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Wheat yield

Gemma Molero, Ryan Joynson, Francisco J Pinera-Chavez, Laura-Jayne Gardiner, Carolina Rivera-Amado, Anthony Hall, Matthew P Reynolds
One of the major challenges for plant scientists is increasing wheat (Triticum aestivum) yield potential (YP). A significant bottleneck for increasing YP is achieving increased biomass through optimization of Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE) along the crop cycle. Exotic material such as landraces and synthetic wheat has been incorporated into breeding programs in an attempt to alleviate this, however their contribution to YP is still unclear. To understand the genetic basis of biomass accumulation and RUE we applied genome-wide association study (GWAS) to a panel of 150 elite spring wheat genotypes including many landrace and synthetically derived lines...
December 13, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Senthold Asseng, Pierre Martre, Andrea Maiorano, Reimund P Rötter, Garry J O'Leary, Glenn J Fitzgerald, Christine Girousse, Rosella Motzo, Francesco Giunta, M Ali Babar, Matthew P Reynolds, Ahmed M S Kheir, Peter J Thorburn, Katharina Waha, Alex C Ruane, Pramod K Aggarwal, Mukhtar Ahmed, Juraj Balkovič, Bruno Basso, Christian Biernath, Marco Bindi, Davide Cammarano, Andrew J Challinor, Giacomo De Sanctis, Benjamin Dumont, Ehsan Eyshi Rezaei, Elias Fereres, Roberto Ferrise, Margarita Garcia-Vila, Sebastian Gayler, Yujing Gao, Heidi Horan, Gerrit Hoogenboom, R César Izaurralde, Mohamed Jabloun, Curtis D Jones, Belay T Kassie, Kurt-Christian Kersebaum, Christian Klein, Ann-Kristin Koehler, Bing Liu, Sara Minoli, Manuel Montesino San Martin, Christoph Müller, Soora Naresh Kumar, Claas Nendel, Jørgen Eivind Olesen, Taru Palosuo, John R Porter, Eckart Priesack, Dominique Ripoche, Mikhail A Semenov, Claudio Stöckle, Pierre Stratonovitch, Thilo Streck, Iwan Supit, Fulu Tao, Marijn Van der Velde, Daniel Wallach, Enli Wang, Heidi Webber, Joost Wolf, Liujun Xiao, Zhao Zhang, Zhigan Zhao, Yan Zhu, Frank Ewert
Wheat grain protein concentration is an important determinant of wheat quality for human nutrition that is often overlooked in efforts to improve crop production. We tested and applied a 32-multi-model ensemble to simulate global wheat yield and quality in a changing climate. Potential benefits of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration by 2050 on global wheat grain and protein yield are likely to be negated by impacts from rising temperature and changes in rainfall, but with considerable disparities between regions...
January 2019: Global Change Biology
Xinbo Wang, Yanhua Xu, Jingjing Li, Yongzhe Ren, Zhiqiang Wang, Zeyu Xin, Tongbao Lin
Drought is a major adversity that limits crop yields. Further exploration of wheat drought tolerance-related genes is critical for the genetic improvement of drought tolerance in this crop. Here, comparative proteomic analysis of two wheat varieties, XN979 and LA379, with contrasting drought tolerance was conducted to screen for drought tolerance-related proteins/genes. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology was used to verify the functions of candidate proteins. A total of 335 differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) were exclusively identified in the drought-tolerant variety XN979...
December 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chengcheng Tan, Genqiao Li, Christina Cowger, Brett F Carver, Xiangyang Xu
A new powdery mildew resistance gene conferring a wide spectrum of resistance to Bgt isolates in the USA, Pm63 , was identified in Iranian wheat landrace PI 628024 and mapped to the terminal region of the long arm of chromosome 2B. Powdery mildew is a globally important wheat disease causing severe yield losses, and host resistance is the preferred strategy for managing this disease. The objective of this study was to characterize a powdery mildew resistance gene in Iranian landrace PI 628024, which exhibited a wide spectrum of resistance to representative Blumeria graminis f...
December 12, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Rudy Dolferus, Saravanan Thavamanikumar, Harriet Sangma, Sue Kleven, Xiaomei Wallace, Kerrie Forrest, Gregory Rebetzke, Matthew Hayden, Lauren Borg, Alison Smith, Brian Cullis
Water stress during reproductive growth is a major yield constraint for wheat ( Triticum aestivum L). We previously established a controlled environment drought tolerance phenotyping method targeting the young microspore stage of pollen development. This method eliminates stress avoidance based on flowering time. We substituted soil drought treatments by a reproducible osmotic stress treatment using hydroponics and NaCl as osmolyte. Salt exclusion in hexaploid wheat avoids salt toxicity, causing osmotic stress...
December 12, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Xiong Deng, Shoumin Zhen, Dongmiao Liu, Yue Liu, Mengfei Li, Nannan Liu, Yueming Yan
Integrated proteome analyses revealed differentially accumulated proteins in the non-leaf green organs in wheat glume and awn that play important roles in photosynthesis and drought resistance. Two non-leaf green organs in wheat, glume and awn, have photosynthetic potential, contribute to grain yield, and also play roles in resistance to adverse conditions. We performed the first integrated proteome analysis of wheat glume and awn in response to water deficit. Water deficit caused a significant decrease in important agronomic traits and grain yield...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Bing Liu, Pierre Martre, Frank Ewert, John R Porter, Andy J Challinor, Christoph Müller, Alex C Ruane, Katharina Waha, Peter J Thorburn, Pramod K Aggarwal, Mukhtar Ahmed, Juraj Balkovič, Bruno Basso, Christian Biernath, Marco Bindi, Davide Cammarano, Giacomo De Sanctis, Benjamin Dumont, Mónica Espadafor, Ehsan Eyshi Rezaei, Roberto Ferrise, Margarita Garcia-Vila, Sebastian Gayler, Yujing Gao, Heidi Horan, Gerrit Hoogenboom, Roberto C Izaurralde, Curtis D Jones, Belay T Kassie, Kurt C Kersebaum, Christian Klein, Ann-Kristin Koehler, Andrea Maiorano, Sara Minoli, Manuel Montesino San Martin, Soora Naresh Kumar, Claas Nendel, Garry J O'Leary, Taru Palosuo, Eckart Priesack, Dominique Ripoche, Reimund P Rötter, Mikhail A Semenov, Claudio Stöckle, Thilo Streck, Iwan Supit, Fulu Tao, Marjin Van der Velde, Daniel Wallach, Enli Wang, Heidi Webber, Joost Wolf, Liujun Xiao, Zhao Zhang, Zhigan Zhao, Yan Zhu, Senthold Asseng
Efforts to limit global warming to below 2°C in relation to the pre-industrial level are under way, in accordance with the 2015 Paris Agreement. However, most impact research on agriculture to date has focused on impacts of warming >2°C on mean crop yields, and many previous studies did not focus sufficiently on extreme events and yield interannual variability. Here, with the latest climate scenarios from the Half a degree Additional warming, Prognosis and Projected Impacts (HAPPI) project, we evaluated the impacts of the 2015 Paris Agreement range of global warming (1...
December 7, 2018: Global Change Biology
Libo Jiang, Lidan Sun, Meixia Ye, Jing Wang, Yaqun Wang, Matthieu Bogard, Xavier Lacaze, Antoine Fournier, Katia Beauchêne, David Gouache, Rongling Wu
As overfertilization leads to environmental concerns and the cost of N-fertilizer increases, the issue of how to select crop cultivars that can produce high yield on N-deficient lands has become crucially important. However, little is known about the genetic mechanisms by which crops respond to environmental changes induced by N signaling. Here, we dissected the genetic architecture of N-induced phenotypic plasticity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by integrating functional mapping and semi-automatic high-throughput phenotyping data of yield-related canopy architecture...
December 7, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Fei Luo, Xiong Deng, Yue Liu, Yueming Yan
BACKGROUND: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) serves as important grain crop widely cultivated in the world, which is often suffered by drought stress in natural conditions. As one of the most important post translation modifications, protein phosphorylation widely participates in plant abiotic stress regulation. In this study, we performed the first comparative analysis of phosphorylated protein characterization in flag leaves and developing grains of elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar Zhongmai 175 under water deficit by combining with proteomic approach and Pro-Q Diamond gel staining...
December 8, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Teresa Hernandez, Carmen Chocano, Maria Dolores Coll, Carlos Garcia
The use of treated organic products as fertilizers and soil amendments not only results in economic benefits for the small-scale farmer, but it also reduces pollution due to reduced nutrient run-off and N leaching. In this work, the feasibility of using composts as fertilizers and soil improvers has been evaluated at the field level, in barley and soft wheat crops (two successive cultivations of each crop). The applied treatments consisted of two commercial composts (compost manure and sewage sludge compost) added to the soil either alone (T1 and T3) or in combination with inorganic fertilizers (T2 and T4) and a conventional mineral fertilization (T5)...
December 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xinshan Zang, Xiaoli Geng, Kexiang He, Fei Wang, Xuejun Tian, Mingming Xin, Yingyin Yao, Zhaorong Hu, Zhongfu Ni, Qixin Sun, Huiru Peng
Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) yield and quality are adversely affected by heat, drought, or the combination of these two stresses in many regions of the world. A phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase-related kinase gene, TaPEPKR2 , was identified from our previous heat stress-responsive transcriptome analysis of heat susceptible and tolerant wheat cultivars. Based on the wheat cultivar Chinese Spring genome sequence, TaPEPKR2 was mapped to chromosome 5B. Expression analysis revealed that TaPEPKR2 was induced by heat and polyethylene glycol treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Paola Tosi, Jibin He, Alison Lovegrove, Irene Gonzáles-Thuillier, Simon Penson, Peter R Shewry
Background: Wheat is the major food grain consumed in temperate countries. Most wheat is consumed after milling to produce white flour, which corresponds to the endosperm storage tissue of the grain. Because the starchy endosperm accounts for about 80% of the grain dry weight, the miller aims to achieve flour yields approaching this value. Scope and approach: Bioimaging can be combined with biochemical analysis of fractions produced by sequential pearling of whole grains to determine the distributions of components within the endosperm tissue...
December 2018: Trends in Food Science & Technology
Irina V Novikova, Noopur Sharma, Trevor Moser, Ryan Sontag, Yan Liu, Michael J Collazo, Duilio Cascio, Tolou Shokuhfar, Hanjo Hellmann, Michael Knoblauch, James E Evans
One of the biggest bottlenecks for structural analysis of proteins remains the creation of high-yield and high-purity samples of the target protein. Cell-free protein synthesis technologies are powerful and customizable platforms for obtaining functional proteins of interest in short timeframes, while avoiding potential toxicity issues and permitting high-throughput screening. These methods have benefited many areas of genomic and proteomics research, therapeutics, vaccine development and protein chip constructions...
2018: Advanced Structural and Chemical Imaging
Smi Ullah, Helen Bramley, Hans Daetwyler, Sang He, Tariq Mahmood, Rebecca Thistlethwaite, Richard Trethowan
Rising global temperatures cause substantial yield losses in many wheat growing environments. Emmer wheat ( Triticum dicoccon Schrank), one of the first wheat species domesticated, carries significant variation for tolerance to abiotic stresses. This study identified new genetic variability for high-temperature tolerance in hexaploid progeny derived from crosses with emmer wheat. Eight hexaploid and 11 tetraploid parents were recombined in 43 backcross combinations using the hexaploid as the recurrent parent...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Paul W Baker, Adam Charlton, Mike D C Hale
The application of solid state fermentation offers an alternative to conventional, submerged approaches for a variety of bioconversion processes, including animal feeds, biofuels and fungal bioproducts. Optimising solid state fermentation under low moisture conditions could significantly impact the proportion of dry biomass that could be processed and improve the commercial viability of this approach, because of reduced input costs and higher yields of final products. Pleurotus erygnii that appeared to show tolerance to low moisture conditions was grown on saturated and desaturated wheat straw...
December 5, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Ashwini Shevade, Yvonne O'Callaghan, Deirdre Kennedy, Nora O'Brien, Tom O'Connor, Timothy P Guinee
BACKGROUND: Dairy and cereal are frequently combined to create composites with enhanced nutritional benefits. Commercially-available dried dairy-cereal composites are typically reconstituted and cooked to produce porridge or soup. RESULTS: Dried fermented milk-cereal composites (FMCC) with ~ 193 g kg-1 protein were prepared by blending fermented milk with parboiled oats (FMCCo), wheat (FMCCw) or barley (FMCCb), incubating the blend, drying and milling. Cereal type significantly affected the composition of the FMCC and the properties of the reconstituted, cooked FMCC (R-FMCC)...
December 5, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Mitchell Jones, Tanmay Bhat, Everson Kandare, Ananya Thomas, Paul Joseph, Chaitali Dekiwadia, Richard Yuen, Sabu John, Jun Ma, Chun-Hui Wang
Mycelium and mycelium-biomass composites are emerging as new sustainable materials with useful flame-retardant potentials. Here we report a detailed characterisation of the thermal degradation and fire properties of fungal mycelium and mycelium-biomass composites. Measurements and analyses are carried out on key parameters such as decomposition temperatures, residual char, and gases evolved during pyrolysis. Pyrolysis flow combustion calorimetry (PCFC) evaluations reveal that the corresponding combustion propensity of mycelium is significantly lower compared to poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polylactic acid (PLA), indicating that they are noticeably less prone to ignition and flaming combustion, and therefore safer to use...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Taylor Beard, Tai Maaz, Kristy Borrelli, James Harsh, William Pan
Raindrop-induced crusting of mineral soils supporting wheat ( L.) in the semiarid US Pacific Northwest reduces seedling establishment of late summer-seeded winter crops during dry, hot conditions. Canola ( L.) integration is diversifying regional food, feed and fuel global markets. Subsequent shifts in recycled crop residue characteristics, including Si and crop fiber, may shift soil characteristics of traditional wheat-dominated systems, potentially affecting their propensity to form soil crusts. In a greenhouse study, wheat and canola were fertilized with varying N rates...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
A J Ashworth, F L Allen, J M DeBruyn, P R Owens, C Sams
Dynamic soil chemical interactions with conservation agricultural practices and soil biota are largely unknown. Therefore, this study aims to quantify long-term (12-yr) impacts of cover crops, poultry litter, crop rotations, no-tillage, and their interactions on dynamic soil properties and to determine their relationships with nutrient cycling, crop yield, and soil biodiversity (soil microbial and earthworm communities). Main effects were 13 different cropping sequences of soybean [ (L.) Merr.], corn ( L.), and cotton ( L...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Paulo Fernandes Boldrin, Valdemar Faquin, Aline da Consolação Sampaio Clemente, Thais de Andrade, Luiz Roberto Guimarães Guilherme
Selenium is essential to human and animal health, as it regulates glutathione peroxidase activity. Although not considered essential to plants, it may be beneficial to plant growth and development at low concentrations. This study evaluated the effect of selenate application on Se biofortification, macro- and micronutrient content, and the expression of genes involved in Se uptake and assimilation in 12 Brazilian wheat ( L.) cultivars. This nutrient-solution experiment was performed in a greenhouse and consisted of a complete 12 × 2 factorial randomized design, with 12 wheat cultivars in the absence or presence of Se in solution (13 μmol), with three replicates...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
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