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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388850/neurophysiological-and-cognitive-impairment-following-repeated-sports-concussion-injuries-in-retired-professional-rugby-league-players
#1
Alan J Pearce, Billymo Rist, Clare L Fraser, Adrian Cohen, Jerome J Maller
BACKGROUND: Concussion is regarded as a common injury in rugby league, however no studies have explored the long-term neurophysiological and cognitive effects of repeated concussion injuries in this sport. METHODS: Former professional rugby athletes (n = 25) were compared to 25 age-matched participants with no history of a concussion. All participants completed standardised motor dexterity, reaction time, and cognitive tasks for working memory, associative learning and rule acquisition and reversal...
2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955250/primary-motor-cortex-excitability-in-karate-athletes-a-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-study
#2
Vincenzo Monda, Anna Valenzano, Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Monica Salerno, Francesco Sessa, Antonio I Triggiani, Andrea Viggiano, Laura Capranica, Gabriella Marsala, Vincenzo De Luca, Luigi Cipolloni, Maria Ruberto, Francesco Precenzano, Marco Carotenuto, Christian Zammit, Monica Gelzo, Marcellino Monda, Giuseppe Cibelli, Giovanni Messina, Antonietta Messina
Purpose: The mechanisms involved in the coordination of muscle activity are not completely known: to investigate adaptive changes in human motor cortex Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was often used. The sport models are frequently used to study how the training may affect the corticospinal system excitability: Karate represents a valuable sport model for this kind of investigations for its high levels of coordination required to athletes. This study was aimed at examining possible changes in the resting motor threshold (rMT) and in the corticospinal response in karate athletes, and at determining whether athletes are characterized by a specific value of rMT...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813353/motor-cognition-and-neuroscience-in-sport-psychology
#3
REVIEW
Paul S Holmes, David J Wright
Advances in technology have allowed research in cognitive neuroscience to contribute significantly to the discipline of sport psychology. In most cases, the research has become more rigorous and has directed current thinking on the mechanisms subserving a number of psychological theories and models of practice. Currently, the three most common neuroscience techniques informing sport and exercise research are electroencephalography, transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455363/what-is-the-physiological-time-to-recovery-after-concussion-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Joshua Kamins, Erin Bigler, Tracey Covassin, Luke Henry, Simon Kemp, John J Leddy, Andrew Mayer, Michael McCrea, Mayumi Prins, Kathryn J Schneider, Tamara C Valovich McLeod, Roger Zemek, Christopher C Giza
AIM OR OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to consolidate studies of physiological measures following sport-related concussion (SRC) to determine if a time course of postinjury altered neurobiology can be outlined. This biological time course was considered with respect to clinically relevant outcomes such as vulnerability to repeat injury and safe timing of return to physical contact risk. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Central, PsychINFO...
June 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081555/new-zealand-rugby-health-study-motor-cortex-excitability-in-retired-elite-and-community-level-rugby-players
#5
Gwyn N Lewis, Patria A Hume, Verna Stavric, Scott R Brown, Denise Taylor
AIMS: Rugby union is a high contact sport in which players frequently experience brain injuries. Acute brain injury is associated with altered corticomotor function. However, it is uncertain if long-term exposure to rugby is associated with any alterations in corticomotor function. The aim of the study was to assess measures of corticomotor excitability and inhibition in retired rugby players in comparison to retired non-contact sport players. METHODS: The design was a cross-sectional study with three groups of retired athletes: elite rugby (n=23), community level rugby (n=28) and non-contact sport control (n=22)...
January 13, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832594/high-frequency-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-modulates-interhemispheric-inhibition-in-healthy-humans
#6
Nicolas Gueugneau, Sidney Grosprêtre, Paul Stapley, Romuald Lepers
High-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation (HF NMES) induces muscular contractions through neural mechanisms that partially match physiological motor control. Indeed, a portion of the contraction arises from central mechanisms, whereby spinal motoneurons are recruited through the evoked sensory volley. However, the involvement of supraspinal centers of motor control during such stimulation remains poorly understood. Therefore, we tested whether a single HF NMES session applied to the upper limb influences interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) from left to right motor cortex (M1)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789273/evidence-for-acute-electrophysiological-and-cognitive-changes-following-routine-soccer-heading
#7
Thomas G Di Virgilio, Angus Hunter, Lindsay Wilson, William Stewart, Stuart Goodall, Glyn Howatson, David I Donaldson, Magdalena Ietswaart
INTRODUCTION: There is growing concern around the effects of concussion and sub-concussive impacts in sport. Routine game-play in soccer involves intentional and repeated head impacts through ball heading. Although heading is frequently cited as a risk to brain health, little data exist regarding the consequences of this activity. This study aims to assess the immediate outcomes of routine football heading using direct and sensitive measures of brain function. METHODS: Nineteen amateur football players (5 females; age 22±3y) headed machine-projected soccer balls at standardized speeds, modelling routine soccer practice...
November 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544220/differences-in-corticospinal-system-activity-and-reaction-response-between-karate-athletes-and-non-athletes
#8
Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Giovanni Messina, Anna Valenzano, Annamaria Petito, Antonio Ivano Triggiani, Antonietta Messina, Vincenzo Monda, Andrea Viggiano, Vincenzo De Luca, Laura Capranica, Marcellino Monda, Giuseppe Cibelli
The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) parameters over the hand region of the motor cortex, such as resting motor threshold (rMT) and motor evoked potential (MEP) latency, predict the behavioural performance of karate athletes in the response time (RT) test. Twenty-five male karate athletes (24.9 ± 4.9 years) and 25 matched non-athletes (26.2 ± 4.5 years) were recruited. Using TMS, we investigated cortico-spinal system excitability. Compared with controls, the athletes showed faster RT (p < 0...
December 2016: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531393/evidence-of-alterations-in-transcallosal-motor-inhibition-as-a-possible-long-term-consequence-of-concussions-in-sports-a-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-study
#9
Travis W Davidson, François Tremblay
OBJECTIVE: Growing evidence suggests that long-term structural and physiological alterations are present in the brain of previously concussed athletes. In this study, we sought to further explore the long-term consequences of concussions with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) by examining excitability changes both within and between hemispheres. METHODS: Participants (32 young adults with and without a history of concussions (HxC)) first underwent testing to assess cognitive and motor performance using standardized tests...
October 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486391/intermittent-theta-burst-over-m1-may-increase-peak-power-of-a-wingate-anaerobic-test-and-prevent-the-reduction-of-voluntary-activation-measured-with-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#10
Louis-Solal Giboin, Patrick Thumm, Raphael Bertschinger, Markus Gruber
Despite the potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to improve performances in patients suffering from motor neuronal afflictions, its effect on motor performance enhancement in healthy subjects during a specific sport task is still unknown. We hypothesized that after an intermittent theta burst (iTBS) treatment, performance during the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) will increase and supraspinal fatigue following the exercise will be lower in comparison to a control treatment. Ten subjects participated in two randomized experiments consisting of a WAnT 5 min after either an iTBS or a control treatment...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27419111/influence-of-dual-task-on-postexercise-facilitation-a-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-study
#11
Carmen Concerto, Bahaa Amer, Anaida Abagyan, Yisheng Cao, Carmenrita Infortuna, Eileen Chusid, Diego Coira, Fortunato Battaglia
In this study we investigated the effect of a dual task (DT) comprised of a nonfatiguing leg and foot extension coupled with a calculation task on postexercise facilitation (PEF) of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) tested by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Twelve right-handed healthy subjects participated in the study. They were required to perform a motor task, a cognitive task and a DT. The motor task consisted of extending the right leg and foot for 30 sec at 20% of the maximal voluntary contraction...
June 2016: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383839/pathophysiology-associated-with-traumatic-brain-injury-current-treatments-and-potential-novel-therapeutics
#12
REVIEW
Matthew L Pearn, Ingrid R Niesman, Junji Egawa, Atsushi Sawada, Angels Almenar-Queralt, Sameer B Shah, Josh L Duckworth, Brian P Head
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death of young people in the developed world. In the United States alone, 1.7 million traumatic events occur annually accounting for 50,000 deaths. The etiology of TBI includes traffic accidents, falls, gunshot wounds, sports, and combat-related events. TBI severity ranges from mild to severe. TBI can induce subtle changes in molecular signaling, alterations in cellular structure and function, and/or primary tissue injury, such as contusion, hemorrhage, and diffuse axonal injury...
May 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27269800/quadratic-association-between-corticomotor-and-spinal-reflexive-excitability-and-self-reported-disability-in-participants-with-chronic-ankle-instability
#13
Matthew Harkey, Michelle M McLeod, Masafumi Terada, Phillip A Gribble, Brian G Pietrosimone
CONTEXT: Spinal-reflexive and corticomotor excitability may have a critical role in altering muscle function needed to stabilize the ankle in people with chronic ankle instability (CAI). OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between self-reported disability and both spinal-reflexive and corticomotor excitability in people with CAI. DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. SETTING: Research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: 30 participants with CAI...
May 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27266885/the-effect-of-velocity-of-joint-mobilization-on-corticospinal-excitability-in-individuals-with-a-history-of-ankle-sprain
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Beth E Fisher, Andrew Piraino, Ya-Yun Lee, Jo Armour Smith, Sean Johnson, Todd E Davenport, Kornelia Kulig
Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Joint mobilization and manipulation decrease pain and improve patient function. Yet, the processes underlying these changes are not well understood. Measures of corticospinal excitability provide insight into potential mechanisms mediated by the central nervous system. Objectives To investigate the differential effects of joint mobilization and manipulation at the talocrural joint on corticospinal excitability in individuals with resolved symptoms following ankle sprain...
July 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27218465/functional-assessment-of-corticospinal-system-excitability-in-karate-athletes
#15
Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Giovanni Messina, Anna Valenzano, Vincenzo Monda, Andrea Viggiano, Antonietta Messina, Annamaria Petito, Antonio Ivano Triggiani, Michela Anna Pia Ciliberti, Marcellino Monda, Laura Capranica, Giuseppe Cibelli
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the involvement of the primary motor cortex (M1) in the coordination performance of karate athletes through transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). METHODS: Thirteen right-handed male karate athletes (25.0±5.0 years) and 13 matched non-athlete controls (26.7±6.2 years) were enrolled. A single-pulse TMS was applied using a figure-eight coil stimulator. Resting motor threshold (rMT) was determined. Surface electromyography was recorded from the first dorsal interosseous muscle...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26616736/neurophysiology-of-action-anticipation-in-athletes-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Daniel M Smith
The purpose of this study was to provide a systematic review of action anticipation studies using functional neuroimaging or brain stimulation during a sport-specific anticipation task. A total of 15 studies from 2008 to 2014 were evaluated and are reported in four sections: expert-novice samples, action anticipation tasks, neuroimaging and stimulation techniques, and key findings. Investigators examined a wide range of action anticipation scenarios specific to eight different sports and utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalogram (EEG), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
January 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26369282/elevated-corticospinal-excitability-in-patellar-tendinopathy-compared-with-other-anterior-knee-pain-or-no-pain
#17
E Rio, D Kidgell, G L Moseley, J Cook
Anterior knee pain (AKP) is a frequent clinical presentation in jumping athletes and may be aggravated by sustained sitting, stair use, and loading of the quadriceps. Corticospinal activation of the quadriceps in athletes with AKP has not yet been investigated, but is important in guiding efficacious treatment. This cross-sectional study assessed corticospinal excitability (CSE) of the quadriceps in jumping athletes using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Groups consisted of Control (no knee pain); patellar tendinopathy (PT) [localized inferior pole pain on single-leg decline squat (SLDS)]; and other AKP (nonlocalized pain around the patella)...
September 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25996466/probing-the-effects-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-with-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-primary-motor-cortex
#18
REVIEW
Geneviève Lefebvre, Sara Tremblay, Hugo Théoret
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The present paper systematically reviews studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex (M1) to assess cortical excitability, intra-cortical inhibition/facilitation and synaptic plasticity following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). METHODS: Articles using TMS over M1 in patients with mTBI or sport-related concussion indexed in PubMed and published between 1998 and September 2014 were included in the present review...
2015: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25923580/the-effect-of-a-carbohydrate-mouth-rinse-on-neuromuscular-fatigue-following-cycling-exercise
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Robert Jeffers, Robert Shave, Emma Ross, Emma J Stevenson, Stuart Goodall
Carbohydrate (CHO) mouth-rinsing, rather than ingestion, is known to improve performance of high-intensity (>75% maximal oxygen uptake) short-duration (≤1 h) cycling exercise. Mechanisms responsible for this improvement, however, are unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of a CHO mouth-rinse on cycling time-trial (TT) performance and mechanisms of fatigue. On 2 separate occasions, 9 male cyclists (mean ± SD; maximal oxygen uptake, 61 ± 5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed 45 min at 70% maximum power output (preload) followed by a 15-min TT...
June 2015: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25892447/action-observation-with-kinesthetic-illusion-can-produce-human-motor-plasticity
#20
Ippei Nojima, Satoko Koganemaru, Toshio Kawamata, Hidenao Fukuyama, Tatsuya Mima
After watching sports, people often feel as if their sports skills might have been improved, even without any actual training. On some occasions, this motor skill learning through observation actually occurs. This phenomenon may be due to the fact that both action and action observation (AO) can activate shared cortical areas. However, the neural basis of performance gain through AO has not yet been fully clarified. In the present study, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate whether primary motor cortex (M1) plasticity is a physiological substrate of AO-induced performance gain and whether AO itself is sufficient to change motor performance...
June 2015: European Journal of Neuroscience
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