflammation...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Gabriela Torres Santiago, José Iván Serrano Contreras, María Estela Meléndez Camargo, L Gerardo Zepeda Vallejo
An untargeted NMR-based metabonomics approach was used to evaluate the effects of pure resveratrol (RSV, 50 and 250 mg/kg per os) on the urinary and faecal metabolome of normal female Wistar rats. Multivariate data analysis on both the endogenous and xenobiotic metabotype of RSV provided an insight into its metabolic fate and influence on endogenous metabolites. The xenobiotic trajectory shows that RSV is highly metabolized within the first 12 h, the period of the most significant variation of endogenous metabolites...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
William P Martin, Neil G Docherty, Carel W Le Roux
Cardiovascular and renal disease accounts for a substantial proportion of the morbidity and mortality associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Bariatric surgery is associated with improved long-term cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Areas covered: All major case-control, cohort, and randomized controlled trial studies of bariatric surgery in adults with T2DM were screened and data on prespecified cardiovascular and renal outcomes collated. Bariatric surgery reduces all-cause mortality and risk of cardiovascular disease, albuminuria and progressive chronic kidney disease...
September 2018: Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism
Laetitia Koppe, Denis Fouque, Christophe O Soulage
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by the accumulation of uremic retention solutes (URS) and is associated with perturbations of glucose homeostasis even in absence of diabetes. The underlying mechanisms of insulin resistance, β cell failure, and increase risk of diabetes in CKD, however, remain unclear. Metabolomic studies reported that some metabolites are similar in CKD and diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and contribute to the progression to end-stage renal disease...
September 8, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Yang Li, Ying Peng, Ping Ma, Hanlin Yang, Haiyan Xiong, Mengyue Wang, Chongsheng Peng, Pengfei Tu, Xiaobo Li
Growing evidence shows that neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression, are linked with gut microbiome through the gut-brain axis. Cistanches Herba is well known for the treatment of "kidney-yang" deficiency in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and has been used for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases in recent years. In this study, chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced depression model was established to explore the impact of Cistanche tubulosa extract (CTE) on behavioral tests, monoamine neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors in hippocampus and colon, gut microbiota composition, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Animesh Samanta, Arpita Patra, Shreya Mandal, Suchismita Roy, Koushik Das, Sanjay Kar, Dilip Kumar Nandi
Oxygen is very important to the existence of life. Oxygen deficiency, defined as hypoxia, elicits adaptive responses in cells and tissues. Lower oxygen concentration can cause the alteration of renal function, affects the maintenance of a balance of the body fluids, electrolytes, pH, and blood pressure homeostasis. Impaired fluid regulation could, in addition, contribute to the precipitation of pulmonary edema and exacerbate hypoxemia which may accelerate the progression of chronic kidney disease. In this context, the present study attempted to evaluate the association of renal injury and oxidative stress at different atmospheric pressures (1829, 3657, and 5486 m)...
July 2018: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Fernando E García-Arroyo, Guillermo Gonzaga, Itzel Muñoz-Jiménez, Mónica G Blas-Marron, Octaviano Silverio, Edilia Tapia, Virgilia Soto, Natarajan Ranganathan, Pari Ranganathan, Usha Vyas, Anthony Irvin, Diana Ir, Charles E Robertson, Daniel N Frank, Richard J Johnson, L Gabriela Sánchez-Lozada
Hyperuricemia is highly prevalent and especially common in subjects with metabolic, cardiovascular and renal diseases. In chronic kidney disease, hyperuricemia is extremely common, and uric acid (UA) excretion relies on gut uricolysis by gut microbiota. Current therapy for lowering serum UA includes drugs that may produce undesired secondary effects. Therefore, this pilot study was designed to evaluate the potential of two probiotic supplements to reduce systemic uric acid concentrations. Secondary objectives were to assess whether the hypouricemic effect related to a therapeutic benefit on the hyperuricemia-induced renal damage and hypertension...
2018: PloS One
Hengzhong Lun, Weihua Yang, Shuping Zhao, Meijie Jiang, Mingjie Xu, Fenfen Liu, Yunshan Wang
The present study aimed to determine the differences in gut microbiota between patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and healthy controls (HC) and search for better microbial biomarkers associated with CKD. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach was used to investigate the differences in gut microbiota between the CKD and HC groups. The study found that 12 phylotypes were overrepresented in the CKD group and 19 in the HC group at the genus level. Furthermore, genera Lachnospira and Ruminococcus_gnavus performed the best in differentiating between HC and CKD populations...
August 7, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Austin Gonzalez, Richard Krieg, Hugh D Massey, Daniel Carl, Shobha Ghosh, Todd W B Gehr, Siddhartha S Ghosh
Background: The associated increase in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels and uremic toxins in chronic kidney disease (CKD) has shifted the way we focus on intestinal microbiota. This study shows that a disruption of the intestinal barrier in CKD promotes leakage of LPS from the gut, subsequently decreasing insulin sensitivity. Butyrate treatment improved the intestinal barrier function by increasing colonic mucin and tight junction (TJ) proteins. This modulation further ameliorated metabolic functions such as insulin intolerance and improved renal function...
August 6, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Luigi Ferrucci, Elisa Fabbri
Most older individuals develop inflammageing, a condition characterized by elevated levels of blood inflammatory markers that carries high susceptibility to chronic morbidity, disability, frailty, and premature death. Potential mechanisms of inflammageing include genetic susceptibility, central obesity, increased gut permeability, changes to microbiota composition, cellular senescence, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, oxidative stress caused by dysfunctional mitochondria, immune cell dysregulation, and chronic infections...
September 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Esmeralda Castillo-Rodriguez, Raul Fernandez-Prado, Raquel Esteras, Maria Vanessa Perez-Gomez, Carolina Gracia-Iguacel, Beatriz Fernandez-Fernandez, Mehmet Kanbay, Alberto Tejedor, Alberto Lazaro, Marta Ruiz-Ortega, Emilio Gonzalez-Parra, Ana B Sanz, Alberto Ortiz, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), accumulation of uremic toxins is associated with an increased risk of CKD progression. Some uremic toxins result from nutrient processing by gut microbiota, yielding precursors of uremic toxins or uremic toxins themselves, such as trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMAO), p-cresyl sulphate, indoxyl sulphate and indole-3 acetic acid. Increased intake of some nutrients may modify the gut microbiota, increasing the number of bacteria that process them to yield uremic toxins. Circulating levels of nutrient-derived uremic toxins are associated to increased risk of CKD progression...
July 19, 2018: Toxins
Björn Meijers, Ricard Farré, Sander Dejongh, Maria Vicario, Pieter Evenepoel
The kidneys are key contributors to body homeostasis, by virtue of controlled excretion of excessive fluid, electrolytes, and toxic waste products. The syndrome of uremia equals the altered physiology due to irreversible loss of kidney function that is left uncorrected for, despite therapeutic intervention(s). The intestines and its microbial content are prime contributors to this syndrome. The intestinal barrier separates the self (or the so-called "milieu intérior") from the environment. In the large intestine, the intestinal barrier keeps apart human physiology and the microbiota...
July 19, 2018: Toxins
Chen Chen Lu, Kun Ling Ma, Xiong Zhong Ruan, Bi Cheng Liu
Considerable interest nowadays has focused on gut microbiota owing to their pleiotropic roles in human health and diseases. This intestinal community can arouse a variety of activities in the host and function as "a microbial organ" by generating bioactive metabolites and participating in a series of metabolism-dependent pathways. Alternations in the composition of gut microbiota, referred to as intestinal dysbiosis, are reportedly associated with several diseases, especially diabetes mellitus and its complications...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Manuel T Velasquez, Patricia Centron, Ian Barrows, Rama Dwivedi, Dominic S Raj
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a major cause of high morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Numerous CVD risk factors in CKD patients have been described, but these do not fully explain the high pervasiveness of CVD or increased mortality rates in CKD patients. In CKD the loss of urinary excretory function results in the retention of various substances referred to as "uremic retention solutes". Many of these molecules have been found to exert toxicity on virtually all organ systems of the human body, leading to the clinical syndrome of uremia...
July 11, 2018: Toxins
Rita de Cássia Stampini Oliveira Lopes, Karla Pereira Balbino, Mônica De Paula Jorge, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Rita De Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas
Dysbiosis may favor the occurrence of inflammation and oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease (CKD). It has been suggested that the intake of pre/probiotics may control the progression of chronic kidney disease. Thus, the objective of this study was to systematically review the literature on the effects of pre/probiotic intake on the intestinal microbiota, control of nitrogen products, oxidative stress, and inflammation in CKD patients.The literature search was conducted on MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Library of Clinical Trials, and Science Direct...
April 27, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Isabelle C V S Martins, Natália A Borges, Peter Stenvinkel, Bengt Lindholm, Hervé Rogez, Maria C N Pinheiro, José L M Nascimento, Denise Mafra
Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) fruit from the Amazon region in Brazil contains bioactive compounds such as α-tocopherol, anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-glycoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside), and other flavonoids with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Moreover, the prebiotic activity of anthocyanins in modulating the composition of gut microbiota has emerged as an additional mechanism by which anthocyanins exert health-promoting effects. Açai consumption may be a nutritional therapeutic strategy for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients since these patients present with oxidative stress, inflammation, and dysbiosis...
June 18, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Chin-Hua Chang, Chew-Teng Kor, Chia-Lin Wu, Ping-Fang Chiu, Jhao-Rong Li, Chun-Chieh Tsai, Teng-Hsiang Chang, Chia-Chu Chang
Background: The vermiform appendix serves as a "safe house" for maintaining normal gut bacteria and appendectomy may impair the intestinal microbiota. Appendectomy is expected to profoundly alter the immune system and modulate the pathogenic inflammatory immune responses of the gut. Recent studies have shown that a dysbiotic gut increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, we hypothesized that appendectomy would increase the risk of CKD...
2018: PeerJ
Chiara Saroli Palumbo, Sophie Restellini, Che-Yung Chao, Achuthan Aruljothy, Carolyne Lemieux, Gary Wild, Waqqas Afif, Peter L Lakatos, Alain Bitton, Sila Cocciolillo, Peter Ghali, Talat Bessissow, Giada Sebastiani
Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients may be at risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) due to chronic inflammation, hepatotoxic drugs, and alteration of the gut microbiota. Prospective data using accurate diagnostic methods are lacking. Methods: We prospectively investigated prevalence and predictors of NAFLD and liver fibrosis by transient elastography (TE) with associated controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) in IBD patients as part of a routine screening program...
June 7, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Yuko Iwashita, Masaki Ohya, Mitsuru Yashiro, Tomohiro Sonou, Kazuki Kawakami, Yuri Nakashima, Takuro Yano, Yu Iwashita, Toru Mima, Shigeo Negi, Kaoru Kubo, Koichi Tomoda, Toshitaka Odamaki, Takashi Shigematsu
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that prebiotic and/or probiotic treatments ameliorate kidney function in humans and animals by improving the gut environment. However, the gut microbiota and kidney disease interactions remain to be determined. This study investigated whether synbiotics modulate the gut microbiota and ameliorate kidney function using a rat model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). As uremic toxins are associated with CKD-related mineral and bone disorder, the secondary aim was to evaluate the relationship between synbiotics and secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT)...
2018: American Journal of Nephrology
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