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Microbiota And Chronic Kidney Disease

Hengzhong Lun, Weihua Yang, Shuping Zhao, Meijie Jiang, Mingjie Xu, Fenfen Liu, Yunshan Wang
The present study aimed to determine the differences in gut microbiota between patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and healthy controls (HC) and search for better microbial biomarkers associated with CKD. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach was used to investigate the differences in gut microbiota between the CKD and HC groups. The study found that 12 phylotypes were overrepresented in the CKD group and 19 in the HC group at the genus level. Furthermore, genera Lachnospira and Ruminococcus_gnavus performed the best in differentiating between HC and CKD populations...
August 7, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Austin Gonzalez, Richard Krieg, Hugh D Massey, Daniel Carl, Shobha Ghosh, Todd W B Gehr, Siddhartha S Ghosh
Background: The associated increase in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels and uremic toxins in chronic kidney disease (CKD) has shifted the way we focus on intestinal microbiota. This study shows that a disruption of the intestinal barrier in CKD promotes leakage of LPS from the gut, subsequently decreasing insulin sensitivity. Butyrate treatment improved the intestinal barrier function by increasing colonic mucin and tight junction (TJ) proteins. This modulation further ameliorated metabolic functions such as insulin intolerance and improved renal function...
August 6, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Luigi Ferrucci, Elisa Fabbri
Most older individuals develop inflammageing, a condition characterized by elevated levels of blood inflammatory markers that carries high susceptibility to chronic morbidity, disability, frailty, and premature death. Potential mechanisms of inflammageing include genetic susceptibility, central obesity, increased gut permeability, changes to microbiota composition, cellular senescence, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, oxidative stress caused by dysfunctional mitochondria, immune cell dysregulation, and chronic infections...
July 31, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Esmeralda Castillo-Rodriguez, Raul Fernandez-Prado, Raquel Esteras, Maria Vanessa Perez-Gomez, Carolina Gracia-Iguacel, Beatriz Fernandez-Fernandez, Mehmet Kanbay, Alberto Tejedor, Alberto Lazaro, Marta Ruiz-Ortega, Emilio Gonzalez-Parra, Ana B Sanz, Alberto Ortiz, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), accumulation of uremic toxins is associated with an increased risk of CKD progression. Some uremic toxins result from nutrient processing by gut microbiota, yielding precursors of uremic toxins or uremic toxins themselves, such as trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMAO), p-cresyl sulphate, indoxyl sulphate and indole-3 acetic acid. Increased intake of some nutrients may modify the gut microbiota, increasing the number of bacteria that process them to yield uremic toxins. Circulating levels of nutrient-derived uremic toxins are associated to increased risk of CKD progression...
July 19, 2018: Toxins
Björn Meijers, Ricard Farré, Sander Dejongh, Maria Vicario, Pieter Evenepoel
The kidneys are key contributors to body homeostasis, by virtue of controlled excretion of excessive fluid, electrolytes, and toxic waste products. The syndrome of uremia equals the altered physiology due to irreversible loss of kidney function that is left uncorrected for, despite therapeutic intervention(s). The intestines and its microbial content are prime contributors to this syndrome. The intestinal barrier separates the self (or the so-called "milieu intérior") from the environment. In the large intestine, the intestinal barrier keeps apart human physiology and the microbiota...
July 19, 2018: Toxins
Chen Chen Lu, Kun Ling Ma, Xiong Zhong Ruan, Bi Cheng Liu
Considerable interest nowadays has focused on gut microbiota owing to their pleiotropic roles in human health and diseases. This intestinal community can arouse a variety of activities in the host and function as "a microbial organ" by generating bioactive metabolites and participating in a series of metabolism-dependent pathways. Alternations in the composition of gut microbiota, referred to as intestinal dysbiosis, are reportedly associated with several diseases, especially diabetes mellitus and its complications...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Manuel T Velasquez, Patricia Centron, Ian Barrows, Rama Dwivedi, Dominic S Raj
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a major cause of high morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Numerous CVD risk factors in CKD patients have been described, but these do not fully explain the high pervasiveness of CVD or increased mortality rates in CKD patients. In CKD the loss of urinary excretory function results in the retention of various substances referred to as "uremic retention solutes". Many of these molecules have been found to exert toxicity on virtually all organ systems of the human body, leading to the clinical syndrome of uremia...
July 11, 2018: Toxins
Rita de Cássia Stampini Oliveira Lopes, Karla Pereira Balbino, Mônica De Paula Jorge, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Rita De Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas
Dysbiosis may favor the occurrence of inflammation and oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease (CKD). It has been suggested that the intake of pre/probiotics may control the progression of chronic kidney disease. Thus, the objective of this study was to systematically review the literature on the effects of pre/probiotic intake on the intestinal microbiota, control of nitrogen products, oxidative stress, and inflammation in CKD patients.The literature search was conducted on MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Library of Clinical Trials, and Science Direct...
April 27, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Isabelle C V S Martins, Natália A Borges, Peter Stenvinkel, Bengt Lindholm, Hervé Rogez, Maria C N Pinheiro, José L M Nascimento, Denise Mafra
Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) fruit from the Amazon region in Brazil contains bioactive compounds such as α-tocopherol, anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-glycoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside), and other flavonoids with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Moreover, the prebiotic activity of anthocyanins in modulating the composition of gut microbiota has emerged as an additional mechanism by which anthocyanins exert health-promoting effects. Açai consumption may be a nutritional therapeutic strategy for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients since these patients present with oxidative stress, inflammation, and dysbiosis...
June 18, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Chin-Hua Chang, Chew-Teng Kor, Chia-Lin Wu, Ping-Fang Chiu, Jhao-Rong Li, Chun-Chieh Tsai, Teng-Hsiang Chang, Chia-Chu Chang
Background: The vermiform appendix serves as a "safe house" for maintaining normal gut bacteria and appendectomy may impair the intestinal microbiota. Appendectomy is expected to profoundly alter the immune system and modulate the pathogenic inflammatory immune responses of the gut. Recent studies have shown that a dysbiotic gut increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, we hypothesized that appendectomy would increase the risk of CKD...
2018: PeerJ
Chiara Saroli Palumbo, Sophie Restellini, Che-Yung Chao, Achuthan Aruljothy, Carolyne Lemieux, Gary Wild, Waqqas Afif, Peter L Lakatos, Alain Bitton, Sila Cocciolillo, Peter Ghali, Talat Bessissow, Giada Sebastiani
Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients may be at risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) due to chronic inflammation, hepatotoxic drugs, and alteration of the gut microbiota. Prospective data using accurate diagnostic methods are lacking. Methods: We prospectively investigated prevalence and predictors of NAFLD and liver fibrosis by transient elastography (TE) with associated controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) in IBD patients as part of a routine screening program...
June 7, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Yuko Iwashita, Masaki Ohya, Mitsuru Yashiro, Tomohiro Sonou, Kazuki Kawakami, Yuri Nakashima, Takuro Yano, Yu Iwashita, Toru Mima, Shigeo Negi, Kaoru Kubo, Koichi Tomoda, Toshitaka Odamaki, Takashi Shigematsu
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that prebiotic and/or probiotic treatments ameliorate kidney function in humans and animals by improving the gut environment. However, the gut microbiota and kidney disease interactions remain to be determined. This study investigated whether synbiotics modulate the gut microbiota and ameliorate kidney function using a rat model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). As uremic toxins are associated with CKD-related mineral and bone disorder, the secondary aim was to evaluate the relationship between synbiotics and secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT)...
2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Tao Yang, Elaine M Richards, Carl J Pepine, Mohan K Raizada
Crosstalk between the gut microbiota and the host has attracted considerable attention owing to its involvement in diverse diseases. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is commonly associated with hypertension and is characterized by immune dysregulation, metabolic disorder and sympathetic activation, which are all linked to gut dysbiosis and altered host-microbiota crosstalk. In this Review, we discuss the complex interplay between the brain, the gut, the microbiota and the kidney in CKD and hypertension and explain our brain-gut-kidney axis hypothesis for the pathogenesis of these diseases...
July 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Mehmet Kanbay, Emine M Onal, Baris Afsar, Tuncay Dagel, Aslihan Yerlikaya, Adrian Covic, Nosratola D Vaziri
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been shown to result in profound changes in the composition and functions of the gut microbial flora which by disrupting intestinal epithelial barrier and generating toxic by-products contributes to systemic inflammation and the associated complications. On the other hand, emerging evidence points to the role of the gut microbiota in the development and progression of CKD by provoking inflammation, proteinuria, hypertension, and diabetes. These observations demonstrate the causal interconnection between the gut microbial dysbiosis and CKD...
May 4, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
B Meijers, F Jouret, P Evenepoel
Bidirectional interactions exist between the kidneys and the gut. These interactions are commonly referred to as the gut-kidney axis. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) leads to disturbances of the gut ecosystem. Key features include the increase of protein fermentation at the expense of carbohydrate fermentation and a disrupted epithelial barrier. A disturbed gut ecosystem may contribute to the high burden of cardiovascular disease in patients with CKD. The present review discusses the impact of CKD on the gut microenvironment and provides an update as to how gut dysbiosis and a leaky gut may be linked to accelerated cardiovascular disease and hypertension...
July 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Eliane von Klitzing, Ira Ekmekciu, Anja A Kühl, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
The World Health Organization has rated multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Psae) as serious threat to human health. We here addressed whether chronic murine gut inflammation facilitates intestinal MDR Psae colonization and whether bacterial infection subsequently worsens colonic immunopathology. Converse to wildtype counterparts, Psae colonized the intestines of IL-10-/- mice with chronic colitis following peroral challenge, but did not lead to changes in intestinal microbiota composition...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lee D Chaves, Daniel I McSkimming, Mark A Bryniarski, Amanda M Honan, Sham Abyad, Shruthi A Thomas, Steven Wells, Michael J Buck, Yijun Sun, Robert J Genco, Richard J Quigg, Rabi Yacoub
Several lines of evidence suggest that gut bacterial microbiota is altered in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), though the mechanism of which this dysbiosis takes place is not well understood. Recent studies delineated changes in gut microbiota in both CKD patients and experimental animal models using microarray chips. We present 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of both stool pellets and small bowel contents of C57Bl/6J mice that underwent a remnant kidney model, and establish that changes in microbiota take place in the early gastrointestinal track...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Richard Moreau, Patrick S Kamath, Hugo E Vargas, Vicente Arroyo, K Rajender Reddy, Gyongyi Szabo, Puneeta Tandon, Jody Olson, Constantine Karvellas, Thierry Gustot, Jennifer C Lai, Florence Wong
Acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a culmination of chronic liver disease and extra-hepatic organ failures, which is associated with a high short-term mortality and immense healthcare expenditure. There are varying definitions for organ failures and ACLF in Europe, North America and Asia. These differing definitions need to be reconciled to enhance progress in the field. The pathogenesis of ACLF is multi-factorial and related to interactions between the immuno-inflammatory system, microbiota and the precipitating factors...
April 24, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Jieping Yang, Qing Li, Susanne M Henning, Jin Zhong, Mark Hsu, Rupo Lee, Jianfeng Long, Brenda Chan, Glenn T Nagami, David Heber, Zhaoping Li
SCOPE: This study evaluates the effect of the prebiotic fiber xylooligosaccharide (XOS) on kidney function and gut microbiome in mice with adenine-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHOD AND RESULTS: Mice are fed the control diet containing adenine for 3 weeks to induce CKD and are switched to XOS supplemented (2 or 7%) or control diets for another 3 weeks. Mice with CKD exhibit increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and kidney histopathology. XOS significantly reverses kidney injuries in CKD mice...
April 20, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Laetitia Koppe, Denis Fouque, Christophe O Soulage
Uremic retention solutes (URS) are associated with cardiovascular complications and poor survival in chronic kidney disease. The better understanding of the origin of a certain number of these toxins enabled the development of new strategies to reduce their production. URS can be classified according to their origins (i.e., host, microbial, or exogenous). The discovery of the fundamental role that the intestinal microbiota plays in the production of many URS has reinstated nutrition at the heart of therapeutics to prevent the accumulation of URS and their deleterious effects...
April 13, 2018: Toxins
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