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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651353/protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-mediates-sleep-fragmentation-induced-insulin-resistance-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-mice
#1
David Gozal, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Zhuanghong Qiao, Mahzad Akbarpour, Rosanna Maccari, Rosaria Ottanà
Study Objectives: Sleep fragmentation (SF) is highly prevalent and has emerged as an important contributing factor to obesity and metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that SF-induced increases in protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP-1B) expression and activity underlie increased food intake, inflammation, and leptin and insulin resistance. Methods: Wild type (WT) and ObR-PTP-1b-/- mice (Tg) were exposed to SF and control sleep (SC), and food intake was monitored...
June 23, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651250/a-role-for-neuronal-alpha-synuclein-in-gastrointestinal-immunity
#2
Ethan Stolzenberg, Deborah Berry, De Yang, Ernest Y Lee, Alexander Kroemer, Stuart Kaufman, Gerard C L Wong, Joost J Oppenheim, Supti Sen, Thomas Fishbein, Ad Bax, Brent Harris, Denise Barbut, Michael A Zasloff
BACKGROUND: Alpha-synuclein (αS) is a nerve cell protein associated with Parkinson disease (PD). Accumulation of αS within the enteric nervous system (ENS) and its traffic from the gut to the brain are implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of PD. αS has no known function in humans and the reason for its accumulation within the ENS is unknown. Several recent studies conducted in rodents have linked αS to immune cell activation in the central nervous system. We hypothesized that αS in the ENS might play a role in the innate immune defenses of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651238/inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-good-or-bad
#3
REVIEW
Maggie Lind, Alan Hayes, Martin Caprnda, Daniel Petrovic, Luis Rodrigo, Peter Kruzliak, Anthony Zulli
Nitric oxide synthases (NOS) are a family of isoforms responsible for the synthesis of the potent dilator nitric oxide (NO). Expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) occurs in conditions of inflammation, and produces large amounts of NO. In pathological conditions iNOS is regarded as a harmful enzyme and is proposed to be a major contributor to diseases of the cardiovascular system such as atherosclerosis. In this review, we address the notion that iNOS is a detrimental enzyme in disease and discuss its potentially beneficial roles...
June 23, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651236/tanshinone-i-alleviates-insulin-resistance-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-rats-through-irs-1-pathway
#4
Ying Wei, Jiaqi Gao, Lingling Qin, Yunling Xu, Dongchao Wang, Haoxia Shi, Tunhai Xu, Tonghua Liu
Tanshinone I from tanshen has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory diseases. Given the link between inflammation and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we suspect that tanshinone I may have a beneficial effect on T2DM. This study was to investigate the potential effects of tanshinone I on T2DM and its underlying mechanism. T2DM was thus induced in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats using streptozotocin (STZ) and high-fat diet. It was observed that T2DM rats had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), total triglyceride (TG) and total low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) compared with normal, healthy SD rats...
June 23, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651194/reference-intervals-for-hematological-and-biochemical-parameters-acute-phase-proteins-and-markers-of-oxidation-in-holstein-dairy-cows-around-3-and-30days-after-calving
#5
Pierangelo Moretti, Saverio Paltrinieri, Erminio Trevisi, Monica Probo, Annarita Ferrari, Andrea Minuti, Alessia Giordano
The establishment of specific reference intervals (RIs) is advisable when different metabolic conditions in the patient population are present or when existing RIs are not suitable. Holstein dairy cows, at the start of lactation, experience a negative energy balance and an altered immune function that can lead to different levels of blood parameters compared with cows at peak lactation. The aim of this study was the determination of RIs for Holstein cows at 3±1 and 30±3days in milk. To this aim, 145 cows, from 4 herds, were sampled...
June 20, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651186/circulating-malondialdehyde-modified-low-density-lipoprotein-mda-ldl-as-a-novel-predictor-of-clinical-outcome-after-endovascular-therapy-in-patients-with-peripheral-artery-disease-pad
#6
Taka-Aki Takamura, Taketsugu Tsuchiya, Minako Oda, Makoto Watanabe, Ryuhei Saito, Ryoko Sato-Ishida, Hironobu Akao, Yasuyuki Kawai, Michihiko Kitayama, Kouji Kajinami
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite advances in the treatment of peripheral artery disease (PAD), cardiovascular events and death rates remain high. This study aimed at identifying markers of outcome in patients with PAD undergoing endovascular therapy (EVT). METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing EVT were recruited. Markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein [MDA-LDL]), inflammation (IL-6; high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP]) and fibrinolysis (D-dimer) were measured pre-EVT and at post-EVT time-points to 36 h...
June 16, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651168/the-antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-properties-of-lycopene-in-mice-lungs-exposed-to-cigarette-smoke
#7
Keila Karine Duarte Campos, Glaucy Rodrigues Araújo, Thais Lourenço Martins, Ana Carla Balthar Bandeira, Guilherme de Paula Costa, André Talvani, Camila Carrião Machado Garcia, Laser Antônio Machado Oliveira, Daniela Caldeira Costa, Frank Silva Bezerra
Lycopene is a carotenoid with known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effects of lycopene on reducing the redox imbalance and inflammation induced by cigarette smoke (CS). For the in vitro study, J774A.1 (macrophages) cells were incubated in the presence of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 10.0 and 25 μM of lycopene for 3, 6 and 24 h or in the presence of 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.625%, 1.25%, 2.25%, 5% and 10% cigarette smoke extract (CSE) for 3, 6 and 24 h to assess cell viability and measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651126/tnf-%C3%AE-exerts-cytotoxic-effects-on-multidrug-resistant-breast-cancer-mcf-7-mx-cells-via-a-non-apoptotic-death-pathway
#8
Morteza Ghandadi, Javad Behravan, Khalil Abnous, Melika Ehtesham Gharaee, Fatemeh Mosaffa
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a cytokine involved in the various physiopathological processes such as autoimmune disorders and inflammation related diseases. Some multidrug resistant (MDR) cancer cell lines including MCF-7/MX are more vulnerable to cytotoxic effects of TNF-α than their parental lines. In this study, breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and its MDR derivative MCF-7/MX were exposed to TNF-α afterward various downstream signaling mediators of TNF-α were analyzed. Although, treatment of MCF-7 cells with TNF-α activated NF-kB and caused RIP1 ubiquitination, TNF-α exposure led to JNK and RIP1 phosphorylation in MCF-7/MX cells...
June 23, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651075/modulation-of-natriuretic-peptide-receptors-in-human-adipose-tissue-molecular-mechanisms-behind-the-natriuretic-handicap-in-morbidly-obese-patients
#9
A Gentili, M R Frangione, E Albini, C Vacca, M A Ricci, S De Vuono, M Boni, F Rondelli, L Rotelli, G Lupattelli, C Orabona
The B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) hormone plays a crucial role in the regulation of cardiovascular and energy homeostasis. Obesity is associated with low circulating levels of BNP, a condition known as "natriuretic handicap." Recent evidences suggest an altered expression of BNP receptors-both the signaling natriuretic peptide receptors (NPR)-A and the clearance NPR-C receptor-in adipose tissue (AT) as one of the putative causes of natriuretic handicap. The current study aims at clarifying the molecular mechanisms behind the natriuretic handicap, focusing on NPR modulation in the AT of obese and control subjects...
June 10, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651064/progranulin-as-a-biomarker-and-potential-therapeutic-agent
#10
REVIEW
Vanessa Abella, Jesús Pino, Morena Scotece, Javier Conde, Francisca Lago, Miguel Angel Gonzalez-Gay, Antonio Mera, Rodolfo Gómez, Ali Mobasheri, Oreste Gualillo
Progranulin is a cysteine-rich secreted protein with diverse pleiotropic actions and participates in several processes, such as inflammation or tumorigenesis. Progranulin was first identified as a growth factor and, recently, it was characterised as an adipokine implicated in obesity, insulin resistance and rheumatic disease. At a central level, progranulin acts as a neurotropic and neuroprotective factor and protects from neural degeneration. In this review, we summarise the most recent research advances concerning the potential role of progranulin as a therapeutic target and biomarker in cancer, neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases...
June 23, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651038/elevated-adipsin-levels-are-associated-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-systemic-sclerosis
#11
Benjamin D Korman, Roberta Goncalves Marangoni, Monique Hinchcliff, Sanjiv J Shah, Mary Carns, Aileen Hoffmann, Rosalind Ramsey-Goldman, John Varga
INTRODUCTION: Adipose tissues secrete adipokines, peptides with potent effects modulating fibrosis, inflammation, and vascular homeostasis. Dysregulated adipose tissue biology and adipokine balance have been recently implicated in systemic sclerosis (SSc). We sought to determine if altered circulating adipokine levels correlate with SSc disease subsets or clinical manifestations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multiplex assays were used to measure circulating adipokine levels in 198 patients with SSc and 33 healthy controls...
June 26, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651010/macrophages-but-not-neutrophils-are-critical-for-proliferation-of-burkholderia-cenocepacia-and-ensuing-host-damaging-inflammation
#12
Jennifer Mesureur, Joana R Feliciano, Nelly Wagner, Margarida C Gomes, Lili Zhang, Monica Blanco-Gonzalez, Michiel van der Vaart, David O'Callaghan, Annemarie H Meijer, Annette C Vergunst
Bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) can cause devastating pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, yet the precise mechanisms underlying inflammation, recurrent exacerbations and transition from chronic stages to acute infection and septicemia are not known. Bcc bacteria are generally believed to have a predominant extracellular biofilm life style in infected CF lungs, similar to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but this has been challenged by clinical observations which show Bcc bacteria predominantly in alveolar macrophages...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650995/septins-restrict-inflammation-and-protect-zebrafish-larvae-from-shigella-infection
#13
Maria J Mazon-Moya, Alexandra R Willis, Vincenzo Torraca, Laurent Boucontet, Avinash R Shenoy, Emma Colucci-Guyon, Serge Mostowy
Shigella flexneri, a Gram-negative enteroinvasive pathogen, causes inflammatory destruction of the human colonic epithelium. Infection by S. flexneri has been well-studied in vitro and is a paradigm for bacterial interactions with the host immune system. Recent work has revealed that components of the cytoskeleton have important functions in innate immunity and inflammation control. Septins, highly conserved cytoskeletal proteins, have emerged as key players in innate immunity to bacterial infection, yet septin function in vivo is poorly understood...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650992/galectin-8-as-an-immunosuppressor-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-and-a-target-of-human-early-prognostic-antibodies-in-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Evelyn Pardo, Claudia Cárcamo, Reinaldo Uribe-San Martín, Ethel Ciampi, Fabián Segovia-Miranda, Cristobal Curkovic-Peña, Fabián Montecino, Christopher Holmes, Juan Enrique Tichauer, Eric Acuña, Francisco Osorio-Barrios, Marjorie Castro, Priscilla Cortes, Claudia Oyanadel, David M Valenzuela, Rodrigo Pacheco, Rodrigo Naves, Andrea Soza, Alfonso González
Galectin-8 (Gal-8) is a member of a glycan-binding protein family that regulates the immune system, among other functions, and is a target of antibodies in autoimmune disorders. However, its role in multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), remains unknown. We study the consequences of Gal-8 silencing on lymphocyte subpopulations and the development of experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), to then assess the presence and clinical meaning of anti-Gal-8 antibodies in MS patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650927/dexamethasone-prevents-lipopolysaccharide-induced-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-in-rat-ileum
#15
Aline Barbosa Ribeiro, Humberto Giusti, Ana Paula Trevelin Souza, Celso Rodrigues Franci, Rafael Simone Saia
Inflammatory mediators have been postulated as elementary inducing factors to the disruption of the intestinal tight junctions (TJ) and consequently, gut permeability and bacterial translocation. Corticosteroids are considered the mainstay in the treatment of septic shock; however the impact of this therapy on the intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction during septic shock remains unknown. Our aims were to demonstrate the role of low dexamethasone (DEX) doses in modulation of the inflammatory response, as well as the expression and the arrangement of TJ proteins in endotoxemic rats...
June 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650865/effect-of-obesity-on-bladder-cancer-and-renal-cell-carcinoma-incidence-and-survival
#16
Philipp Gild, Behfar Ehdaie, Luis A Kluth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of obesity has risen dramatically in the general population and among cancer survivors in the last three decades. In this review, we highlight the impact of obesity on carcinogenesis and survival with a focus on bladder cancer and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity presents an established risk factor for an up to 1.8-fold relative risk of RCC. Data with regard to bladder cancer are less abundant but support this association as well...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650848/ser-thr-protein-kinase-b2-nadph-oxidase-2-signaling-in-thromboinflammation
#17
Jing Li, Jaehyung Cho
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Interactions between neutrophils and platelets contribute to the progression of thromboinflammatory disease. However, the regulatory mechanism governing these interactions is poorly understood. The present review focuses on the crucial role of Ser/Thr protein kinase B (AKT)2-NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) signaling in regulating neutrophil and platelet activation and their heterotypic interactions under thromboinflammatory conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Growing evidence has shown that platelets, leukocytes, and blood coagulation need to be considered to treat thromboinflammatory disease in which inflammation and thrombosis occur concurrently...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650720/nonclinical-development-of-env905-difluprednate-ophthalmic-implant-for-the-treatment-of-inflammation-and-pain-associated-with-ocular-surgery
#18
Rozemarijn S Verhoeven, Andres Garcia, RiLee Robeson, Brian C Gilger, David Culp, Craig Struble, Lee Hamm, Tomas Navratil, Benjamin Yerxa
PURPOSE: Topical corticosteroids are widely used in the treatment of inflammation and pain after ocular surgery, but they possess several shortcomings, including frequent dosing and low patient adherence. We evaluated the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of ENV905 (difluprednate or DFBA) Ophthalmic Implant, a single-dose drug delivery system, compared with 0.05% Durezol. METHODS: PRINT(®) technology was used to fabricate ENV905 implants for either intracameral (IC) or subconjunctival (SCJ) delivery of extended-release DFBA...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650705/current-and-emerging-treatments-for-postsurgical-cleft-lip-scarring-effectiveness-and-mechanisms
#19
E Papathanasiou, C A Trotman, A R Scott, T E Van Dyke
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate is the most common congenital malformation of the head and the third-most common birth defect. Surgical repair of the lip is the only treatment and is usually performed during the first year of life. Hypertrophic scar (HTS) formation is a frequent postoperative complication that impairs soft tissue form, function, or movement. Multiple lip revision operations are often required throughout childhood, attempting to optimize aesthetics and function. The mechanisms guiding HTS formation are multifactorial and complex...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650574/injection-of-microporous-annealing-particle-map-hydrogels-in-the-stroke-cavity-reduces-gliosis-and-inflammation-and-promotes-npc-migration-to-the-lesion
#20
Lina R Nih, Elias Sideris, S Thomas Carmichael, Tatiana Segura
With the number of deaths due to stroke decreasing, more individuals are forced to live with crippling disability resulting from the stroke. To date, no therapeutics exist after the first 4.5 h after the stroke onset, aside from rest and physical therapy. Following stroke, a large influx of astrocytes and microglia releasing proinflammatory cytokines leads to dramatic inflammation and glial scar formation, affecting brain tissue's ability to repair itself. Pathological conditions, such as a stroke, trigger neural progenitor cells (NPCs) proliferation and migration toward the damaged site...
June 26, 2017: Advanced Materials
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