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Ken Morishima, Noriko Nakamura, Keisuke Matsui, Yoshikazu Tanaka, Hiroyasu Masunaga, Shoko Mori, Takashi Iwashita, Xiang Li, Mitsuhiro Shibayama
Maturation provides whisky with a mild and smooth texture by removing the irritating alcoholic flavor. However, the precise mechanism by which the whisky flavor is improved through the maturation process remains unknown. In this study, we performed mesoscopic structural measurements-dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)-to elucidate the relationship between the liquid structure and flavor maturation of whiskies. Both techniques detected two scattering components corresponding to the clusters formed by the extractives from oak casks during maturation, which are not present in the new make (freshly distilled whisky)...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Eliza Christopoulou, Vasilios Tsimihodimos, Theodosios Filippatos, Moses Elisaf
Apolipoprotein CIII (ApoCIII), a small protein that resides on the surface of lipoprotein particles, is a key regulator of triglyceride metabolism. The inhibition of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the increased assembly and secretion of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and the decreased reuptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) by the liver are mechanisms associating elevated serum ApoCIII levels and hypertriglyceridemia. ApoCIII concentration is high in individuals with diabetes mellitus indicating a possible positive correlation with impairment of glucose metabolism...
December 17, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Jin-Sik Nam, Seo-Yeon Park, Hye-Jun Oh, Hye-Lim Jang, Young Ha Rhee
In this study, the phenolic components, as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, of the ripe and unripe fruit of pawpaw (Asimina triloba [L.] Dunal) extracted using five different solvents (distilled water, 95% methanol, 80% methanol, 95% ethanol, and 80% ethanol) were analyzed. The total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were the highest in the 95% ethanol (149.50 mg CAE/g) and 80% ethanol (5.62 mg RE/g) extracts of the unripe fruit, respectively. Analysis of 17 phenolic compounds in pawpaw extracts revealed that epigallocatechin, epicatechin, and p-coumaric acid were the as major compounds, and the amounts of all components significantly decreased with the ripening (P < 0...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Stanislas Grassin-Delyle, Charlotte Abrial, Hélène Salvator, Marion Brollo, Emmanuel Naline, Philippe Devillier
BACKGROUND: The Toll-like receptor (TLR) family is involved in the recognition of and response to microbial infections. These receptors are expressed in leukocytes. TLR stimulation induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Given that human lung macrophages (LMs) constitute the first line of defense against inhaled pathogens, the objective of this study was to investigate the expression and function of TLR subtypes in this cell population. METHODS: Human primary LMs were obtained from patients undergoing surgical resection...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Dominique E Williams, Elizabeth M Boon
Pathogenic bacteria have many strategies for causing disease in humans. One such strategy is the ability to live both as single-celled motile organisms or as part of a community of bacteria called a biofilm. Biofilms are frequently adhered to biotic or abiotic surfaces and are extremely antibiotic resistant. Upon biofilm dispersal, bacteria become more antibiotic susceptible but are also able to readily infect another host. Various studies have shown that low, nontoxic levels of nitric oxide (NO) may induce biofilm dispersal in many bacterial species...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Giedrė Kacienė, Diana Miškelytė, Hamada AbdElgawad, Gerrit Beemster, Han Asard, Austra Dikšaitytė, Jūratė Žaltauskaitė, Gintarė Sujetovienė, Irena Januškaitienė, Romualdas Juknys
The initial aim of this study was to evaluate an effect of elevated CO2 concentration and air temperature (future climate) and O3 pollution on mono- and mixed-culture grown summer rape (Brassica napus L.) and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.). The second task was to reveal the mechanisms of the shift in plants' competitiveness in response to single and combined environmental changes. Plants were grown in mono- and mixed-cultures under current climate (CC) (400 μmol mol-1 of CO2 , 21/14 °C day/night temperature) or future climate (FC) conditions (800 μmol mol-1 of CO2 , 25/18 °C day/night temperature) with and without O3 treatment (180 μg m-3 )...
December 11, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Jianting Yang, Jie Chai, Binsheng Yang, Bin Liu
The aggregation-induced emission (AIE) luminogens are now showing strong potential in mimicking the energy donor of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) system. Herein, one highly efficient FRET system 1-NiR is successfully fabricated in aqueous solution based on an AIE active compound 1 and fluorescence dyes (Nile red (NiR)). 1 acts as the energy donor and NiR acts as the acceptor in the FRET system with the optimum concentrations ratio [1]/[NiR] = 100. Besides, the AIE(1) itself displays excellent selectivity for Cu2+ ions at 525 nm with the detection limit of 1...
December 11, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Dongsheng Zhang, Weixiang Li, Zhanfang Ma, Hongliang Han
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a gold-standard method for protein detection, has been widely utilized in disease diagnosis. Nevertheless, the method is constrained by its dependence on a colorimetric readout that, due to its relatively low sensitivity, prevents its use in tumor marker detection. Here we demonstrate an ELISA that incorporates an electro-readout mode in place of a colorimetric readout to achieve ultrasensitive and convenient tumor marker detection. Briefly, because hemin molecules supported by carbon sphere (CS) can catalyze dye degradation upon H2 O2 addition, CS incorporating hemin was employed as a label...
December 7, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Chunyan Zhang, Shuan Zhang, Yilei Jia, Yueyun Li, Ping Wang, Qing Liu, Zhen Xu, Xinjin Li, Yunhui Dong
An ultrasensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor was designed by using gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) as the substrate material and microporous carbon spheres (CS) loading silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) spaced Hemin/reduced graphene oxide (Hemin/rGO) porous composite materials (Ag NPs@CS-Hemin/rGO) as the detection antibodies (Ab2 ) label for detecting carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The Au NPs with good electrical conductivity and biocompatibility could accelerate the electron transfer on the electrode interface and enhance the load capacity of capture antibodies (Ab1 )...
December 7, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Minpeng Hu, Yanmei Liu, Yufu Zhang, Randy A Dahlgren, Dingjiang Chen
Accurate source identification is critical for optimizing water pollution control strategies. Although the dual stable isotope (15 N-NO3 - /18 O-NO3 - ) approach has been widely applied for differentiating riverine nitrogen (N) sources, the relatively short-term (<1 yr) 15 N-NO3 - /18 O-NO3 - records typically used in previous studies often hinders rigorous assessment due to high temporal variability associated with watershed N dynamics. Estimated contributions of legacy N sources in soils and groundwater to riverine N export by modeling approaches in many previous studies also lack validation from complementary information, such as multiple stable isotopes...
December 6, 2018: Water Research
James D McLeod, Maazuza Z Othman, Rajarathinam Parthasarathy
The adoption of process intensification to anaerobic digestion can present significant complications for digester mixing and process performance. This work investigated how increasing the solids concentration of the digester sludge influenced the process at various mixing energy inputs. Based on the results, adequate mixing is defined qualitatively as the input of sufficient energy to mobilize the reactor contents without producing significant regions of inhibitory shear force. However, the quantitative definition is dependent on the solids concentration of the sludge...
December 7, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Piotr Adamowicz, Aleksandra Malczyk
INTRODUCTION: Although there is an observed decline in the number of new psychoactive substances entering the drug market, this phenomenon is still a significant public health problem. Synthetic cathinones are the second largest group of new substances and currently belong to the most frequently confiscated. Their availability and prevalence cause that they are often abused. Because of this, they should be detected and determined as part of routine toxicological screening in materials collected from both the living and cadavers...
December 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
Shuo Li, Zhe Wang, Guangjian Zhang, Junke Fu, Xiaozhi Zhang
Interleukin (IL)-7 enhances cytokines secretion by CD14+ monocytes, and induces recruitment of monocytes to endothelium. As an important regulator to different types of immune cells, the role of IL-7 in modulation of CD14+ monocytes is still not fully elucidated. Thus, the aim of current study was to investigate the immunoregulatory activity of IL-7 to peripheral and lung-resident CD14+ monocytes in lung squamous carcinoma patients. Thirty-seven lung squamous carcinoma patients and eighteen healthy individuals were enrolled...
December 14, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
R A Harris, J Prakash
The influence of changing Ag concentration in a Ag-TiO2 nanocomposite system was investigated with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for both a fixed as well as varying number of the surfactant MO adsorbed onto the nanocomposite. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations were performed to investigate the conditions for charge transfer from the MO surfactant via the highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO), lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMO) as well as the electrostatic potentials. It is observed in this study that the bonding mode of the surfactant contributes greatly to the observed Raman scattering enhancement...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Maria Assens, Hanne Frederiksen, Jørgen Holm Petersen, Torben Larsen, Niels E Skakkebæk, Anders Juul, Anna-Maria Andersson, Katharina M Main
BACKGROUND: Biobank serum samples from longitudinal mother-child cohorts have been used to estimate prenatal exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). However, the knowledge about variations in serum concentrations of non-persistent chemicals during pregnancy is limited. OBJECTIVE: To describe the within- and between-person variations in serum concentrations of non-persistent chemicals and changes over trimesters, including phthalate metabolites, parabens, phenols, and UV filters...
December 14, 2018: Environment International
Bo-Yi Yang, Yuming Guo, Lidia Morawska, Michael S Bloom, Iana Markevych, Joachim Heinrich, Shyamali C Dharmage, Luke D Knibbs, Shao Lin, Steve Hung-Lam Yim, Gongbo Chen, Shanshan Li, Xiao-Wen Zeng, Kang-Kang Liu, Li-Wen Hu, Guang-Hui Dong
BACKGROUNDS: Evidence on the association between long-term exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5 ) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is scarce in developing countries. Moreover, few studies assessed the role of the PM1 (≤1.0 μm) size fraction and CVD. We investigated the associations between PM1 and PM2.5 and CVD prevalence in Chinese adults. METHODS: In 2009, we randomly recruited 24,845 adults at the age of 18-74 years from 33 communities in Northeastern China...
December 14, 2018: Environment International
Jian Gong, Yong Ran, Dainan Zhang, Diyun Chen, Haiyan Li, Youda Huang
The occurrence and distributions of selected endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), along with related environmental factors, were investigated in two rivers and six reservoirs in the Pearl River Delta. The vertical profiles of aqueous 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-nonylphenol (NP), and estrone (E1) were constant, with little change in concentration between the surface and the river bottom, while higher aqueous concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) were found in the bottom layers of the rivers. OP and NP in suspended particulate matter (SPM) were transferred from the surface to the bed layer, ultimately accumulating in the sediment...
December 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yuan Zhang, Huang Zheng, Li Zhang, Zezhou Zhang, Xinli Xing, Shihua Qi
Levels, compositions, sources, and cancer risks of fine particle (PM2.5 )-bound PAHs were investigated at an urban site of Wuhan, Central China. Totally 115 PM2.5 samples collected during four seasons from 2014 to 2015 were analyzed for 16 USEPA priority PAHs. The annual average of PM2.5 and total PAHs were 106 ± 41.7 μg m-3 and 25.1 ± 19.4 ng m-3 , respectively. The seasonal levels of PM2.5 and PAHs varied in a similar trend, with the highest concentrations in winter and the lowest in summer...
December 3, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Maria Grau-Perez, Jinying Zhao, Brandon Pierce, Kevin A Francesconi, Walter Goessler, Yun Zhu, Qiang An, Jason Umans, Lyle Best, Shelley A Cole, Ana Navas-Acien, Maria Tellez-Plaza
INTRODUCTION: While several mechanisms may explain metal-related health effects, the exact cellular processes are not fully understood. We evaluated the association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and urine arsenic (ΣAs), cadmium (Cd) and tungsten (W) exposure in the Strong Heart Study (SHS, N = 1702) and in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS, N = 1793). METHODS: Urine metal concentrations were measured using ICP-MS. Arsenic exposure was assessed as the sum of inorganic arsenic, monomethylarsonate and dimethylarsinate levels (ΣAs)...
December 5, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Wu Men, Jian Zheng, Hai Wang, Youyi Ni, Yuichiro Kumamoto, Masatoshi Yamada, Shigeo Uchida
The marine environment is complex, and it is desirable to have measurements for seawater samples collected at the early stage after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident to determine the impact of Fukushima-derived radionuclides on this environment. Here Pu isotopes in seawater collected 33-163 km from the FDNPP site at the very early stage after the accident were determined (May 2011, within two months after the accident). The distribution and temporal variation of 239 Pu and 240 Pu were studied...
December 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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