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Negative schizophrenia

Jieun Song, Marsha R Mailick, Jan S Greenberg
OBJECTIVE: Parents of individuals with developmental disorders or mental health problems often provide life-long care and support to their children, which negatively affects their health in part due to chronic stress. This study aimed to examine the experience of stigma as a source of chronic stress among parents of individuals with developmental disorders or mental health problems and the effect of stigma on parental health outcomes. METHOD: Using data from the Survey of Midlife in the United States (MIDUS 2 and 3), we constructed a sample for a longitudinal analysis including 128 parents of individuals with developmental disorders (e...
September 27, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Yujing Sun, Mingliang Wang, Yuqiu Zhou, Lina Wang, Hui Zhang, Yumei Lv, Guohua Li
Schizophrenia is a debilitating, chronic, and high-refractory mental illness. Researchers should focus considerable attention to patients with mental disability. This study aims to explore the mediating effect of family function and medication adherence between symptoms and mental disability among Chinese patients with schizophrenia during the convalescent stage. Data from a cross-sectional sample of 499 Chinese patients with schizophrenia were used in this study. The participants were recruited and independently interviewed using the General Information Sheet, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II), Family APGAR Index (APGAR), and Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) as outcome measures...
October 17, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
F Schürhoff, G Fond, F Berna, E Bulzacka, O Godin, L Boyer, D Misdrahi, M Andrianarisoa, L Brunel, N Coulon, B Aouizerate, D Capdevielle, I Chereau, T D'Amato, C Dubertret, J Dubreucq, C Faget, F Gabayet, J Mallet, R Rey, C Lancon, C Passerieux, A Schandrin, M Urbach, P Vidailhet, M Leboyer, P M Llorca
OBJECTIVES: The present article is a synthesis of the first 10 years of follow-up of the FondaMental Academic Center of Expertise for Schizophrenia (FACE-SZ) cohort. METHODS: More than 700 community-dwelling stabilized subjects have been recruited and evaluated to date. The mean age was 32 years with 75 % males, the mean illness duration was 11 years, the mean age at illness onset was 21 years, the mean duration of untreated psychosis was 1.5 years and 55 % were current daily tobacco smokers...
October 13, 2018: L'Encéphale
Sho Horikoshi, Tetsuya Shiga, Hiroshi Hoshino, Haruka Ochiai, Keiko Kanno-Nozaki, Kazuko Kanno, Haruka Kaneko, Yasuto Kunii, Itaru Miura, Hirooki Yabe
Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a component of auditory event-related potentials that reflects automatic change detection in the brain, showing qualities of endophenotypes in schizophrenia. MMN deficiency is one of the robust findings in patients, and it reflects both cognitive and functional decline. Catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) is a key enzyme involved in regulating dopamine transmission within the prefrontal cortex. A preliminary study suggested that the COMTVal108/158Met genotype (rs4680) is related to cognitive function in schizophrenia...
October 16, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Laura H Adery, Megan Ichinose, Lénie J Torregrossa, Joshua Wade, Heathman Nichols, Esube Bekele, Dayi Bian, Alena Gizdic, Eric Granholm, Nilanjan Sarkar, Sohee Park
Social impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia that presents a major barrier toward recovery. Some of the psychotic symptoms are partly ameliorated by medication but the route to recovery is hampered by social impairments. Since existing social skills interventions tend to suffer from lack of availability, high-burden and low adherence, there is a dire need for an effective, alternative strategy. The present study examined the feasibility and acceptability of Multimodal Adaptive Social Intervention in Virtual Reality (MASI-VR) for improving social functioning and clinical outcomes in schizophrenia...
October 9, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Ahmed Mhalla, Walid Bel Hadj Salah, Rim Mensi, Badii Amamou, Amal Messaoud, Leila Gassab, Wahiba Douki, Med Fadhel Najjar, Lotfi Gaha
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases are common co morbidities of schizophrenia and constitute the main factors of high mortality in this pathology. Cardiovascular damages are favored by some risk factors, of which one of the most important is dyslipidemia. In this context, a study of lipid profile in schizophrenia is interesting.  The aims of this study were to compare the lipid profile of patients with schizophrenia to healthy controls and to investigate the associations between lipid parameters and demographics, clinical and treatment characteristics of the patients...
January 2018: La Tunisie Médicale
Leslie Citrome
Cariprazine is an oral antipsychotic approved in the US and EU for the treatment of schizophrenia. Cariprazine differs from other antipsychotics in that it is a dopamine D3 - and D2 -receptor partial agonist, with tenfold higher affinity for D3 receptors than for D2 receptors. Cariprazine is metabolized in two steps by CYP3A4 to didesmethyl-cariprazine (DDCAR). DDCAR has a long half-life of 1-3 weeks and is the predominant circulating active moiety. Efficacy and safety in persons with acute schizophrenia were assessed in four similarly designed, short-term, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials in nonelderly adults, with three studies considered positive and yielding a number needed to treat vs placebo for response (change from baseline ≥30% in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score) of ten for the approved dose range of cariprazine 1...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Richard Newton, Alice Rouleau, Anna-Greta Nylander, Jean-Yves Loze, Henrike K Resemann, Sara Steeves, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro
Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder and patients experience significant comorbidity, especially cognitive and psychosocial deficits, already at the onset of disease. Previous research suggests that treatment during the earlier stages of disease reduces disease burden, and that a longer time of untreated psychosis has a negative impact on treatment outcomes. A targeted literature review was conducted to gain insight into the definitions currently used to describe patients with a recent diagnosis of schizophrenia in the early course of disease ('early' schizophrenia)...
October 15, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
Bill Deakin, John Suckling, Thomas R E Barnes, Kelly Byrne, Imran B Chaudhry, Paola Dazzan, Richard J Drake, Annalisa Giordano, Nusrat Husain, Peter B Jones, Eileen Joyce, Emma Knox, Carl Krynicki, Stephen M Lawrie, Shôn Lewis, Danuta M Lisiecka-Ford, Naghmeh Nikkheslat, Carmine M Pariante, Richard Smallman, Andrew Watson, Steven C R Williams, Rachel Upthegrove, Graham Dunn
BACKGROUND: The antibiotic minocycline has neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties that could prevent or reverse progressive neuropathic changes implicated in recent-onset schizophrenia. In the BeneMin study, we aimed to replicate the benefit of minocycline on negative symptoms reported in previous pilot studies, and to understand the mechanisms involved. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited people with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder that had begun within the past 5 years with continuing positive symptoms from 12 National Health Service (NHS) trusts...
October 12, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
Paul H Lysaker, Emily Gagen, Abigail Wright, Jenifer L Vohs, Marina Kukla, Phillip T Yanos, Ilanit Hasson-Ohayon
The integrated model of insight in schizophrenia suggests that poor insight is the result of multiple factors which compromise persons' abilities to integrate streams of information into a personal awareness of psychiatric challenges, and make adaptive responses. This model hypothesizes that metacognitive deficits, or difficulties forming a complex and integrated understanding of the self and others, influence insight, regardless of other proximal causes including clinical profile. To explore this possibility, we performed a latent class analysis on 324 adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder...
October 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Matthew Schafer, Joo-Won Kim, Joshmi Joseph, Junqian Xu, Sophia Frangou, Gaelle E Doucet
The habenula (Hb), a bilateral nucleus located next to the dorsomedial thalamus, is of particular relevance to psychiatric disorders based on preclinical evidence linking the Hb to depressive and amotivational states. However, studies in clinical samples are scant because segmentation of the Hb in neuroimaging data is challenging due to its small size and low contrast from the surrounding tissues. Negative affective states dominate the clinical course of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and represent a major cause of disability...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Rodrigo San-Martin, Maria Inês Zimiani, Claudemiro Noya, Milton Augusto Vendramini Ávila, Rosana Shuhama, Cristina Marta Del-Ben, Paulo Rossi Menezes, Francisco José Fraga, Cristiane Salum
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) test has been widely used to evaluate sensorimotor gating. In humans, deficits in this mechanism are measured through the orbicularis muscle response using electromyography (EMG). Although this mechanism can be modulated by several brain structures and is impaired in some pathologies as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, neural PPI evaluation is rarely performed in humans. Since eye blinks are a consequence of PPI stimulation, they strongly contaminate the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Taro Kishi, Kazuto Oya, Yuki Matsui, Ikuo Nomura, Kenji Sakuma, Makoto Okuya, Yuki Matsuda, Kiyoshi Fujita, Toshihiko Funahashi, Reiji Yoshimura, Nakao Iwata
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of brexpiprazole 4 mg/day (B4) and 2 mg/day (B2) for treating acute schizophrenia. Patients and methods: We performed three categorical meta-analyses (B4 vs placebo, B2 vs placebo, and B4 vs B2) of double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trials (DBRCTs) that reported improvements in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores, response rate, Clinical Global Impression-Improvement and Severity (CGI-I and CGI-S) scores, discontinuation rate, and incidence of individual adverse events...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
J P Lindenmayer, Mila Kirstie C Kulsa, Tania Sultana, Amandeep Kaur, Ran Yang, Isidora Ljuri, Benedicto Parker, Anzalee Khan
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive neurostimulation treatment, has been reported in a number of sham-controlled studies to show significant improvements in treatment-resistant auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia patients, primarily in ambulatory and higher-functioning patients, but little is known of the effects of tDCS on hospitalized, low-functioning inpatients. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of tDCS for auditory hallucinations in hospitalized ultra-treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) and to evaluate the effects of tDCS on cognitive functions...
October 2, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Cristina P Garcia, Lauren T Catalano, Kristen R Dwyer, Julie M McCarthy, Melanie E Bennett, Jack J Blanchard
Social affiliation, or engagement in positive social interactions, is often profoundly impaired in individuals with schizophrenia. Valid measures of social affiliation are needed to understand these impairments and their symptom and functional correlates; however, such measures are limited and have not been validated. This pilot study evaluated one such measure-the video-based Social Affiliation Interaction Task (SAIT)-and a novel in vivo behavioral measure, the Affiliative Conversation Task (ACT). Twenty participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SZ) and 35 nonpsychiatric controls (CT) completed both tasks and measures of negative symptoms and functioning...
November 2018: Behavior Therapy
Shan Chen, Hai Sen Xia, Feng Zhu, Guang Zhong Yin, Zheng Kang Qian, Cai Xia Jiang, Xiao Chu Gu, Xu Yuan Yin, Wen Jie Tang, Tian Hong Zhang, Ji Jun Wang, Qiu Fang Jia, Li Hui
Albumin is a metal-binding protein with free-radical scavenging properties and is recognized as a vital antioxidant. Moreover, an excess of free radicals may contribute to depressive symptoms and the psychopathology of psychiatric disorders. This study examined serum albumin levels, depressive symptoms, and their association in patients with schizophrenia. Thirty-four patients with schizophrenia (diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth edition) and 136 healthy controls were consecutively enrolled in this case-control study...
October 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Naiara Coelho Ximenes, Manuel Alves Dos Santos Júnior, Germana Silva Vasconcelos, Kátia Cilene Ferreira Dias, Mércia Marques Jucá, Aline Holanda Silva, Luzia Kalyne Almeida Moreira Leal, Glauce Socorro Barros Viana, Francisca Cléa Florenço de Sousa, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos
Background Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder, characterized by positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. In general, several plants have shown activity in diseases related to the central nervous system (e.g., Erythrina velutina (EEEV), also known as "mulungu"). For this reason, we aimed to investigate the effects of standardized ethanol extract obtained from the stem bark of EEEV on the schizophrenia-like behaviors induced by ketamine (KET) administration. Methods Swiss mice were treated with KET (20 mg/kg, i...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
Ted Boozalis, Sridevi Devaraj, Olaoluwa O Okusaga
High prevalence of obesity in individuals with schizophrenia, associated with metabolic syndrome, leads to high rate of premature deaths from cardiovascular disease (CVD) in this population. Body mass index (BMI) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are correlated in the general population but this relationship has not been fully elucidated in patients with schizophrenia. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between BMI and CRP while relating both variables to plasma lipids in patients with schizophrenia. BMI, fasting high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP), cotinine, and lipids were measured in 106 patients with schizophrenia (diagnosis confirmed with MINI)...
October 12, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
Paul Klauser, Lijing Xin, Margot Fournier, Alessandra Griffa, Martine Cleusix, Raoul Jenni, Michel Cuenod, Rolf Gruetter, Patric Hagmann, Philippe Conus, Philipp S Baumann, Kim Q Do
Mechanism-based treatments for schizophrenia are needed, and increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress may be a target. Previous research has shown that N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant and glutathione (GSH) precursor almost devoid of side effects, improved negative symptoms, decreased the side effects of antipsychotics, and improved mismatch negativity and local neural synchronization in chronic schizophrenia. In a recent double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial by Conus et al., early psychosis patients received NAC add-on therapy (2700 mg/day) for 6 months...
October 12, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Philip Murphy, Richard P Bentall, Daniel Freeman, Suzanne O'Rourke, Paul Hutton
BACKGROUND: An influential psychological model of persecutory delusions proposed that they are caused by a bias towards holding others responsible for negative events (an externalising attributional bias), preventing the individual from becoming aware of underlying low self-esteem. An early version of the model predicted self-esteem would, therefore, be preserved in people with these delusions, but a later version suggested it would be unstable, and that there would be a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem, with the latter being lower...
October 9, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
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