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Negative schizophrenia

Daniel W Chung, Youjin Chung, H Holly Bazmi, David A Lewis
Working memory requires the activity of parvalbumin (PV) interneurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Impaired working memory and lower PV expression in the DLPFC are reported in schizophrenia and to a lesser degree in mood disorders. We previously proposed that activity-dependent PV expression is lower in schizophrenia due to a shift in the splicing of erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4 (ErbB4) transcripts from major to inactive minor variants that reduces excitatory drive to PV interneurons...
August 2, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Victor Wumbor-Apin Kumbol, Wonder Kofi Mensah Abotsi, Edmund Ekuadzi, Eric Woode
BACKGROUND: The root extract of Albizia zygia (DC.) J.F. Macbr. (Leguminosae) is used to manage mental disorders in African traditional medicine. However, its value, particularly, against negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia have not been evaluated. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antipsychotic properties of the hydroethanolic root extract of Albizia zygia (AZE) against positive, negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia in animal models...
July 10, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Xian-Bin Li, Qi-Jing Bo, Qing Tian, Ning-Bo Yang, Zhen Mao, Wei Zheng, Yu-Jie Wen, Chuan-Yue Wang
BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma (CT) has been found to contribute to the onset of schizophrenia and auditory sensory gating deficit is a leading endophenotype for schizophrenia. However, the association between the CT and sensory gating in first-episode schizophrenia remains elusive. METHODS: Fifty-six patients and 49 age and sex-matched healthy controls were assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) for CT and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for symptoms severity...
August 16, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Daria Parshukova, Liudmila P Smirnova, Evgeny A Ermakov, Nikolay A Bokhan, Arkadiy V Semke, Svetlana A Ivanova, Valentina N Buneva, Georgy A Nevinsky
Several different theories of schizophrenia (SCZ) were discussed; the causes of this disease are not yet clear. Using ELISA, it was shown that titers of autoantibodies against myelin basic protein (MBP) in SCZ patients are ~1.8-fold higher than in healthy individuals but 5.0-fold lower than in patients with multiple sclerosis. Several rigid criteria were checked to show that the MBP-hydrolyzing activity is an intrinsic property of SCZ IgGs. Approximately 82% electrophoretically homogeneous SCZ IgGs purified using several affinity sorbents including Sepharose with immobilized MBP hydrolyze specifically only MBP but not many other tested proteins...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
Maria Azmanova, Anaïs Pitto-Barry, Nicolas P E Barry
Schizophrenia is a complex and unpredictable mental disorder which affects several domains of cognition and behaviour. It is a heterogeneous illness characterised by positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms, often accompanied by signs of depression. In this tutorial review, we discuss recent progress in understanding the target sites and mechanisms of action of second-generation antipsychotic drugs. Progress in identifying and defining target sites has been accelerated recently by advances in neuroscience, and newly developed agents that regulate signalling by the main excitatory neurotransmitters in the brain are surveyed...
May 1, 2018: MedChemComm
Lindsay D Oliver, John D Haltigan, James M Gold, George Foussias, Pamela DeRosse, Robert W Buchanan, Anil K Malhotra, Aristotle N Voineskos
Background: Schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) often feature social cognitive deficits. However, little work has focused on the factor structure of social cognition, and results have been inconsistent in schizophrenia. This study aimed to elucidate the factor structure of social cognition across people with SSDs and healthy controls. It was hypothesized that a 2-factor model, including lower-level "simulation" and higher-level "mentalizing" factors, would demonstrate the best fit across participants...
August 10, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Cecilia Brain, Steven Kymes, Dana B DiBenedetti, Thomas Brevig, Dawn I Velligan
BACKGROUND: Treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) affects about one-third of individuals with schizophrenia. People with TRS do not experience sustained symptom relief and at the same time have the most severe disease-related disability and associated costs among individuals with severe mental disorders. Like caregivers of people with treatment-responsive schizophrenia, caregivers of individuals with TRS experience the disease burden along with their care recipients; however, for those providing care for individuals with TRS, the stress of the burden is unrelenting due to uncontrolled symptoms and a lack of effective treatment options...
August 13, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Lingyue Ma, Xiaodan Zhang, Qian Xiang, Shuang Zhou, Nan Zhao, Qiufen Xie, Xia Zhao, Ying Zhou, Yimin Cui
BACKGROUND: The effect of risperidone treatment in patients with schizophrenia varies according to the dopamine receptor genes. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between genes of the dopamine receptors (D1, D2, and D3) and the effect of risperidone treatment. METHODS: Three electronic databases (PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library) were searched for relevant cohort or case-control studies published before 9 May 2018. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the relationship between the dopamine receptors D1, D2 and D3 (DRD1, 2 and 3) and the effect of risperidone treatment...
August 13, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Nicole H Korman, Shelukumar Shah, Shuichi Suetani, Karen Kendall, Simon Rosenbaum, Frances Dark, Ketevan Nadareishvili, Dan Siskind
Purpose: People with severe mental illness are sedentary, have high cardio-metabolic risks and significantly reduced life expectancy. Despite considerable data regarding positive physical and mental health outcomes following exercise interventions, implementation and evaluation of real-world programs is lacking. The primary aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of an exercise intervention implemented by exercise physiology (EP) students within a residential rehabilitation unit for residents with severe mental illness, together with assessment of a range of secondary physical and mental health outcomes pre- and post- the intervention...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jaśmina Arabska, Anna Łucka, Dominik Strzelecki, Adam Wysokiński
AIM: Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is a neurotrophic factor responsible for promoting development, survival and function of neurons. NT-3 may be involved in the etiopathology of schizophrenia and mood disorders. However it must be cleared up if changes of NT-3 level are associated with schizophrenia itself or are secondary to certain symptoms (e.g. negative or depressive). The aim of this study was to examine whether the presence of negative or depressive symptoms affects peripheral NT-3 concentration in patients with schizophrenia...
August 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Manuel Delgado-Alvarado, Diana Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Rosa Ayesa-Arriola, Manuel Canal, Victor Ortiz-García de la Foz, Javier Labad, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro
Patients with schizophrenia frequently present hyperprolactinemia as a consequence of antipsychotic treatment. However, an increase in circulating prolactin levels has also been shown in patients without previous treatment. Our objective was to compare prolactin levels between antipsychotic-naive first-episode psychosis (AN-FEP) patients and healthy controls (HC). As part of an FEP program (Programa Asistencial Fases Iniciales de Psicosis [PAFIP]), 270 AN-FEP patients and 153 HC were eligible for this study...
August 10, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Teresa Katthagen, Christoph Mathys, Lorenz Deserno, Henrik Walter, Norbert Kathmann, Andreas Heinz, Florian Schlagenhauf
In schizophrenia, increased aberrant salience to irrelevant events and reduced learning of relevant information may relate to an underlying deficit in relevance detection. So far, subjective estimates of relevance have not been probed in schizophrenia patients. The mechanisms underlying belief formation about relevance and their translation into decisions are unclear. Using novel computational methods, we investigated relevance detection during implicit learning in 42 schizophrenia patients and 42 healthy individuals...
August 10, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Bir S Chavan, Gurjit Kaur, Deepti Gupta, Jitender Aneja
Background: Risperidone is one of commonly utilized antipsychotic in clinical practice. Various metabolizing enzymes effect the plasma levels of risperidone and its active metabolite and thus its clinical efficacy. So, we attempted to evaluate the relationship between CYP2D6*10 (rs1065852) and CYP2D6*4 (rs3892097) gene polymorphism and the plasma concentration of risperidone and its metabolite in patients with schizophrenia. Methodology: It was a 12-week prospective study carried out in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Jibi A Jacob, Anju Kuruvilla
Background: Patients with schizophrenia hold a variety of explanatory models of illness that influence different aspects of their life including their understanding of the disease, ability to cope and sense of well-being. Aim: To study the association of explanatory models and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty consecutive patients with schizophrenia attending a psychiatric outpatient clinic were recruited in the study and administered the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), the modified Short Explanatory Model Interview (SEMI) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) Scale to assess severity of psychosis, explanatory models of illness, and quality of life...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Yong Kee Choi, Frank I Tarazi
The atypical antipsychotic drug iloperidone has high affinity for a wide range of neurotransmitter receptors, including serotonin and adrenoceptors. We examined the long-term effects of multiple doses of iloperidone (0.5, 1.5, or 5 mg/kg) on serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT1A , 5-HT2A receptor subtypes, and adrenoceptors α1 and α2 subtypes. Rats received daily intraperitoneal injections of different doses of iloperiodone or vehicle for 4 weeks. Receptor autoradiography quantified the levels of 5-HT and adrenoceptors in medial prefrontal cortex (MPC), dorsolateral frontal cortex (DFC), caudate putamen (CPu), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and hippocampal CA1 (HIP-CA1) and CA3 (HIP-CA3) regions...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Hannah J Jones, Jon Heron, Gemma Hammerton, Jan Stochl, Peter B Jones, Mary Cannon, George Davey Smith, Peter Holmans, Glyn Lewis, David E J Linden, Michael C O'Donovan, Michael J Owen, James Walters, Stanley Zammit
Whilst associations between polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for schizophrenia and various phenotypic outcomes have been reported, an understanding of developmental pathways can only be gained by modelling comorbidity across psychopathology. We examine how genetic risk for schizophrenia relates to adolescent psychosis-related and internalizing psychopathology using a latent modelling approach, and compare this to genetic risk for other psychiatric disorders, to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the developmental pathways at this age...
August 8, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Cristina Domenech, Corrado Bernasconi, Maria Victoria Moneta, Anna-Lena Nordstroem, Paula Cristobal-Narvaez, Ellen Vorstenbosch, Jesus Cobo, Susana Ochoa, Josep Maria Haro
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with schizophrenia is related to the severity of psychiatric symptoms. The objective of this study is to analyze whether the symptoms that influence HRQoL are similar in women and men. Data were part of the Pattern study, an international observational investigation which collected data from 1379 outpatients with schizophrenia. Patients were evaluated with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory, the Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia, and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and reported their quality of life using the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (SQLS), the Short Form-36 (SF-36), and the EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D)...
August 7, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Jung Hyun Kim, Tak Youn, Jun Gwon Choi, Seong Hoon Jeong, Hee Yeon Jung, Yong Sik Kim, In Won Chung
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and tolerability of the combination of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in patients with clozapine-treated schizophrenia. Methods: Patients with clozapine-treated schizophrenia during five years of pre-determined period were recruited from Electronic Medical Record. Clinical effects of acute ECT on psychotic symptoms were investigated. We also tried to identify predictive variables requiring maintenance treatment of ECT...
August 9, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Ina Filla, Matthew R Bailey, Elke Schipani, Vanessa Winiger, Chris Mezias, Peter D Balsam, Eleanor H Simpson
Deficits in goal-directed motivation represent a debilitating symptom for many patients with schizophrenia. Impairments in motivation can arise from deficits in processing information about effort and or value, disrupting effective cost-benefit decision making. We have previously shown that upregulated dopamine D2 receptor expression within the striatum (D2R-OE mice) decreases goal-directed motivation. Here, we determine the behavioral and neurochemical mechanisms behind this deficit. Female D2R-OE mice were tested in several behavioral paradigms including recently developed tasks that independently assess the impact of Value or Effort manipulations on cost-benefit decision making...
July 20, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
V Bansal, M Mitjans, C A P Burik, R K Linnér, A Okbay, C A Rietveld, M Begemann, S Bonn, S Ripke, R de Vlaming, M G Nivard, H Ehrenreich, P D Koellinger
Higher educational attainment (EA) is negatively associated with schizophrenia (SZ). However, recent studies found a positive genetic correlation between EA and SZ. We investigate possible causes of this counterintuitive finding using genome-wide association study results for EA and SZ (N = 443,581) and a replication cohort (1169 controls; 1067 cases) with deeply phenotyped SZ patients. We find strong genetic dependence between EA and SZ that cannot be explained by chance, linkage disequilibrium, or assortative mating...
August 6, 2018: Nature Communications
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