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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30549487/early-placebo-improvement-is-a-marker-for-subsequent-placebo-response-in-long-acting-injectable-antipsychotic-trials-for-schizophrenia-combined-analysis-of-4-rcts
#1
Fumiaki Kumagai, Takefumi Suzuki, W Wolfgang Fleischhacker, Norio Yasui-Furukori, Masaru Mimura, Hiroyuki Uchida
OBJECTIVE: Placebo effects remain largely unexplored in clinical trials of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics for schizophrenia. This study aims to characterize patients showing improvements after placebo injections and to search for criteria for the prediction of subsequent response based on the magnitude of score changes after the first week of treatment. METHODS: Data from 450 patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV) who received placebo injections in 4 double-blind randomized controlled trials evaluating efficacy of LAI paliperidone palmitate obtained through the Yale University Open Data Access (YODA) project were analyzed...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30548415/early-psychosis-detection-program-in-chile-a-first-step-for-the-south-american-challenge-in-psychosis-research
#2
Pablo A Gaspar, Rolando I Castillo, Alejandro Maturana, María J Villar, Karen Ulloa, Gabriel González, Osvaldo Ibaceta, Andrea Ortiz, Sebastián Corral, Rocío Mayol, Valeria De Angel, María B Aburto, Antígona Martínez, Cheryl M Corcoran, Hernán Silva
AIM: Early detection and intervention (EDI) is a main challenge in psychosis research. The Chilean schizophrenia (SZ) national program has universal support and treatment by law for all SZ patients, but this does not yet extend to earlier stages of illness. Therefore, we have piloted an ultra-high risk (UHR) program to demonstrate the utility and feasibility of this public health approach in Chile. METHODS: We introduce "The University of Chile High-risk Intervention Program," which is the first national EDI program for UHR youths...
December 11, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30548103/simulated-long-term-outcomes-of-early-use-of-long-acting-injectable-antipsychotics-in-early-schizophrenia
#3
Marcela Horvitz-Lennon, Zachary Predmore, Patrick Orr, Mark Hanson, Richard Hillestad, Mike Durkin, Edward Kim, Soeren Mattke
AIM: Duration of untreated psychosis in early schizophrenia impacts long-term outcomes. Because long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic drugs improve adherence in early-stage patients, they could reduce additional time in uncontrolled psychosis (TUP) during the critical period of the illness. However, the long-term benefit of early LAI use over oral formulations has not been quantified. This study explores the potential magnitude of the benefit with a simulation approach. METHODS: A microsimulation models the effects of 11 treatment pathways reflecting alternative decisions on whether and when LAI agents are used during a "calibration phase" that starts at treatment entry and lasts until the end of the 3-year critical period...
December 9, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30546020/ultrastructural-pathology-of-oligodendrocytes-adjacent-to-microglia-in-prefrontal-white-matter-in-schizophrenia
#4
Natalya A Uranova, Olga V Vikhreva, Valentina I Rakhmanova, Diana D Orlovskaya
Microglial activation has been proposed to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ). We hypothesized that dystrophic alterations of oligodendrocytes previously reported in the prefrontal white matter in SCZ might be associated with microglial activation in the acute state of SCZ. White matter of the prefrontal cortex (BA10) was studied in post-mortem brain tissue from 21 SCZ cases and 20 normal controls. The SCZ group included 12 subjects with predominantly positive symptoms and 9 subjects with predominantly negative symptoms...
December 13, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30545761/anticipatory-pleasure-for-future-rewards-is-attenuated-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-but-not-in-individuals-with-schizotypal-traits
#5
Chao Yan, Simon S Y Lui, Lai-Quan Zou, Chuan-Yue Wang, Fu-Chun Zhou, Eric F C Cheung, David H K Shum, Raymond C K Chan
The anhedonia paradox is consistently observed in individuals with schizophrenia. However, the underlying mechanism of the dissociation between trait and state hedonic capacity remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to re-examine anhedonia in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and individuals with high schizotypy (HS) using the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task to assess different dimensions of anticipatory and consummatory pleasure. We recruited 44 SCZ patients, 46 matched healthy controls (HC), 30 individuals with HS and 35 with low schizotypy (LS)...
December 10, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30545760/ventral-and-dorsal-visual-pathways-exhibit-abnormalities-of-static-and-dynamic-connectivities-respectively-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#6
Yanjia Deng, Kai Liu, Dongliang Cheng, Jingyu Zhang, Hui Chen, Bingguang Chen, Yingjia Li, Wensheng Wang, Youyong Kong, Ge Wen
Previous studies suggest that schizophrenia-related visual perceptual abnormalities are primarily attributed to deficits of the dorsal rather than ventral visual pathway. In this study, we comparatively explored changes in dorsal and ventral networks in schizophrenia patients in both static and dynamic functional connectivity (FC). Resting-state MR scans were acquired for forty schizophrenia patients and twenty-four healthy controls matched for age and gender. The dorsal and ventral visual networks were defined based on the resultant coordinates from activation likelihood estimation analyses...
December 10, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30544051/depression-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-and-delusions-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-different-patterns-of-association-with-prefrontal-gray-and-white-matter-volume
#7
Sara Siddi, Christian Nuñez, Carl Senior, Antonio Preti, Jorge Cuevas-Esteban, Susana Ochoa, Gildas Brébion, Christian Stephan-Otto
Structural brain abnormalities, including decreased gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume, have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. These decrements were found to be associated with positive and negative symptoms, but affective symptoms (depression and anxiety) were poorly explored. We hypothesized that abnormalities in GM and WM volume might also be related to affective symptoms. GM and WM volumes were calculated from high-resolution T1 structural images acquired from 24 patients with schizophrenia and 26 healthy controls, and the associations of positive, negative, and affective symptoms with the brain volumes that showed significant reduction in patients were investigated...
December 4, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30541136/reconsidering-the-latent-structure-of-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-a-review-of-evidence-supporting-the-5-consensus-domains
#8
Gregory P Strauss, Anthony O Ahmed, Jared W Young, Brian Kirkpatrick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30539765/neurobiology-of-cognitive-remediation-in-schizophrenia-effects-of-eaat2-polymorphism
#9
Marco Spangaro, Marta Bosia, Margherita Bechi, Mariachiara Buonocore, Federica Cocchi, Carmelo Guglielmino, Laura Bianchi, Antonella Mastromatteo, Cristina Lorenzi, Roberto Cavallaro
Cognitive deficits represent core features of schizophrenia, affecting quality of life and functioning. The excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) is responsible for the majority of glutamate reuptake and its activity is crucial for glutamatergic neurotransmission, prevention of excitotoxic damage and cerebral metabolism. Different studies reported that EAAT2 rs4354668 (-181 T/G) influences cognitive functions and brain structures in patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, the G allele, linked to lower EAAT2 expression, was associated with impaired prefrontal cognitive performance and reduced grey matter volumes...
December 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537664/patterns-of-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-and-social-functioning-in-schizophrenia-a-replication-study
#10
Marije Swets, Floor A van Dijk, Frederike Schirmbeck, Jaap Peen, Lieuwe de Haan, Behrooz Z Alizadeh, Therese van Amelsvoort, Agna A Bartels-Velthuis, Nico J van Beveren, Richard Bruggeman, Wiepke Cahn, Philippe Delespaul, Jurjen J Luykx, Inez Myin-Germeys, Rene S Kahn, Claudia J P Simons, Neeltje E van Haren, Jim van Os, Ruud van Winkel
Research has found that Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenia are associated with either more or less negative symptoms and either better or poorer cognitive functioning. In order to explain these contradictory results, (Lysaker et al., 2004), performed a cluster analysis resulting in 2 OCS positive (OCSpos) clusters, one with higher functioning (HF) and one with poorer functioning (PF) compared to 2 OCS negative (OCSneg) clusters. The OCSpos/HF cluster had less negative symptoms compared to all other clusters, while the OCSpos/PF cluster showed poorer executive functioning...
December 3, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537663/gender-differences-in-correlates-of-cognition-in-first-episode-psychosis
#11
Adrienne W Y Li, Christy L M Hui, Edwin H M Lee, W C Chang, Sherry K W Chan, Eric Y H Chen
Studies of gender cognitive differences in schizophrenia have reported mixed results. This study examined cognitive correlates including demographics, symptoms and functioning in men and women in a large sample of first-episode adult-onset psychosis patients. Detailed demographic, clinical and functioning data were collected from 360 first-episode patients upon admission into an early intervention service for psychotic disorders. They were also administered a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Correlation analyses showed that memory and working memory were more significantly associated with onset age, negative symptoms and side effects in women...
December 3, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30535904/selective-adrenergic-alpha2c-receptor-antagonist-ameliorates-acute-phencyclidine-induced-schizophrenia-like-social-interaction-deficits-in-rats
#12
Katja Savolainen, Jouni Ihalainen, Aaro J Jalkanen, Markus M Forsberg
RATIONALE: Social withdrawal is a core feature of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Currently available pharmacotherapies have only limited efficacy towards the negative symptoms, i.e., there is a significant unmet medical need in the treatment of these symptoms. OBJECTIVE: We wanted to confirm whether selective adrenergic α2C receptor (AR) antagonist therapy could ameliorate acute phencyclidine (PCP)-induced schizophrenia-like social interaction deficits in rats, and to compare the effects of an α2C AR antagonist to another putative therapeutic alternative, an α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonist, as well against three commonly used atypical antipsychotics...
December 10, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30535399/factor-analysis-of-negative-symptom-items-in-the-structured-interview-for-prodromal-syndromes
#13
Matilda Azis, Gregory P Strauss, Elaine Walker, William Revelle, Richard Zinbarg, Vijay Mittal
Background: Negative symptoms occur early in the clinical high risk (CHR) state and indicate increased risk of conversion to psychotic disorder and poor functional outcome. However, while the negative symptom domain has shown to be parsimoniously explained by a 2-factor construct in schizophrenia, there has yet to be an established factor structure of negative symptoms in CHR. Methods: 214 individuals meeting the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS) criteria for CHR were recruited through 3 active research programs in the United States...
December 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30534527/from-under-to-over-social-cognition-in-schizophrenia-is-there-distinct-profiles-of-impairments-according-to-negative-and-positive-symptoms
#14
Elodie Peyroux, Zelda Prost, Charlotte Danset-Alexandre, Lindsay Brenugat-Herne, Isabelle Carteau-Martin, Baptiste Gaudelus, Célia Jantac, David Attali, Isabelle Amado, Jérôme Graux, Emmanuelle Houy-Durand, Julien Plasse, Nicolas Franck
Interactions between social cognition and symptoms of schizophrenia have been investigated, but mostly component by component. Here we tested the assumption that two categories of deficits exist depending on clinical profiles, one corresponding to a defect in social cognition - "under-social cognition" - and one corresponding to excessive attributions leading to social cognitive impairments - "over-social cognition". To conduct the investigation, we performed a Hierarchical Clustering Analysis using positive and negative symptoms in seventy patients with schizophrenia and we compared the clusters obtained to a group of healthy controls on social cognitive measures...
March 2019: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30530057/self-stigma-versus-stigma-resistance-in-schizophrenia-associations-with-resilience-premorbid-adjustment-and-clinical-symptoms
#15
Alex Hofer, Fabienne Post, Silvia Pardeller, Beatrice Frajo-Apor, Christine M Hoertnagl, Georg Kemmler, W Wolfgang Fleischhacker
Self-stigma is regarded as a barrier to recovery from schizophrenia and the identification of factors protecting from its development may help identify vulnerable patients and subsequently, implement effective preventive and therapeutic interventions. Hence, this study aimed to assess whether resilience, premorbid adjustment, and psychopathology might differently impact self-stigma and stigma resistance among 54 regular attendees of a specialized outpatient clinic. There was no significant association between sociodemographic variables and self-stigma/stigma resistance, while resilience was negatively correlated with self-stigma and positively correlated with stigma resistance...
December 6, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30529836/a-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-a-bottom-up-and-top-down-approach-to-cognitive-training-in-schizophrenia
#16
Carol Jahshan, Sophia Vinogradov, Jonathan K Wynn, Gerhard Hellemann, Michael F Green
The development of effective cognitive training (CT) interventions is critical for improving the daily lives of people with schizophrenia. At this point, it is unclear whether a so-called "bottom-up" or "top-down" CT approach is more beneficial for inducing cognitive gains and generalization in this population. The aims of this randomized controlled trial were to: 1) Compare the effects of these two types of training approaches on performance-based (MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery, MCCB) and neurophysiological (mismatch negativity, MMN) measures of cognition, and 2) Evaluate MMN as a potential predictor of treatment response...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30527272/investigation-of-peripheral-complement-factors-across-stages-of-psychosis
#17
Liliana Laskaris, Andrew Zalesky, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Maria A Di Biase, Gursharan Chana, Bernhard T Baune, Chad Bousman, Barnaby Nelson, Patrick McGorry, Ian Everall, Christos Pantelis, Vanessa Cropley
The complement cascade has been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether peripheral complement levels differ in cases compared to controls, change over the course of illness and whether they are associated with current symptomatology. This study aimed to: i) investigate whether peripheral complement protein levels are altered at different stages of illness, and ii) identify patterns among complement protein levels that predict clinical symptoms. Complement factors C1q, C3 and C4 were quantified in 183 participants [n = 83 Healthy Controls (HC), n = 10 Ultra-High Risk (UHR) for psychosis, n = 40 First Episode Psychosis (FEP), n = 50 Chronic schizophrenia] using Multiplex ELISA...
December 5, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30523522/effects-on-satisfaction-and-service-engagement-of-paliperidone-palmitate-compared-with-oral-paliperidone-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-an-open-label-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Paola Bozzatello, Silvio Bellino, Irene Mancini, Luisa Sandei, Enrico Zanalda, Paola Rocca
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Clinical practice guidelines recommend antipsychotic monotherapy, including oral and long-acting formulations, in the treatment of schizophrenia. This open-label, randomized, controlled trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability in patients with schizophrenia of once-monthly long-acting paliperidone palmitate (PP1M) compared with oral paliperidone extended release (ER), with a particular focus on satisfaction, subjective well-being, and service engagement. METHODS: Seventy-two consecutive outpatients with schizophrenia (DSM-5) were randomly assigned for 6 months to: (1) PP1M (50-150 mg equivalent) or (2) paliperidone ER (6-12 mg/day)...
December 6, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30523488/dopamine-receptor-density-and-white-mater-integrity-18-f-fallypride-positron-emission-tomography-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study-in-healthy-and-schizophrenia-subjects
#19
Serge A Mitelman, Monte S Buchsbaum, Bradley T Christian, Brian M Merrill, Bradley R Buchsbaum, Jogeshwar Mukherjee, Douglas S Lehrer
Dopaminergic dysfunction and changes in white matter integrity are among the most replicated findings in schizophrenia. A modulating role of dopamine in myelin formation has been proposed in animal models and healthy human brain, but has not yet been systematically explored in schizophrenia. We used diffusion tensor imaging and 18 F-fallypride positron emission tomography in 19 healthy and 25 schizophrenia subjects to assess the relationship between gray matter dopamine D2 /D3 receptor density and white matter fractional anisotropy in each diagnostic group...
December 6, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514136/shyness-hormones-and-quality-of-life-among-adults-with-schizophrenia
#20
Zahra Khalesi, Michelle K Jetha, Kristie L Poole, Joel O Goldberg, Ryan J Van Lieshout, Louis A Schmidt
OBJECTIVE: Although individual differences in personality are known to influence quality of life in individuals with schizophrenia, relatively few studies have attempted to identify putative links underlying this relation. METHODS: Here, we examined associations among temperamental shyness, hormones (ie baseline salivary cortisol and testosterone), and quality of life (QoL) measured in 42 stable outpatient adults with schizophrenia. RESULTS: We found that baseline cortisol, but not testosterone, moderated the relation between shyness and QoL (ß = 1...
December 5, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
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