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Microbiota And Chronic Kidney Disease

Emine M Onal, Baris Afsar, Adrian Covic, Nosratola D Vaziri, Mehmet Kanbay
The health and proper functioning of the cardiovascular and renal systems largely depend on crosstalk in the gut-kidney-heart/vessel triangle. Recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiota has an integral function in this crosstalk. Mounting evidence indicates that the development of chronic kidney and cardiovascular diseases follows chronic inflammatory processes that are affected by the gut microbiota via various immune, metabolic, endocrine, and neurologic pathways. Additionally, deterioration of the function of the cardiovascular and renal systems has been reported to disrupt the original gut microbiota composition, further contributing to the advancement of chronic cardiovascular and renal diseases...
November 30, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Chien-Ning Hsu, Pei-Chen Lu, Mao-Hung Lo, I-Chun Lin, Guo-Ping Chang-Chien, Sufan Lin, You-Lin Tain
Despite cardiovascular disease (CVD) being the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD), less attention has been paid to subclinical CVD in children and adolescents with early CKD stages. Gut microbiota and their metabolite, trimethylamine N -oxide (TMAO), have been linked to CVD. Ambulatory blood-pressure monitoring (ABPM) and arterial-stiffness assessment allow for early detection of subclinical CVD. We therefore investigated whether gut microbial composition and TMAO metabolic pathway are correlated with blood-pressure (BP) load and vascular abnormalities in children with early-stage CKD...
November 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marta Esgalhado, Julie A Kemp, Renata Azevedo, Bruna R Paiva, Milena B Stockler-Pinto, Carla J Dolenga, Natália A Borges, Lia S Nakao, Denise Mafra
An imbalance of gut microbiota is considered a new cardiovascular risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, since it is directly associated with increased uremic toxin production, inflammation and oxidative stress. Strategies such as prebiotic supplementation have been suggested to mitigate these complications. We hypothesized that prebiotic-resistant starch could ameliorate uremic toxins levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory states in hemodialysis (HD) patients. This pilot study evaluated 31 HD patients assigned to either resistant starch (16 g of resistant starch Hi-Maize® 260) or placebo (manioc flour) supplementation, which they received for 4 weeks on alternate days through cookies on dialysis days and powder in a sachet on non-dialysis days...
November 23, 2018: Food & Function
Michael Weis
The gut microbiome functions like an endocrine organ, generating enzymes and bioactive metabolites, which affect host physiology. In addition metabolism-independent processes like impaired intestinal barrier function may result in bacterial translocation and an increased inflammation. Specific microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) have been detected that induce immune activation via cognate pattern-recognition receptors on host immune cells, with subsequent consequences on inflammatory-induced endothelial dysfunction...
November 30, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Luxiu Zang, Yan Ma, Wenhao Huang, Yuhang Ling, Limei Sun, Xuedong Wang, Aibing Zeng, Randy A Dahlgren, Caihong Wang, Huili Wang
The probiotics, Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III, plays an important role in modulating microbiota and alleviating intestinal metabolic disorders. Herein, we reported that Lactobacillus increases biodiversity of zebrafish gut flora, and attenuates toxic effects from chronic triclosan (TCS) exposure. Lactobacillus-feeding recovered the species and amount of microorganisms in the intestines of zebrafish, and inhibited toxin production by saprophytic bacterial growth. Abnormal physiological indexes and malonaldeyhde content resulting from TCS exposure were effectively alleviated...
November 10, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
W H Wilson Tang, Daniel Y Li, Stanley L Hazen
Advances in our understanding of how the gut microbiota contributes to human health and diseases have expanded our insight into how microbial composition and function affect the human host. Heart failure is associated with splanchnic circulation congestion, leading to bowel wall oedema and impaired intestinal barrier function. This situation is thought to heighten the overall inflammatory state via increased bacterial translocation and the presence of bacterial products in the systemic blood circulation. Several metabolites produced by gut microorganisms from dietary metabolism have been linked to pathologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
November 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Denise Mafra, Natália Alvarenga Borges, Bengt Lindholm, Peter Stenvinkel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Mitochondrion
Catherine McFarlane, Christiane I Ramos, David W Johnson, Katrina L Campbell
OBJECTIVE: Gut dysbiosis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Restoring gut microbiota with prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic supplementation has emerged as a potential therapeutic intervention but has not been systematically evaluated in the CKD population. DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a systematic review. A structured search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the International Clinical Trials Register Search Portal was conducted for articles published since inception until July 2017...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
Chanavuth Kanitsoraphan, Pattara Rattanawong, Suranut Charoensri, Vichai Senthong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a gut microbiota-dependent metabolite produced from choline and phosphatidylcholine. Trimethylamine N-oxide was found associated with enhanced atherosclerosis and thrombosis in vitro and in vivo. We summarized available clinical studies which investigated TMAO's role in predicting prognostic outcomes, including mortality, in patients with cardiovascular diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: In chronic kidney disease cohorts, higher TMAO levels were significantly associated with higher mortality from 1...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
Adil Jadoon, Anna V Mathew, Jaeman Byun, Crystal A Gadegbeku, Debbie S Gipson, Farsad Afshinnia, Subramaniam Pennathur
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota is altered in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and cardiovascular risk increases with progressive CKD. This study examined the potential link between short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are produced by the gut microbiota, and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with CKD. METHODS: SCFAs were measured using a targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry platform in baseline plasma samples from 214 patients with CKD enrolled in the Clinical Phenotyping Resource and Biobank Core; 81 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and 133 without CAD were randomly assigned to training and validation subsets...
2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Kazuhiro Nishiyama, Kimiya Aono, Yasuyuki Fujimoto, Mitsuru Kuwamura, Toshiya Okada, Hayato Tokumoto, Takeshi Izawa, Ryoichi Okano, Hidemitsu Nakajima, Tadayoshi Takeuchi, Yasu-Taka Azuma
Organ-organ crosstalk is involved in homeostasis. Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in patients with renal failure. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between gastrointestinal motility and gastrointestinal symptoms in chronic kidney disease. We performed studies in C57BL/6 mice with chronic kidney disease after 5/6 nephrectomy. Gastrointestinal motility was evaluated by assessing the ex vivo responses of ileum and distal colon strips to electrical field stimulation. Feces were collected from mice, and the composition of the gut microbiota was analyzed using 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Qi Yue, Fei-Ting Yin, Qian Zhang, Chao Yuan, Mei-Yan Ye, Xiao-Ling Wang, Ji-Jun Li, Ye-Hua Gan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the carious status and the microbial profiles of supragingival plaque in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis. METHODS: This study included 30 patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis as well as 30 control subjects. Dental examination was performed and the decayed-missing-filled-teeth was recorded. Supragingival plaque was taken and analyzed using 16S rRNA gene amplicon by Illumina MiSeq sequencing to detect microbial composition and community diversity and structure...
2018: PloS One
Simona Mihai, Elena Codrici, Ionela Daniela Popescu, Ana-Maria Enciu, Lucian Albulescu, Laura Georgiana Necula, Cristina Mambet, Gabriela Anton, Cristiana Tanase
Persistent, low-grade inflammation is now considered a hallmark feature of chronic kidney disease (CKD), being involved in the development of all-cause mortality of these patients. Although substantial improvements have been made in clinical care, CKD remains a major public health burden, affecting 10-15% of the population, and its prevalence is constantly growing. Due to its insidious nature, CKD is rarely diagnosed in early stages, and once developed, its progression is unfortunately irreversible. There are many factors that contribute to the setting of the inflammatory status in CKD, including increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and acidosis, chronic and recurrent infections, altered metabolism of adipose tissue, and last but not least, gut microbiota dysbiosis, an underestimated source of microinflammation...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Gabriela Torres Santiago, José Iván Serrano Contreras, María Estela Meléndez Camargo, L Gerardo Zepeda Vallejo
An untargeted NMR-based metabonomics approach was used to evaluate the effects of pure resveratrol (RSV, 50 and 250 mg/kg per os) on the urinary and faecal metabolome of normal female Wistar rats. Multivariate data analysis on both the endogenous and xenobiotic metabotype of RSV provided an insight into its metabolic fate and influence on endogenous metabolites. The xenobiotic trajectory shows that RSV is highly metabolized within the first 12 h, the period of the most significant variation of endogenous metabolites...
January 5, 2019: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
William P Martin, Neil G Docherty, Carel W Le Roux
Cardiovascular and renal disease accounts for a substantial proportion of the morbidity and mortality associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Bariatric surgery is associated with improved long-term cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Areas covered: All major case-control, cohort, and randomized controlled trial studies of bariatric surgery in adults with T2DM were screened and data on prespecified cardiovascular and renal outcomes collated. Bariatric surgery reduces all-cause mortality and risk of cardiovascular disease, albuminuria and progressive chronic kidney disease...
September 2018: Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism
Laetitia Koppe, Denis Fouque, Christophe O Soulage
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by the accumulation of uremic retention solutes (URS) and is associated with perturbations of glucose homeostasis even in absence of diabetes. The underlying mechanisms of insulin resistance, β cell failure, and increase risk of diabetes in CKD, however, remain unclear. Metabolomic studies reported that some metabolites are similar in CKD and diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and contribute to the progression to end-stage renal disease...
September 8, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Yang Li, Ying Peng, Ping Ma, Hanlin Yang, Haiyan Xiong, Mengyue Wang, Chongsheng Peng, Pengfei Tu, Xiaobo Li
Growing evidence shows that neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression, are linked with gut microbiome through the gut-brain axis. Cistanches Herba is well known for the treatment of "kidney-yang" deficiency in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and has been used for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases in recent years. In this study, chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced depression model was established to explore the impact of Cistanche tubulosa extract (CTE) on behavioral tests, monoamine neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors in hippocampus and colon, gut microbiota composition, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Animesh Samanta, Arpita Patra, Shreya Mandal, Suchismita Roy, Koushik Das, Sanjay Kar, Dilip Kumar Nandi
Oxygen is very important to the existence of life. Oxygen deficiency, defined as hypoxia, elicits adaptive responses in cells and tissues. Lower oxygen concentration can cause the alteration of renal function, affects the maintenance of a balance of the body fluids, electrolytes, pH, and blood pressure homeostasis. Impaired fluid regulation could, in addition, contribute to the precipitation of pulmonary edema and exacerbate hypoxemia which may accelerate the progression of chronic kidney disease. In this context, the present study attempted to evaluate the association of renal injury and oxidative stress at different atmospheric pressures (1829, 3657, and 5486 m)...
July 2018: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Fernando E García-Arroyo, Guillermo Gonzaga, Itzel Muñoz-Jiménez, Mónica G Blas-Marron, Octaviano Silverio, Edilia Tapia, Virgilia Soto, Natarajan Ranganathan, Pari Ranganathan, Usha Vyas, Anthony Irvin, Diana Ir, Charles E Robertson, Daniel N Frank, Richard J Johnson, L Gabriela Sánchez-Lozada
Hyperuricemia is highly prevalent and especially common in subjects with metabolic, cardiovascular and renal diseases. In chronic kidney disease, hyperuricemia is extremely common, and uric acid (UA) excretion relies on gut uricolysis by gut microbiota. Current therapy for lowering serum UA includes drugs that may produce undesired secondary effects. Therefore, this pilot study was designed to evaluate the potential of two probiotic supplements to reduce systemic uric acid concentrations. Secondary objectives were to assess whether the hypouricemic effect related to a therapeutic benefit on the hyperuricemia-induced renal damage and hypertension...
2018: PloS One
Hengzhong Lun, Weihua Yang, Shuping Zhao, Meijie Jiang, Mingjie Xu, Fenfen Liu, Yunshan Wang
The present study aimed to determine the differences in gut microbiota between patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and healthy controls (HC) and search for better microbial biomarkers associated with CKD. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach was used to investigate the differences in gut microbiota between the CKD and HC groups. The study found that 12 phylotypes were overrepresented in the CKD group and 19 in the HC group at the genus level. Furthermore, genera Lachnospira and Ruminococcus_gnavus performed the best in differentiating between HC and CKD populations...
August 7, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
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