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Cheong A Choi, Jung Eun Lee, Zihnil Adha Islamy Mazrad, Young Kwang Kim, Insik In, Ji Hoon Jeong, Sung Young Park
We described fluorescence resonance energy transfer for pH/redox-activatable fluorescent carbon dot (FNP) to realize "off-on" switched imaging-guided controllable photothermal therapy (PTT). The FNP is a carbonized self-crosslinked polymer that allows IR825 loading (FNP[IR825]) via hydrophobic interactions in cancer therapy. The capability for fluorescence bioimaging was achieved via the internalization of FNP(IR825) into tumor cells, wherein glutathione (GSH) disulfide bonds were reduced and benzoic imine were cleaved under acidic conditions...
May 18, 2018: ChemMedChem
Chester E Markwalter, Robert K Prud'homme
Flash NanoPrecipitation (FNP) is a scalable approach to generate polymeric nanoparticles using rapid micromixing in specially-designed geometries such as a confined impinging jets (CIJ) mixer or a Multi-Inlet Vortex Mixer (MIVM). A major limitation of formulation screening using the MIVM is that a single run requires tens of milligrams of the therapeutic. To overcome this, we have developed a scaled-down version of the MIVM, requiring as little as 0.2 mg of therapeutic, for formulation screening. The redesigned mixer can then be attached to pumps for scale-up of the identified formulation...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Moises Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Ana Castellano-Martinez, Alvaro A Perez-Reviriego
BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD) is a multisystem vasculitic disease. Coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) are the most important and life-threatening complication of KD. Various neurologic complications have been described to occur in 1-30% of patients with KD, but peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) is rare (0.9%). CASE REPORT: We describe a 5-month-old male infant who presented to us with unilateral left infranuclear FNP in the convalescent phase (day 18 of illness) of incomplete KD...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Michael Robling, Rebecca Cannings-John, Sue Channon, Kerenza Hood, Gwen Moody, Ria Poole, Julia Sanders
OBJECTIVES: We compared the US-derived Family Nurse Partnership (FNP) home visiting programme when added to usually provided health and social care for first-time teenage mothers, to usual care alone. We aimed to: establish the nature of usual care, measure service usage and assess performance bias in core usual care services. DESIGN: Within trial process evaluation. Local professionals completed a survey mapping local health and social care services in seven domains...
May 5, 2018: BMJ Open
Danijela Petrovic, Mariana Seke, Milica Labudovic Borovic, Danica Jovic, Ivana Borisev, Branislava Srdjenovic, Zlatko Rakocevic, Vladimir Pavlovic, Aleksandar Djordjevic
In our recent studies we have designed fullerenol/doxorubicin nanocomposite (FNP/DOX) as the new drug nanocarrier. This research has demonstrated that this novel nanocomposite has had better implications on the liver tissue in vivo (Wistar rats treated intraperitoneally), than treatment based only on DOX. FNP/DOX has been characterised by DLS, TEM and AFM measurements which have shown that DOX loaded onto FNP did not influence fullerenol nanoparticle's size. FNP/DOX affected oxidative status in blood causing a significant decrease of catalase and SOD activity in comparison to DOX, implicating the reduction in oxidative stress...
May 1, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Lorena S Grundy, Victoria E Lee, Nannan Li, Chris Sosa, William D Mulhearn, Rui Liu, Richard A Register, Arash Nikoubashman, Robert K Prud'homme, Athanassios Z Panagiotopoulos, Rodney D Priestley
Colloids with internally structured geometries have shown great promise in applications ranging from biosensors to optics to drug delivery, where the internal particle structure is paramount to performance. The growing demand for such nanomaterials necessitates the development of a scalable processing platform for their production. Flash NanoPrecipitation (FNP), a rapid and inherently scalable colloid precipitation technology, is used to prepare internally structured colloids from blends of block copolymers and homopolymers...
May 3, 2018: ACS Nano
R Mack Harrell, Stephanie A Eyerly-Webb, Nat E Pinnar, Allan C Golding, Courtney M Edwards, David N Bimston
OBJECTIVE: Afirma Gene Expression Classifier® (Afirma GEC® ) molecular analysis (Veracyte, Inc.; San Francisco, CA) is a negative predictive value (NPV) test developed to reduce the number of thyroidectomies in thyroid nodule patients with indeterminate cytology. GEC technology has reportedly reduced unnecessary thyroid surgery, but few studies have examined Afirma GEC false negative rates since usually patients with GEC benign nodules do not undergo surgery for definitive diagnosis...
April 24, 2018: Endocrine Practice
Petar Stankovic, Jan Wittlinger, Nina Timmesfeld, Stephan Hoch Stephan, Robert Georgiew, Thomas Günzel, Afshin Teymoortash, Thomas Wilhelm
INTRODUCTION: The retrograde approach (RP) to nerve identification is a method seldom used in parotid surgery. A systematic review comparing this method to the standard anterograde approach (AP) with respect to facial nerve palsy (FNP) does not currently exist. METHODS: In a meta-analysis according to the PRISMA statement, eight publications, including one randomized controlled trial, were selected. The primary aim was to compare the temporary and permanent FNP resulting from the two dissection methods...
April 20, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Hoang D Lu, Kurt D Ristroph, Ellen L K Dobrijevic, Jie Feng, Simon A McManus, Yingyue Zhang, William D Mulhearn, Hanu Ramachandruni, Anil Patel, Robert K Prud'homme
Malaria poses a major burden on human health and is becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to the development of microbial resistance to antibiotics, and the resistance issue is exacerbated by a lack of patient adherence to long-term dosing regimens. This situation motivates the development of new antimalarial treatments that are less susceptible to the development of resistance. Developed by Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV), one promising candidate for malaria treatment is OZ439, which has demonstrated both safety and efficacy in human trials...
March 26, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Ka Yee Wan, Ka Wai Wong, Albert Hee Lum Chow, Shing Fung Chow
Flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) is a controlled antisolvent precipitation process that has proven effective for consistent production of drug nanoparticles with a defined mean particle size and narrow particle size distribution. However, physical instability of the generated nanoparticles remains a major challenge in the application of this technology in pharmaceutical formulation. Aimed at resolving this problem, the present study has investigated the FNP process and associated stabilization mechanism of itraconazole (ITZ) nanoparticles through in-depth nanoparticle characterization...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Lei-Peng Cao, Jing-Jing Wang, Ting Zhou, Roger Ruan, Yu-Huan Liu
Lignin polymers in bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) were decomposed into polyphenols at high temperatures and oxidized for the introduction of quinone groups from peroxidase extracted from bamboo shoots and catalysis of UV. According to the results of FT-IR spectra analysis, neutral proteases (NPs) can be immobilized on the oxidized lignin by covalent bonding formed by amine group and quinone group. The optimum condition for the immobilization of NPs on the bamboo bar was obtained at pH 7.0, 40 °C, and duration of 4 h; the amount of immobilized enzyme was up to 5 mg g-1 bamboo bar...
March 6, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Xiaojing Pei, Tiancheng Lai, Guangyu Tao, Hu Hong, Feng Liu, Na Li
To be able to detect simultaneously multiple single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) with both ultrahigh specificity and low-abundance sensitivity is of pivotal importance for molecular diagnostics and biological research. In this contribution, we for the first time developed a multiplex SNV detection method that combines the masking tactic with fluorescent nanoparticle (FNP) counting based on the sandwich design. The method presents a rivaling performance due to its advantageous features: the masking reagent was designed to hybridize with an extremely large amount of the wild-type sequence to render the assay with high specificity; FNP counting provides a sensitive multiplexed SNV detection; the sandwich design facilitates an easy separation to make the detection free of interferences from the matrix...
March 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Meng Li, Yisheng Xu, Jinli Sun, Mingwei Wang, Dahai Yang, Xuhong Guo, Haiyun Song, Song Cao, Yunfeng Yan
Traditional charge-conversion nanoparticles (NPs) need the breakage of acid-labile groups on the surface, which impedes the rapid response to the acidic microenvironment. Here, we developed novel rodlike charge-conversion NPs with amphiphilic dextran- b-poly(lactic- co-glycolic acid), poly(2-(dimethylamino) ethylmethylacrylate)- b-poly(ε-caprolactone), and an aggregation-induced emission-active probe through flash nanoprecipitation (FNP). These NPs exhibit reversible negative-to-positive charge transition at a slightly acidic pH relying on the rapid protonation/deprotonation of polymers...
April 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Eun Bi Kang, Jung Eun Lee, Zihnil Adha Islamy Mazrad, Insik In, Ji Hoon Jeong, Sung Young Park
We developed nanoparticles comprising a photothermal dye (IR825)-loaded carbonized zwitterionic polymer [FNP-I] as "switch-on" pH-responsive fluorescence probes to sense intracellular cancer cells and for near-infrared (NIR) controllable photothermal therapy (PTT) in vivo and in vitro. The fluorescent "off" of FNP-I was activated after reaching the cancer cell environment, where the zwitterionic compartment of FNP lost its hydrophobicity to induce PTT-mediated heat release of IR825 under NIR irradiation in the tumor...
January 18, 2018: Nanoscale
Robert F Pagels, Jasmine Edelstein, Christina Tang, Robert K Prud'homme
Nanoparticles have shown promise in several biomedical applications, including drug delivery and medical imaging; however, quantitative prediction of nanoparticle formation processes that scale from laboratory to commercial production has been lacking. Flash NanoPrecipitation (FNP) is a scalable technique to form highly loaded, block copolymer protected nanoparticles. Here, the FNP process is shown to strictly obey diffusion-limited aggregation assembly kinetics, and the parameters that control the nanoparticle size and the polymer brush density on the nanoparticle surface are shown...
February 14, 2018: Nano Letters
Daniele Massella, Federica Leone, Roberta Peila, Antonello A Barresi, Ada Ferri
Drug delivery by means of transdermal patches raised great interest as a non-invasive and sustained therapy. The present research aimed to design a patch for transdermal delivery of melatonin, which was encapsulated in polycaprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles (NPs) by employing flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) technique. Melatonin-loaded PCL nanoparticles were successfully prepared with precise control of the particle size by effectively tuning process parameters. The effect of process parameters on the particle size was assessed by dynamic light scattering for producing particles with suitable size for transdermal applications...
December 24, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Kumpol Aiempanakit, Surarit Naorungroj, Kanokphorn Chiratikarnwong, Sauvarat Auepemkiate, Benjawan Apinantriyo
Background: Febrile neutropenia (FNP) is a condition defined by fever and neutropenia. There are current only limited data on related cutaneous manifestations. This study aimed to assess cutaneous lesions and their etiologies in a Thai group of FNP patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 43 non-transplant febrile neutropenic patients with concurrent cutaneous lesions, as determined by dermatopathologic studies at Songklanagarind Hospital in Thailand over a five-year period. Results: The mean age was 39 years (SD: 18...
December 29, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Andrew N Fleischman, Richard H Rothman, Javad Parvizi
BACKGROUND: Femoral nerve palsy (FNP) is a relatively uncommon complication following total hip arthroplasty (THA). There is little recent literature regarding the incidence of FNP and the natural course of recovery. METHODS: Using our institutional database, we identified postoperative FNPs from 17,350 consecutive primary THAs performed from 2011 to 2016. Hip exposures were performed using a direct lateral (modified Hardinge), direct anterior (Smith-Peterson), anterolateral (Watson-Jones), or posterolateral (Southern or Moore) approach...
April 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Barbara Porsio, Emanuela Fabiola Craparo, Nicolò Mauro, Gaetano Giammona, Gennara Cavallaro
Here, mucus-penetrating nanoparticles (NPs) for pulmonary administration of ivacaftor in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) were produced with the dual aim of enhancing ivacaftor delivery to the airway epithelial cells, by rapid diffusion through the mucus barrier, and at the same time, promoting ivacaftor lung cellular uptake. Pegylated and Tat-decorated fluorescent nanoparticles (FNPs) were produced by nanoprecipitation, starting from two synthetic copolymers, and showed nanometric sizes (∼70 nm), a slightly negative ζ potential, and high cytocompatibility toward human bronchial epithelium cells...
January 10, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xiaojing Pei, Haoyan Yin, Tiancheng Lai, Junlong Zhang, Feng Liu, Xiao Xu, Na Li
The sensitive multiplexed detection of nucleic acids in a single sample by a simple manner is of pivotal importance for the diagnosis and therapy of human diseases. Herein, we constructed an automatic fluorescent nanoparticle (FNP) counting platform with a common fluorescence microscopic imaging setup for nonamplification multiplexed detection of attomoles of nucleic acids. Taking the advantages of the highly bright, multicolor emitting FNPs and magnetic separation, the platform enables sensitive multiplexed detection without the need for extra fluorescent labels...
January 16, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
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