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Cardiovascular prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339827/pre-participation-cardiovascular-evaluation-for-athletic-participants-to-prevent-sudden-cardiac-death
#1
Herbert Hans Löllgen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339564/emerging-molecular-therapies-targeting-myocardial-infarction-related-arrhythmias
#2
Helen E Driessen, Toon A B van Veen, Gerard J J Boink
Cardiac disease is the leading cause of death in the developed world. Ventricular arrhythmias associated with myocardial ischaemia and/or infarction are a major contributor to cardiovascular mortality, and require improved prevention and treatment. Drugs, devices, and radiofrequency catheter ablation have made important inroads, but have significant limitations ranging from incomplete success to undesired toxicities and major side effects. These limitations derive from the nature of the intervention. Drugs are frequently ineffective, target the entire heart, and often do not deal with the specific arrhythmia trigger or substrate...
October 6, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338788/hypertension-and-atrial-fibrillation-an-intimate-association-of-epidemiology-pathophysiology-and-outcomes
#3
Mikhail S Dzeshka, Farhan Shahid, Alena Shantsila, Gregory Y H Lip
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent sustained arrhythmia found in clinical practice. AF rarely exists as a single entity but rather as part of a diverse clinical spectrum of cardiovascular diseases, related to structural and electrical remodeling within the left atrium, leading to AF onset, perpetuation, and progression. Due to the high overall prevalence within the AF population arterial hypertension plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of AF and its complications. Fibroblast proliferation, apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, gap junction remodeling, accumulation of collagen both in atrial and ventricular myocardium all accompany ageing-related structural remodeling with impact on electrical activity...
February 18, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338764/fruit-and-vegetable-intake-and-the-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-total-cancer-and-all-cause-mortality-a-systematic-review-and-dose-response-meta-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#4
Dagfinn Aune, Edward Giovannucci, Paolo Boffetta, Lars T Fadnes, NaNa Keum, Teresa Norat, Darren C Greenwood, Elio Riboli, Lars J Vatten, Serena Tonstad
Background: Questions remain about the strength and shape of the dose-response relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer and mortality, and the effects of specific types of fruit and vegetables. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify these associations. Methods: PubMed and Embase were searched up to 29 September 2016. Prospective studies of fruit and vegetable intake and cardiovascular disease, total cancer and all-cause mortality were included...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338521/ethnicity-lipids-and-cardiovascular-disease
#5
Katia Gazzola, Rens Reeskamp, Bert-Jan van den Born
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of cardiovascular disease differs among ethnic groups and along geographic boundaries. At present, most of the projected increase in mortality from cardiovascular disease occurs in sub-Saharan African, Chinese and Southeast Asian populations. Ethnic disparities in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease coincide with quantitative and qualitative differences in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. High plasma cholesterol is one of the most important preventable causes of ischemic heart disease...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337931/utilizing-nutritional-genomics-to-tailor-diets-for-the-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease-a-guide-for-upcoming-studies-and-implementations
#6
Dolores Corella, Oscar Coltell, George Mattingley, José V Sorlí, Jose M Ordovas
Personalized diets based on an individual's genome to optimize the success of dietary intervention and reduce genetic cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, is one of the challenges most frequently discussed in the scientific community. Areas covered: The authors gathered literature-based evidence on nutritional genomics and CVD phenotypes, our own results and research experience to provide a critical overview of the current situation of using nutritional genomics to tailor diets for CVD prevention and to propose guidelines for future studies and implementations...
March 24, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337245/multifarious-beneficial-effect-of-nonessential-amino-acid-glycine-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Meerza Abdul Razak, Pathan Shajahan Begum, Buddolla Viswanath, Senthilkumar Rajagopal
Glycine is most important and simple, nonessential amino acid in humans, animals, and many mammals. Generally, glycine is synthesized from choline, serine, hydroxyproline, and threonine through interorgan metabolism in which kidneys and liver are the primarily involved. Generally in common feeding conditions, glycine is not sufficiently synthesized in humans, animals, and birds. Glycine acts as precursor for several key metabolites of low molecular weight such as creatine, glutathione, haem, purines, and porphyrins...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337227/potential-protective-effects-of-bioactive-constituents-from-chinese-propolis-against-acute-oxidative-stress-induced-by-hydrogen-peroxide-in-cardiac-h9c2-cells
#8
Liping Sun, Kai Wang, Xiang Xu, Miaomiao Ge, Yifan Chen, Fuliang Hu
Chinese propolis (CP) is known as a health food but its beneficial effects in protecting cardiomyocytes remain elusive. Here, we investigated the effects of CP and its active compounds on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced rats cardiomyocytes (H9c2) oxidative injury. Cell viability decreases induced by H2O2 were mitigated by different CP extracts using various solvents. From these active fractions, six active compounds were separated and identified. Among tested isolated compound, the cytoprotective activities of three caffeates, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), benzyl caffeate (BZC), and cinnamyl caffeate (CNC), exerted stronger effects than chrysin, pinobanksin, and 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid (DMCA)...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336528/platelet-cd36-promotes-thrombosis-by-activating-redox-sensor-erk5-in-hyperlipidemic-conditions
#9
Moua Yang, Brian C Cooley, Wei Li, Yiliang Chen, Jeannette Vasquez-Vivar, Na'il O Scoggins, Scott J Cameron, Craig N Morrell, Roy L Silverstein
Atherothrombosis is a process mediated by dysregulated platelet activation that can cause life-threatening complications and is the leading cause of death by cardiovascular disease. Platelet reactivity in hyperlipidemic conditions is enhanced when platelet scavenger receptor CD36 recognizes oxidized lipids in LDL particles, a process which induces an overt prothrombotic phenotype. The mechanisms by which CD36 promotes platelet activation and thrombosis remain incompletely defined. In this study, we identify a mechanism for CD36 to promote thrombosis by increasing activation of MAP kinase ERK5, a protein kinase known to be exquisitely sensitive to redox stress, through a signaling pathway requiring Src kinases, NADPH oxidase, superoxide radical anion and hydrogen peroxide...
March 23, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336387/the-word-heart-federation-roadmap-for-nonvalvular-atrial-fibrillation
#10
Adrianna Murphy, Amitava Banerjee, Günter Breithardt, A John Camm, Patrick Commerford, Ben Freedman, J Antonio Gonzalez-Hermosillo, Jonathan L Halperin, Chu-Pak Lau, Pablo Perel, Denis Xavier, David Wood, Xavier Jouven, Carlos A Morillo
BACKGROUND: The World Heart Federation has undertaken an initiative to develop a series of Roadmaps to promote development of national policies and health systems approaches, and to identify potential roadblocks on the road to effective prevention, detection, and management of cardiovascular disease in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) and develop strategies for overcoming these. This Roadmap focuses on atrial fibrillation (AF). AF is the most common, clinically significant arrhythmia and, among other clinical outcomes, is associated with increased risk of stroke...
March 20, 2017: Global Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336372/doxorubicin-targets-multiple-players-a-new-view-of-an-old-problem
#11
REVIEW
Donato Cappetta, Francesca Rossi, Elena Piegari, Federico Quaini, Liberato Berrino, Konrad Urbanek, Antonella De Angelis
Anthracycline cardiotoxicity remains a serious problem in paediatric and adult cancer survivors, and the advancement of cardio-oncology is a necessary step for an effective care of the patients that experience adverse cardiovascular effects. In this review, we discuss the multiple instruments used by clinicians that constitute the current strategies for primary and secondary prevention aiming at contrasting the onset of early and late doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxic events. The importance of early detection of cardiotoxicity and the following pharmacological therapy has been acknowledged with the emphasis put on impaired diastolic function, an increasingly recognized precocious sign of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity with an emerging scientific and clinical interest...
March 20, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336370/purinergic-p2y6-receptors-a-new-therapeutic-target-of-age-dependent-hypertension
#12
REVIEW
Caroline Sunggip, Akiyuki Nishimura, Kakeru Shimoda, Takuro Numaga-Tomita, Makoto Tsuda, Motohiro Nishida
Aging has a remarkable effect on cardiovascular homeostasis and it is known as the major non-modifiable risk factor in the development of hypertension. Medications targeting sympathetic nerve system and/or renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are widely accepted as a powerful therapeutic strategy to improve hypertension, although the control rates remain unsatisfactory especially in the elder patients with hypertension. Purinergic receptors, activated by adenine, uridine nucleotides and nucleotide sugars, play pivotal roles in many biological processes, including platelet aggregation, neurotransmission and hormone release, and regulation of cardiovascular contractility...
March 20, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336352/accessibility-and-affordability-of-supermarkets-associations-with-the-dash-diet
#13
Joreintje D Mackenbach, Thomas Burgoine, Jeroen Lakerveld, Nita G Forouhi, Simon J Griffin, Nicholas J Wareham, Pablo Monsivais
INTRODUCTION: It is unknown whether there is an interplay of affordability (economic accessibility) and proximity (geographic accessibility) of supermarkets in relation to having a Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-accordant diet. METHODS: Data (collected: 2005-2015, analyzed: 2016) were from the cross-sectional, population-based Fenland Study cohort: 9,274 adults aged 29-64 years, living in Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom. Dietary quality was evaluated using an index of DASH dietary accordance, based on recorded consumption of foods and beverages in a validated 130-item, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire...
March 20, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335517/state-of-the-art-on-functional-virgin-olive-oils-enriched-with-bioactive-compounds-and-their-properties
#14
REVIEW
Patricia Reboredo-Rodríguez, María Figueiredo-González, Carmen González-Barreiro, Jesús Simal-Gándara, María Desamparados Salvador, Beatriz Cancho-Grande, Giuseppe Fregapane
Virgin olive oil, the main fat of the Mediterranean diet, is per se considered as a functional food-as stated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)-due to its content in healthy compounds. The daily intake of endogenous bioactive phenolics from virgin olive oil is variable due to the influence of multiple agronomic and technological factors. Thus, a good strategy to ensure an optimal intake of polyphenols through habitual diet would be to produce enriched virgin olive oil with well-known bioactive polyphenols...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335428/an-updated-review-of-ciguatera-fish-poisoning-clinical-epidemiological-environmental-and-public-health-management
#15
REVIEW
Melissa A Friedman, Mercedes Fernandez, Lorraine C Backer, Robert W Dickey, Jeffrey Bernstein, Kathleen Schrank, Steven Kibler, Wendy Stephan, Matthew O Gribble, Paul Bienfang, Robert E Bowen, Stacey Degrasse, Harold A Flores Quintana, Christopher R Loeffler, Richard Weisman, Donna Blythe, Elisa Berdalet, Ram Ayyar, Danielle Clarkson-Townsend, Karen Swajian, Ronald Benner, Tom Brewer, Lora E Fleming
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world. It causes substantial human health, social, and economic impacts. The illness produces a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms, which may last days, weeks, or months. This paper is a general review of CFP including the human health effects of exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs), diagnosis, human pathophysiology of CFP, treatment, detection of CTXs in fish, epidemiology of the illness, global dimensions, prevention, future directions, and recommendations for clinicians and patients...
March 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335423/treatment-with-17%C3%AE-estradiol-reduced-body-weight-and-the-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-a-high-fat-diet-induced-animal-model-of-obesity
#16
Wei-Jen Ting, Chih-Yang Huang, Chong-He Jiang, Yueh-Min Lin, Li-Chin Chung, Chia-Yao Shen, Peiying Pai, Kuan-Ho Lin, Vijaya Padma Viswanadha, Shih-Chieh Liao
Estrogen receptor α (ERα) and estrogen receptor β (ERβ) play important roles in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. Recently, these estrogen receptors were reconsidered as an important treatment target of obesity leading to CVD. In this study, 17β-estradiol (17β-E) replacement therapy applied to high-fat diet-induced obese C57B male mice and ovariectomized (OVX) rats were evaluated, and the protective effects against high-fat diet-induced obesity were assessed in C57B mouse hearts. The results showed that 17β-E treatment activated both ERα and ERβ, and ERβ levels increased in a dose-dependent manner in high-fat diet C57B mouse cardiomyocytes following 17β-E treatment...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335043/platelet-derived-no-in-subjects-affected-by-type-2-diabetes-with-and-without-complications-is-there-any-relationship-with-their-offspring
#17
Jacopo Sabbatinelli, Arianna Vignini, Eleonora Salvolini, Laura Nanetti, Laura Mazzanti, Rosa Anna Rabini
Macro- and microvascular complications are currently the principal causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Aim of this study was to determine if type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy and coronary artery disease showed altered platelet-derived nitric oxide (NO) production, compared with diabetic subjects without complications, and if this alteration is also present in their diabetic offspring. In this case-control observational study, platelet NO and peroxynitrite content was determined on plasma from 60 male adult type 2 diabetic patients and 60 male offspring type 2 diabetic patients...
March 23, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334544/-antiplatelet-thromboprophylaxis-of-arterial-vascular-diseases-and-organovascular-ischemic-diseases
#18
Peter Gavorník, Andrej Dukát, Ľudovít Gašpar, Eva Gavorníková, Naďa Hučková, Anna Petrášová, Gabriela Gubo, Iveta Gašparová, Lujza Sabolová
Antiplatelet therapy by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) provided pivotal advances in the prevention and treatment of organovascular (angiovascular, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, extremitovascular, renovascular, genitovascular, mesenteriointestinokolonovascular, bronchopulmovascular, oculovascular, otovascular and other) arterial ischemic diseases. Currently available antiplatelet drugs have some limitations which might be overcomed by improved dosing regimens, use of combination of agents affecting different platelet functions and, in particular, by the new antiplatelet drugs (new arterial antithrombotics) with distinct pharmacodynamic properties offering new advantages, including faster onset of action, greater potency, and reversibility of effects...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333387/pathophysiological-fundamentals-of-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#19
Xinyue Hu, Tao Bai, Zheng Xu, Qiuju Liu, Yang Zheng, Lu Cai
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) was first recognized more than four decades ago and occurred independent of cardiovascular diseases or hypertension in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. The exact mechanisms underlying this disease remain incompletely understood. Several pathophysiological bases responsible for DCM have been proposed, including the presence of hyperglycemia, nonenzymatic glycosylation of large molecules (e.g., proteins), energy metabolic disturbance, mitochondrial damage and dysfunction, impaired calcium handling, reactive oxygen species formation, inflammation, cardiac cell death, and cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, leading to impairment of cardiac contractile functions...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333071/combined-effects-of-curcumin-and-lycopene-or-bixin-in-yoghurt-on-inhibition-of-ldl-oxidation-and-increases-in-hdl-and-paraoxonase-levels-in-streptozotocin-diabetic-rats
#20
Renata Pires Assis, Carlos Alberto Arcaro, Vânia Ortega Gutierres, Juliana Oriel Oliveira, Paulo Inácio Costa, Amanda Martins Baviera, Iguatemy Lourenço Brunetti
Combination therapy using natural antioxidants to manage diabetes mellitus and its complications is an emerging trend. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes promoted by treatment of streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats with yoghurt enriched with the bioactives curcumin, lycopene, or bixin (the latter two being carotenoids). Antioxidants were administered individually, or as mixtures, and biomarkers of metabolic and oxidative disturbances, particularly those associated with cardiovascular risk, were assessed...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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