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Thrombosis research

Elizabeth R Boskey, Amir H Taghinia, Oren Ganor
Importance: A growing number of transgender patients are receiving gender-affirming hormone treatments. It is unclear whether the evidence supports the current practice of routinely discontinuing these hormones prior to surgery. Objective: To determine how medications used in cross-sex hormone treatment (CSHT) affect perioperative risk. Evidence Review: A series of searches were carried out in PubMed and Excerpta Medica Database to identify articles using each of the terms testosterone, estrogen, estradiol, oral contraceptive, spironolactone, cyproterone acetate, finasteride, dutasteride, leuprolide, goserelin, and histrelin, in combination with the terms surgery, perioperative, thrombosis, thromboembolism, and operative...
December 5, 2018: JAMA Surgery
Ali Çoner, Davran Çiçek, Sinan Akıncı, Serhat Balcıoğlu, Cihan Altın, Haldun Müderrisoğlu
OBJECTIVE: Diffuse coronary artery disease (CAD) is a challenging issue in clinical cardiology practice. There are limited data about percutaneous revascularization in these patients. METHODS: This study was an observational clinical evaluation. The records of patients with diffuse CAD revascularized with new-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) were researched retrospectively. Patients treated with multiple, overlapping new-generation DES (at least 60mm in length per vessel) were included...
December 2018: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
Amanda J Ullman, Andrew C Bulmer, Tim R Dargaville, Claire M Rickard, Vineet Chopra
Thrombotic complications associated with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are common, as most synthetic materials when placed in the presence of serum often result in platelet activation, fibrin deposition, thrombotic occlusion and potentially embolization. A current innovation focus has been the development of anti-thrombogenic catheter materials, including hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. These are being incorporated into PICCs in an attempt to prevent the normal thrombotic cascade leading to patient harm...
December 4, 2018: Expert Review of Medical Devices
S Yu Lukin, Yu P Soldatov, M V Stogov
Experimental and clinical studies have shown that a skeletal trauma causes a whole complex of pathophysiological disorders, both local and systemic. The main factors determining the severity of the trauma, as well as the nature of the course of the post-traumatic period, are the degree of hypoxia (acidosis), hypercoagulation and immune disorders. To influence these pathophysiological disorders in the patients presenting the with skeletal traumas, various approaches have been proposed, including the use of antihypoxants and antioxidants, the methods and means for the stimulation and support of the immune system, medications to regulate hemostasis...
2018: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
Gemma Radley, Ina Laura Pieper, Sabrina Ali, Farah Bhatti, Catherine A Thornton
The therapeutic use of ventricular assist devices (VADs) for end-stage heart failure (HF) patients who are ineligible for transplant has increased steadily in the last decade. In parallel, improvements in VAD design have reduced device size, cost, and device-related complications. These complications include infection and thrombosis which share underpinning contribution from the inflammatory response and remain common risks from VAD implantation. An added and underappreciated difficulty in designing a VAD that supports heart function and aids the repair of damaged myocardium is that different types of HF are accompanied by different inflammatory profiles that can affect the response to the implanted device...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ann Hutchinson, Sophie Rees, Annie Young, Anthony Maraveyas, Kathryn Date, Miriam J Johnson
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients have a four- to fivefold greater risk of thrombosis than the general population. Recommended treatment for cancer-associated thrombosis is 3-6 months of low-molecular-weight heparin. The 'select-d' trial is an open-label, randomised, multi-centre pilot trial in patients with cancer-associated thrombosis, utilising dalteparin (low-molecular-weight heparin) versus rivaroxaban (a direct oral anticoagulant), to assess effectiveness and safety. AIM: To explore patient and informal carers' experiences of cancer-associated thrombosis and their experience and understanding of the risk-benefit of thrombosis treatment...
November 29, 2018: Palliative Medicine
Craig N Morrell, Daphne N Pariser, Zachary T Hilt, Denisse Vega Ocasio
Platelets have dual physiologic roles as both cellular mediators of thrombosis and immune modulatory cells. Historically, the thrombotic function of platelets has received significant research and clinical attention, but emerging research indicates that the immune regulatory roles of platelets may be just as important. We now know that in addition to their role in the acute thrombotic event at the time of myocardial infarction, platelets initiate and accelerate inflammatory processes that are part of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction expansion...
November 28, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
Paul Monagle, Carlos A Cuello, Caitlin Augustine, Mariana Bonduel, Leonardo R Brandão, Tammy Capman, Anthony K C Chan, Sheila Hanson, Christoph Male, Joerg Meerpohl, Fiona Newall, Sarah H O'Brien, Leslie Raffini, Heleen van Ommen, John Wiernikowski, Suzan Williams, Meha Bhatt, John J Riva, Yetiani Roldan, Nicole Schwab, Reem A Mustafa, Sara K Vesely
BACKGROUND: Despite an increasing incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pediatric patients in tertiary care settings, relatively few pediatric physicians have experience with antithrombotic interventions. OBJECTIVE: These guidelines of the American Society of Hematology (ASH), based on the best available evidence, are intended to support patients, clinicians, and other health care professionals in their decisions about management of pediatric VTE. METHODS: ASH formed a multidisciplinary guideline panel that included 2 patient representatives and was balanced to minimize potential bias from conflicts of interest...
November 27, 2018: Blood Advances
Wendy Lim, Grégoire Le Gal, Shannon M Bates, Marc Righini, Linda B Haramati, Eddy Lang, Jeffrey A Kline, Sonja Chasteen, Marcia Snyder, Payal Patel, Meha Bhatt, Parth Patel, Cody Braun, Housne Begum, Wojtek Wiercioch, Holger J Schünemann, Reem A Mustafa
BACKGROUND: Modern diagnostic strategies for venous thromboembolism (VTE) incorporate pretest probability (PTP; prevalence) assessment. The ability of diagnostic tests to correctly identify or exclude VTE is influenced by VTE prevalence and test accuracy characteristics. OBJECTIVE: These evidence-based guidelines are intended to support patients, clinicians, and health care professionals in VTE diagnosis. Diagnostic strategies were evaluated for pulmonary embolism (PE), deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower and upper extremity, and recurrent VTE...
November 27, 2018: Blood Advances
Shu-Qi Ge, Xin Tao, Li-Si Cai, Xuan-Ying Deng, Muh-Fa Hwang, Chiung-Lang Wang
The purpose of this study was to examine the relations of hormonal contraceptives and infertility drugs with the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), ischemic stroke, and cardiovascular disease. The Taiwan National Health Institute Research Database was searched for women who had taken hormonal contraceptives or infertility medications from 2000 to 2010. The two groups were age and index date matched with controls (1:4 ratios). Cox regression analysis was used to examine the risks of VTE, DTE, PE, ischemic stroke, and cardiovascular disease...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Xiliang Guan, Bin Li, Yingzhen Wang
The clinical efficacy and pharmacoeconomics of Xiaozhong Zhitong Decoction on preventing deep venous thrombosis in major orthopaedic operation are observed and analyzed. The 160 patients who are implemented major orthopaedic operation in our hospital are selected as the subjects, which are randomly divided into research group applying Xiaozhong Zhitong decoction and reference group using low molecular heparin with same cases in each group for observing their treatment efficacy and analyzing pharmacoeconomics...
September 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Alexios N Matralis, Antreas Afantitis, Vassilis Aidinis
Several years after its isolation from melanoma cells, an increasing body of experimental evidence has established the involvement of Autotaxin (ATX) in the pathogenesis of several diseases. ATX, an extracellular enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) into the bioactive lipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), is overexpressed in a variety of human metastatic cancers and is strongly implicated in chronic inflammation and liver toxicity, fibrotic diseases, and thrombosis. Accordingly, the ATX-LPA signaling pathway is considered a tractable target for therapeutic intervention substantiated by the multitude of research campaigns that have been successful in identifying ATX inhibitors by both academia and industry...
November 21, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
Yang Fu, Yumei Liu, Si Chen, Yaxiong Jin, Hong Jiang
To evaluate the correlation between the Caprini risk assessment scale and plasma thrombosis biomarkers and estimate the validity of this method in identifying critically ill patients at high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE).Patients with VTE who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) department of West China Hospital SiChuan University from October 2016 to October 2017 were enrolled in this case-control study. We retrieved relative clinical data and laboratory test results included in the Caprini risk assessment scale to calculate the Caprini score and compared thrombosis biomarkers between various risk stratifications (low, moderate, high, and highest)...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Mirjana Kovac, Gorana Mitic, Zeljko Mikovic, Vesna Mandic, Predrag Miljic, Mirjana Mitrovic, Branko Tomic, Zsuzsanna Bereczky
BACKGROUND: Inherited antithrombin (AT) deficiency is a rare autosomal dominant disorder, caused by mutations in the SERPINC1 gene. The most common clinical presentation in AT deficient patients includes venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, while the association of AT deficiency and its effect on the development of pregnancy complications has been less studied. The aim of our research was to evaluate the effect of AT deficiency types, determined by genotyping, on pregnancy outcomes...
November 7, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Veysel Tanik, Emre Arugaslan, Tufan Cinar, Muhammed Keskin, Adnan Kaya, Ahmet İlker Tekkesin
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to determine the predictive value of the CHA2DS2VASc score for acute stent thrombosis (ST) in patients with an ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). METHODS: This was a retrospective study conducted among 3,460 consecutive patients with STEMI patients who underwent pPCIs. Acute ST was considered as a definite or confirmed event in the presence of symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome and angiographic confirmation of ST based on the diagnostic guidelines of the Academic Research Consortium...
November 18, 2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
A Leader, H Ten Cate, G Spectre, E A M Beckers, A Falanga
In cancer patients, antithrombotic medications (i.e. anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy) are frequently prescribed for prior or new indications such as venous thromboembolism or stoke prevention in atrial fibrillation. Balancing the risks of bleeding and thrombosis during periods of thrombocytopenia represents a significant challenge. Management is informed mainly by expert opinion and several recent retrospective studies on venous thromboembolism. The main management options include no change, temporarily withholding antithrombotic therapy, reducing dose, changing the regimen, and increasing the platelet transfusion threshold...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Xiu-Mei Wang, Shi-Chao Fan, Yao Chen, Xiao-Feng Ma, Rong-Qiao He
BACKGROUND: Earthworms are widely used in basic and applied research in medicine, food, environment and agriculture, in which for instance earthworm protease has its own biochemical features. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes earthworm protease biochemical features in anti-thrombosis and anti-fibrosis, and provides new perspectives for earthworm to be used in biochemical and pharmaceutical studies. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: Earthworm protease functions in anti-thrombosis by its fibrinolytic activity and inhibiting platelets aggregation, and anti-fibrosis by its decreasing fibronectin, collagen and laminin, showing a broad substrate specificity...
November 13, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects
Alireza Chitsaz, Amir Nejat, Reza Nouri
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the leading cause of mortality and disability worldwide. AIS occur while cerebral arteries become blocked by embolism or thrombosis. Aspiration thrombectomy is a promising interventional device to extract massive clots from occluded cerebral arteries. The aim of this article is to develop a computer-aided method to clarify the performance of aspiration catheter and identify the risks of aspiration for each specific AIS patient. In order to simulate the aspiration process, a three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method was developed...
November 15, 2018: Artificial Organs
Alexis Therasse, Humberto L Persano, Adrian D Ventura, Juan Martin Tecco
BACKGROUND: Although physical restraint is still used in psychiatric inpatient settings, it sometimes causes serious side effects, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and resulting pulmonary embolism. The aim of this study was to review the literature investigating the incidence of the DVT in restrained psychiatric patients, to identify the risk factors of this condition and the effectiveness of routine prophylaxis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Studies investigating associations between deep vein thrombosis and restrained psychiatric patients were searched in the Pubmed database...
November 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Derek J Hausenloy, William Chilian, Filippo Crea, Sean M Davidson, Peter Ferdinandy, David Garcia-Dorado, Niels van Royen, Rainer Schulz, Gerd Heusch
The coronary circulation is both culprit and victim of acute myocardial infarction. The rupture of an epicardial atherosclerotic plaque with superimposed thrombosis causes coronary occlusion, and this occlusion must be removed to induce reperfusion. However, ischaemia and reperfusion cause damage not only in cardiomyocytes but also in the coronary circulation, including microembolisation of debris and release of soluble factors from the culprit lesion, impairment of endothelial integrity with subsequently increased permeability and oedema formation, platelet activation and leukocyte adherence, erythrocyte stasis, a shift from vasodilation to vasoconstriction, and ultimately structural damage to the capillaries with eventual no-reflow, microvascular obstruction and intramyocardial haemorrhage...
November 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
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