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Extreme low birth weight

Benjamin Anathory Kamala, Andrew Hans Mgaya, Matilda Michael Ngarina, Hussein Lesio Kidanto
Introduction: The global prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) is 16%, representing more than 20 million infants worldwide, of which 96% are born in low-income countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, predictors and perinatal outcomes of LBW newborns. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of data obtained from the hospital's obstetric and neonatal database. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were performed with 95% confidence intervals (CI)...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Amir Kugelman, Liron Borenstein-Levin, Huda Jubran, Gil Dinur, Shlomit Ben-David, Elena Segal, Julie Haddad, Fanny Timstut, Iris Stein, Imad R Makhoul, Ori Hochwald
Iatrogenesis is more common in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) because the infants are vulnerable and exposed to prolonged intensive care. Sixty percent of extremely low-birth-weight infants are exposed to iatrogenesis. The risk factors for iatrogenesis in NICUs include prematurity, mechanical or non-invasive ventilation, central lines, and prolonged length of stay. This led to the notion that "less is more." In the delivery room delayed cord clamping is recommended for term and preterm infants, and suction for the airways in newborns with meconium-stained fluid is not performed anymore...
July 30, 2018: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
Momodou L Jammeh, Obinna O Adibe, Elisabeth T Tracy, Henry E Rice, Reese H Clark, P Brian Smith, Rachel G Greenberg
BACKGROUND: As advances in neonatal intensive care increase the survival of extremely premature infants, the at-risk population for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) continues to rise. Although racial health disparities in preterm births have been well documented, large-scale studies exploring racial differences in NEC outcomes are lacking. Here, we conduct a study of racial health disparities in NEC using a nationally representative multicenter cohort. STUDY DESIGN: Infants ≤1500 g birth weight and ≤30 weeks gestational age admitted in the first week after birth to neonatal intensive care units in the Pediatrix Medical group from 1997 to 2015 were included...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Huayan Zhang, Kevin Dysart, Douglas E Kendrick, Lei Li, Abhik Das, Susan R Hintz, Betty R Vohr, Barbara J Stoll, Rosemary D Higgins, Leif Nelin, David P Carlton, Michele C Walsh, Haresh Kirpalani
OBJECTIVES: This study tested the hypothesis that longer duration of any type of respiratory support is associated with an increased rate of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 18-22 months. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using the Generic Database of NICHD Neonatal Research Network from 2006 to 2010. Infants were born at <27 weeks gestational age with birth weights of 401-1000 g. Respiratory support received during initial hospitalization from birth was characterized as follows: no support, only invasive support, only non-invasive support or mixed invasive, and non-invasive support...
July 30, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Floris Levy-Khademi, Assaf Perry, Gil Klinger, Tina Herscovici, Yair Kasirer, Ruben Bromiker
OBJECTIVE:  Normal initial blood glucose values in healthy newborns are not well defined and are subject to controversy. Despite substantive research, there is no single initial value of glucose that can be used with certainty of safety in newborns, and thus various protocols and cutoffs have been proposed. STUDY DESIGN:  We sought to characterize the normal values of blood glucose levels in a large cohort of neonates admitted to the well-baby nursery in Shaare Zedek Medical Center...
July 30, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Hatice Tatar Aksoy, Nilüfer Güzoğlu, Zeynep Eras, İsmail Kürşad Gökçe, Fuat Emre Canpolat, Nurdan Uraş, S Suna Oğuz
BACKGROUND: To compare outcomes of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants having different weight losses in the first 3 days of life. METHODS: One hundred and twenty six ELBW infants were evaluated retrospectively for weight loss percentages on the third day of life compared to their birth weight. We examined the weight loss on the third day of life compared to the birth weight for the ELBW infants and tested its association with mortality and morbidities. The mortality was subgrouped as overall mortality and mortality in the first 7 days of life...
June 13, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Qianqian Zhang, Hao Chen, Yi Wang, Chen Zhang, Zhen Tang, Hong Li, Xiaoyi Huang, Fengxiu Ouyang, Hefeng Huang, Zhiwei Liu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is a worldwide epidemic. This study aimed to identify whether vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy is associated with placental inflammation in high-risk pregnancy. METHODS: This study comprised 23,396 women who provided serum samples in the first trimester for vitamin D analysis from January 2015 to December 2016. Among them, 2648 women with high-risk pregnancy underwent placental pathologic examination...
July 9, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Josephine V Seale, Richard A Hutchinson, Paul F Fleming, Ajay Sinha, Stephen T Kempley, Shahid M Husain, Michael R Millar
BACKGROUND: Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is a significant cause of infant morbidity and mortality, disproportionately affecting those of extreme prematurity and/or very low birth weight. A number of risk factors have been identified, including an association between the use of antibiotics, and the subsequent development of NEC. AIM: This review sought to address whether the choice of antibiotic(s) used to treat infants with suspected late-onset sepsis (LOS) influences the risk of developing NEC...
July 2, 2018: Early Human Development
Eugene Yu-Chuan Kang, Reyin Lien, Nan-Kai Wang, Chi-Chun Lai, Kuan-Jen Chen, Yih-Shiou Hwang, Ciao-Ming Lin, Wei-Chi Wu, Kuang-Hung Hsu
Purpose: To investigate the 10-year epidemiology and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in Taiwan using the National Health Insurance Research Database. Methods: All premature infants (n = 34,192) from 2002 to 2011 were screened, and those with length of stay (LOS) longer than 28 days who survived after the initial discharge were enrolled (n = 11,180). The annual incidence of ROP and the risk factors associated with it were analyzed. Results: A total of 4096 ROP infants, 36...
July 2, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Qian-Qian Li, Qian Liu, Jun-Mei Yan, Xian Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the growth and development of very low birth weight (VLBW)/extremely low birth weight (ELBW) preterm infants within the corrected age of 6 months and the effect of different feeding patterns on growth and development. METHODS: A total of 109 VLBW/ELBW preterm infants who were discharged from January 2016 to April 2017 and who had completed regular follow-up were enrolled, and their growth and development within the corrected age of 6 months were monitored...
July 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Timothy O Ihongbe, Jordyn T Wallenborn, Sylvia Rozario, Saba W Masho
PURPOSE: Short interpregnancy interval (IPI) has been linked with adverse birth outcomes. However, the association in advanced age women needs further investigation. This study aims to examine the association between short IPI and adverse birth outcomes including preterm birth, post-term birth, low birth weight, and macrosomia, in a population of advanced age U.S. women. METHODS: The 2016 U.S. public-use natality data was analyzed. Analysis was restricted to women with second-order singleton live births who were ≥35 years at first live birth (n = 46,684)...
June 22, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
John E Krzeczkowski, Louis A Schmidt, Calan Savoy, Saroj Saigal, Ryan J Van Lieshout
OBJECTIVE: Extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g) survivors are exposed to significant perinatal adversity. In many cases, mothers of these infants receive antenatal corticosteroids (ACS), which reduce offspring neonatal mortality but may have lasting neuropsychiatric effects. However, the long-term neurophysiological effects of being born at ELBW and exposed to ACS are unknown. METHODS: We compared resting frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha asymmetry in ELBW survivors (n = 51), some of whom were exposed to antenatal corticosteroids (ELBW-S; n = 23) versus non-exposed (ELBW-NS; n = 28), and normal birth weight controls (NBW; n = 66) in adulthood (mage  = 32...
September 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Erik Wejryd, Giovanna Marchini, Veronica Frimmel, Baldvin Jonsson, Thomas Abrahamsson
AIM: This study evaluated if oral supplementation with the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 improved enteral feeding tolerance and growth rates in extremely low birth weight infants. METHOD: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comprising 134 extremely low birth weight (<1,000g) infants born before gestational week 28+0. Daily supplementation of L. reuteri (1.25 x 108 bacteria/day) or placebo started within 3 days and continued until gestational week 36+0...
July 12, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Vidit Bhargava, Daniel Tawfik, Bruce Niebuhr, Sunil K Jain
BACKGROUND: Measurement of transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) is a quick, reliable and painless method to guide management of hyperbilirubinemia. Studies in term and late preterm infants have found that TcB measurements from covered areas (TcB-C) during phototherapy (PHT) co-relate well with serum bilirubin levels. Limited data exists in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, an opaque patch was placed on the back of an ELBW infant prior to initiation of PHT...
July 10, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Bassareo Pp, Namana V, Puddu M, Marras S, Fanos V, Mercuro G
Introduction: Recent published data demonstrated how subjects born preterm are at higher risk of developing early atrial fibrillation (AF). Materials and Methods: The surface ECG of twenty-four adults, former preterm infants born with an extremely low birth weight (ex-ELBW; mean age at study: 23.2±3.3 years; mean gestational age: 27.8±2.3 weeks; mean birth weight: 840±120.1 grams), were compared with those of 24 healthy counterparts born at term (C). A few parameters known to be capable of predicting a predisposition to develop AF were examined: P wave duration and dispersion, P terminal force, isoelectric interval length, PR interval length, and advanced interatrial blocks...
April 2018: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
Hui-Ju Tsai, Guoying Wang, Xiumei Hong, Tsung-Chieh Yao, Yuelong Ji, Sally Radovick, Hongkai Ji, Tina L Cheng, Xiaobin Wang
RATIONALE: The prevalence of childhood asthma has been rising worldwide in parallel with childhood obesity. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether there is a temporal relationship between early-life weight gain (reflecting growth velocity) and early-life BMI attained status (reflecting accumulative weight) with future risk of asthma in the Boston Birth Cohort (BBC). METHODS: This report includes 1,928 children from the BBC with a mean age of 7...
July 6, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Leona Pascoe, Deanne Thompson, Megan Spencer-Smith, Richard Beare, Chris Adamson, Katherine J Lee, Claire Kelly, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Chiara Nosarti, Elisha Josev, Gehan Roberts, Lex W Doyle, Marc L Seal, Peter J Anderson
Intrinsic motivation is essential for academic success and cognitive growth, but limited work has examined the neuroanatomical underpinnings of intrinsic motivation from a network perspective, particularly in early childhood. Using graph theoretical analysis, this study investigated global and local properties of structural connectivity networks in relation to intrinsic motivation within a vulnerable group of children at early school age. Fifty-three 7 year-old children born extremely preterm (<28 weeks' gestational age)/extremely low birth weight (<1000 g) underwent T1 and diffusion weighted imaging...
June 30, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Catherine Gire, Noémie Resseguier, Véronique Brévaut-Malaty, Stéphane Marret, Gilles Cambonie, Isabelle Souksi-Medioni, Jean-Baptiste Müller, Patricia Garcia, Julie Berbis, Barthélémy Tosello, Pascal Auquier
OBJECTIVE: To determine the quality of life (QoL) of school-aged children who were born <28+0 weeks of gestation and who have no resultant major disabilities. DESIGN, SETTING AND PATIENTS: A cross-sectional multicentre study of extremely preterm (EPT) infants born <28+0 weeks, discharged alive and free from severe impairments (cerebral palsy, autism, major cognitive disabilities). Two generic, self-evaluation and hetero-evaluation (by parent) QoL measurement questionnaires (Kidscreen 10/VSP-A) were used and then compared with French population reference...
June 30, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Arata Oda, Yoshiya Kamei, Takehiko Hiroma, Tomohiko Nakamura
BACKGROUND: Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is expected to improve respiratory outcomes in preterm infants; however, it has not yet been evaluated. We investigated whether NAVA could improve respiratory outcomes and reduce sedation use in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted based on patient charts at Nagano Children's Hospital NICU, Japan. Infants who were born at less than 27-weeks gestation were included...
June 26, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Allard E van Ark, Mirella C Molenschot, Maria H Wesseling, Willem B de Vries, Jan L M Strengers, Arthur Adams, Johannes M P J Breur
BACKGROUND: With the increasing incidence of births of very preterm very-low-birth-weight infants, there is a demand for echocardiographic reference values of cardiac dimensions. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to provide reference values of cardiac valve annulus diameters in a cohort of extremely preterm very-low-birth-weight neonates and to correlate these with patient characteristics. METHODS: Valve diameters of 376 infants of < 32 weeks' gestation and with a birth weight of ≤2,000 g were measured using 2-dimensional echocardiography...
June 25, 2018: Neonatology
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