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Cardiovascular prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471574/-type-2-diabetes-diabetes-in-older-adults-example-for-patient-centered-drug-therapy
#1
Dirk Müller-Wieland
Diabetes in older adults has a high prevalence and is frequently associated with comorbidities of the cardiovascular system, dysfunction of cognition as well as depression and impaired mobility or increased frailty. Furthermore, impaired renal function, heart failure, risk for hypoglycemia and polypharmacy has to be considered in the decision about the diabetes treatment strategy. The goal of blood glucose management is driven by patient relevant issues and patient self-esteem, quality of life defined by the patient, preservation of physical and social mobility rather than potential long-term effects on reduction of cardio- and microvascular events in the future, which is limited by patient-inherent reduced life expectancy of the aged individual...
February 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471572/-cardiovascular-medication-in-elderly-patients
#2
Robert H G Schwinger
Elderly people show increased probability to develop atherosclerotic diseases; in consequence heart failure - most often following coronary heart disease - as well as atrial fibrillation is more common. Following guidelines may lead to polypharmacy, i. e. use of more than 5 drugs daily. Thus, drug interactions as well as side effects become more likely; especially in elderly patients reduced kidney function has to be taken into account. Only drugs which have shown to prolong life or to reduce symptoms in controlled clinical trials should be used...
February 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471407/plasma-copeptin-as-a-predictor-of-kidney-disease
#3
Sofia Enhörning, Anders Christensson, Olle Melander
Background: Plasma copeptin, a marker of vasopressin, is associated with renal function decline in the general population. Our aim was to study the links between elevated copeptin and future risk of kidney disease. Methods: Copeptin was measured in a sample of the Malmö Preventive Project (MPP) Reinvestigation (n = 5158) and in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cardiovascular Cohort (MDC-CC) (n = 5162). According to national registers, 89 subjects in MPP and 180 in MDC-CC developed chronic kidney disease (CKD) during follow-up (8...
February 16, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471399/from-genome-wide-association-studies-to-mendelian-randomization-novel-opportunities-for-understanding-cardiovascular-disease-causality-pathogenesis-prevention-and-treatment
#4
Marianne Benn, Børge G Nordestgaard
The Mendelian randomization approach is an epidemiologic study design incorporating genetic information into traditional epidemiologic studies to infer causality of biomarkers, risk factors, or lifestyle factors on disease risk. Mendelian randomization studies often draw on novel information generated in genome-wide association studies on causal associations between genetic variants and a risk factor or lifestyle factor. Such information can then be used in a largely unconfounded study design free of reverse causation to understand if and how risk factors and lifestyle factors cause cardiovascular disease...
February 19, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470788/commentary-using-impedance-cardiography-to-detect-asymptomatic-cardiovascular-disease-in-prehypertensive-adults-with-risk-factors
#5
Arthur P DeMarzo
New guidelines on hypertension eliminated the classification of prehypertension and divided those blood pressure (BP) levels into elevated BP and stage 1 hypertension. For elevated BP, this study showed that cardiovascular (CV) abnormalities were prevalent in adults over 40 years of age with at least 2 CV risk factors. Detecting abnormalities of the CV system moves a patient from being at high risk to having earlystage cardiovascular disease (CVD) and supports a decision to treat. By redefining stage 1 and lowering the target BP, the new guidelines have set an ambitious goal for early intervention to prevent progression of CVD...
February 22, 2018: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470461/self-reported-receipt-of-advice-and-action-taken-to-reduce-dietary-sodium-among-adults-with-and-without-hypertension-nine-states-and-puerto-rico-2015
#6
Puthiery Va, Cecily Luncheon, Angela M Thompson-Paul, Jing Fang, Robert Merritt, Mary E Cogswell
Hypertension is a major cardiovascular disease risk factor (1,2). Advice given by health professionals can result in lower sodium intake and lower blood pressure (3).The 2017 Hypertension Guideline released by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association emphasizes nonpharmacologic approaches, including sodium reduction, as important components of hypertension prevention and treatment (4). Data from 50,576 participants in the sodium module of the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in nine states and Puerto Rico were analyzed to determine the prevalence of reported sodium reduction advice and action among participants with and without self-reported hypertension...
February 23, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470410/the-evolving-role-of-multivitamin-multimineral-supplement-use-among-adults-in-the-age-of-personalized-nutrition
#7
REVIEW
Jeffrey B Blumberg, Regan L Bailey, Howard D Sesso, Cornelia M Ulrich
Micronutrient deficiencies occur in segments of the adult population in the United States. Multivitamin/multimineral supplements (MVMS) are widely used by this population, which reduces inadequacies in micronutrient intake, but the potential for exceeding tolerable upper intake levels in others should be considered. There are concerns associated with the excessive intake of certain nutrients, particularly folic acid, and potential untoward consequences. The advent of nutrigenomics and the enhanced ability to directly study the interactions between nutrition and genetic variants and expression will allow for the conduct of more targeted studies with specific endpoints and may ultimately lead to progress in the field of personalized nutrition...
February 22, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468656/cough-and-ace-inhibitors-the-truth-beyond-placebo
#8
Claudio Borghi, Maddalena Veronesi
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are extensively used for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases with a wide range of clinical recommendations. The use of ACE inhibitors can cause the onset of a dry cough, whose prevalence has probably been overestimated because of the lack of adequate control. A correct interpretation of available data requires a careful evaluation of placebo-controlled studies to definitely assess the rate of the most frequent adverse event of ACE inhibition...
February 22, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467228/brain-cytoplasmic-rna-1-suppresses-smooth-muscle-differentiation-and-vascular-development-in-mice
#9
Yung-Chun Wang, Ya-Hui Chuang, Qiang Shao, Jian-Fu Chen, Shi-You Chen
The cardiovascular system develops during the early stages of embryogenesis, and differentiation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is essential for that process. SMC differentiation is critically regulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/SMAD family member 3 (SMAD3) signaling, but other regulators may also play a role. For example, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate various cellular activities and events, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, whether lncRNAs also regulate SMC differentiation remains largely unknown...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466985/association-between-plasma-fatty-acids-and-inflammatory-markers-in-patients-with-and-without-insulin-resistance-and-in-secondary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Ângela Cristine Bersch-Ferreira, Geni Rodrigues Sampaio, Marcella Omena Gehringer, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva Torres, Maria Beatriz Ross-Fernandes, Jacqueline Tereza da Silva, Camila Ragne Torreglosa, Cristiane Kovacs, Renata Alves, Carlos Daniel Magnoni, Bernardete Weber, Marcelo Macedo Rogero
BACKGROUND: Proinflammatory biomarkers levels are increased among patients with cardiovascular disease, and it is known that both the presence of insulin resistance and diet may influence those levels. However, these associations are not well studied among patients with established cardiovascular disease. Our objective is to compare inflammatory biomarker levels among cardiovascular disease secondary prevention patients with and without insulin resistance, and to evaluate if there is any association between plasma fatty acid levels and inflammatory biomarker levels among them...
February 21, 2018: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466739/genetic-ablation-of-mir-33-increases-food-intake-enhances-adipose-tissue-expansion-and-promotes-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#11
Nathan L Price, Abhishek K Singh, Noemi Rotllan, Leigh Goedeke, Allison Wing, Alberto Canfrán-Duque, Alberto Diaz-Ruiz, Elisa Araldi, Ángel Baldán, Joao-Paulo Camporez, Yajaira Suárez, Matthew S Rodeheffer, Gerald I Shulman, Rafael de Cabo, Carlos Fernández-Hernando
While therapeutic modulation of miRNAs provides a promising approach for numerous diseases, the promiscuous nature of miRNAs raises concern over detrimental off-target effects. miR-33 has emerged as a likely target for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, the deleterious effects of long-term anti-miR-33 therapies and predisposition of miR-33-/- mice to obesity and metabolic dysfunction exemplify the possible pitfalls of miRNA-based therapies. Our work provides an in-depth characterization of miR-33-/- mice and explores the mechanisms by which loss of miR-33 promotes insulin resistance in key metabolic tissues...
February 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466486/sports-practices-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-teenagers
#12
Carlos Scherr, Leonardo Corrêa Castro Fabiano, Renata Leborato Guerra, Luciano Herman Juacaba Belém, Ana Carolina Gurgel Câmara, Adriana Campos
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of deaths in the world, and many events could be prevented by healthy life habits. OBJECTIVES: To compare the occurrence of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents enrolled at public schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro, including a renowned school for sport practices. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, convenience sampling of 422 students enrolled at the Experimental Olympic Gymnasium (EOG) and at Figueiredo Pimentel School (FP)...
February 19, 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466201/-antiaggregants-in-primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-diseases-and-prevention-of-atherothrombosis-in-patients-with-stable-ischemic-heart-disease-aspects-of-efficacy-and-safety
#13
N B Perepech, I E Mikhaylova
This review is devoted to the use of antiaggregants. We consider here pathogenesis of intraarterial thrombosis, mechanism of action of antiaggregants, and recommendations on the use of drugs of this class for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and prevention of atherothrombotic complications of stable ischemic heart disease. Information on mechanisms of development and causes of resistance to antiaggregants is also presented. Finally we discuss the problem of safety of therapy with antiaggregants, methods of lowering the risk of bleeding, and prevention of aspirin induced gastropathy...
February 2018: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465277/what-is-the-impact-of-targeted-health-education-for-mental-health-nurses-in-the-provision-of-physical-health-care-an-integrated-literature-review
#14
Sinead Hennessy, Angela M Cocoman
Individuals with a severe mental illness have a gap in life expectancy of up to twenty years in comparison to the general population. Nurses who work in mental health services have been identified as best placed to improve the physical health outcomes of individuals with mental illness. The literature identifies a lack of nursing knowledge related to physical health care and the presence of metabolic syndrome which is impeding nurses in providing essential physical health care to patients. An integrated literature review was carried out due to the dearth of research evidence pertaining to the impact of targeted education specifically with psychiatric/mental health nurses in the provision of physical healthcare...
February 21, 2018: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465199/-injury-prevention-while-ensuring-the-airway-during-surgery-in-the-nose-and-sinuses
#15
E V Ivlev, E A Ruben
THE AIM: A comparative analysis of the injuries of upper airways flexible reinforced laryngeal mask and endotracheal intubation by examining the stress response reaction of the cardiovascular system, as well as the frequency and variety of complications. Blood pressure, heart rate, glucose and cortisol, and complications of airway management in children were analyzed. METHODS: The influence of the method of airway management with surgery in nose and sinuses in children in the stress response, hemodynamics, injuries of the airway were studied...
September 2017: Anesteziologiia i Reanimatologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465107/sanatoria-revisited-sunlight-and-health
#16
I Greenhalgh, A R Butler
Since the 18th century tuberculosis has been a major cause of death throughout the world. It is a highly infectious disease that spreads by droplet infection and finding effective treatment to combat tuberculosis took a great deal of time. One of the first treatments to have some real success was a stay in a sanatorium. Sanatoria were homes that provided patients with good food and fresh air (and therefore sunlight). The first sanatorium to use sunlight therapy (heliotherapy) seriously was founded in Leysin, Switzerland, by Auguste Rollier...
September 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465031/-management-of-cardiovascular-complications-secondary-to-medical-treatment-of-cancer
#17
Ann Banke, Anne Polk, Dorte Nielsen, Lars Videbæk, Ulrik Overgaard, Emil Loldrup Fosbøl, Merete Vaage-Nielsen, Kirsten Melgaard Nielsen, Morten Schou
As the prognoses of both heart and cancer patients have improved along with a longer life expectancy in the general population, the prevalence of both heart- and cancer diseases is increasing. Thus, a larger proportion of cancer patients will have cardiovascular co-morbidity and an increased risk of cardiovascular complications during and after cancer treatment. In this article, the current knowledge on the prevention, monitoring and treatment of cardiotoxicity induced by medical anti-cancer treatment with focus on anthracyclines, trastuzumab and 5-fluorouracil is described...
February 12, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465017/the-prevention-and-management-of-cardiovascular-diseases-focusing-on-health-promotion-and-policy-in-south-korea
#18
Hye-Jin Sun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Perspectives in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464937/vascular-dysfunction-elicited-by-a-crosstalk-between-periaortic-adipose-tissue-and-the-vascular-wall-is-reversed-by-pioglitazone
#19
Isabel Quesada, Jimena Cejas, Rodrigo García, Beatriz Cannizzo, Analía Redondo, Claudia Castro
AIM: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is in intimate contact with the vessel wall and extravascular PVAT-derived inflammatory mediators may adversely influence atherosclerotic plaque formation and stability through outside-to-inside signalling. We sought to investigate the role of PVAT on the atheroma development in an experimental animal model of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) associated with oxidative stress and low-grade inflammatory state. We also studied the effect of Pioglitazone an insulin sensitizer, on the aortic wall and its surrounding PVAT, considering a bi-directional communication between both layers...
February 21, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464817/the-role-of-angiotensin-receptor-neprilysin-inhibitors-in-cardiovascular-disease-existing-evidence-knowledge-gaps-and-future-directions
#20
REVIEW
Andrew P Ambrosy, Robert J Mentz, Mona Fiuzat, John G F Cleland, Stephen J Greene, Christopher M O'Connor, John R Teerlink, Faiez Zannad, Scott D Solomon
Although traditional renin-angiotensin system antagonists including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers have revolutionized the treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the pivotal PARADIGM-HF trial demonstrated that sacubitril/valsartan, an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI), was superior to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. However, despite international regulatory approval and strong recommendations in the guidelines, uptake of sacubitril/valsartan has been disappointing...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Heart Failure
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