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Wheat yield

Jiajun Liu, Wei Luo, Nana Qin, Puyang Ding, Han Zhang, Congcong Yang, Yang Mu, Huaping Tang, Yaxi Liu, Wei Li, Qiantao Jiang, Guoyue Chen, Yuming Wei, Youliang Zheng, Chunji Liu, Xiujin Lan, Jian Ma
A high-density genetic map constructed with a wheat 55 K SNP array was highly consistent with the physical map of this species and it facilitated the identification of a novel major QTL for productive tiller number. Productive tiller number (PTN) plays a key role in wheat grain yield. In this study, a recombinant inbred line population with 199 lines derived from a cross between '20828' and 'Chuannong16' was used to construct a high-density genetic map using wheat 55 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array...
August 14, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Stephen Jones, Arifa Farooqi, John Foulkes, Debbie L Sparkes, Robert Linforth, Rumiana V Ray
Doubled haploid and elite wheat genotypes were ground inoculated in three field experiments and head spray inoculated in two glasshouse experiments, using mixed Fusarium and Microdochium species, to identify crop canopy and ear traits associated with Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease. In all experiments, flag leaf length and tiller number were consistently identified as the most significant canopy traits contributing to progression of FHB caused by Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum , and F. avenaceum . The influence of ear traits was greater for F...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yan Liu, Liqun Li, Li Zhang, Qian Lv, Yi Zhao, Xuejun Li
Drought stress is a major factor that limits the yield and quality in wheat. In this study, we identified an orthologue of the rice gene OsDIS1 (Oryza sativa drought-induced SINA protein 1) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) called TaDIS1. TaDIS1 encodes a putative 301 amino acid protein with a C3HC4 RING finger conserved domain at the N-terminal and a SINA domain at the C-terminal. TaDIS1 contains three exons and two introns. qRT-PCR analysis showed that TaDIS1 expression was induced by PEG6000, NaCl, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment...
October 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Awais Shakoor, Yunlian Xu, Qiang Wang, Ningyi Chen, Fei He, Huaifeng Zuo, Hanxun Yin, Xiaoyuan Yan, Youhua Ma, Shuyun Yang
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) with agricultural soils representing its largest anthropogenic source. However, the mechanisms involved in the N2O emission and factors affecting N2O emission fluxes in response to various nitrogenous fertilizer applications remain uncertain. We conducted a four-year (2012-2015) field experiment to assess how fertilization scheme impacts N2O emissions from a rice-wheat cropping system in eastern China. The fertilizer treatments included Control (CK), Conventional fertilizer (CF), CF with shallow-irrigation (CF+SI), CF with deep-irrigation system (CF+DI), Optimized fertilizer (OF), OF with Urease inhibitor (OF+UI), OF with conservation tillage (OF+CT) and Slow-release fertilizer (SRF)...
2018: PloS One
Anna Skoracka, Brian G Rector, Gary L Hein
Wheat production and sustainability are steadily threatened by pests and pathogens in both wealthy and developing countries. This review is focused on the wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella , and its relationship with wheat. WCM is a major pest of wheat and other cereals and a vector of at least four damaging plant viruses ( Wheat streak mosaic virus , High plains wheat mosaic virus , Brome streak mosaic virus , and Triticum mosaic virus ). The WCM-virus pathosystem causes considerable yield losses worldwide and its severity increases significantly when mixed-virus infections occur...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Shingo Nakamura
Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) remains a long-standing problem for the production of barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) and wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) worldwide. Grain dormancy, a key trait for the prevention of PHS, controls the timing of germination. Discovery of the causal sequence polymorphisms (CSPs) that produce naturally occurring variation in dormancy will help improve PHS tolerance. The identification of CSPs for dormancy remains difficult, especially for barley and wheat, because they are the last major cereals to have their genomes sequenced...
June 2018: Breeding Science
Hugo M Oliveira, Alice Q Pinheiro, António J M Fonseca, Ana R J Cabrita, Margarida R G Maia
The present report studied the role of ultrasound (US) energy in the amyloglucosidase-based starch hydrolysis using two complementary approaches: (i) in the activity of six commercially-available amyloglucosidases (using soluble starch as substrate), and (ii) in the hydrolysis of four pure starches from different botanical sources. This corresponds to the first systematic evaluation of the role of US in starch hydrolysis mediated by amyloglucosidase, being a consequence of our previous report that assessed the effect of US in the activity of alpha-amylase (LWT - Food Science and Technology 84 (2017) 674-685)...
July 29, 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Bo Zhang, Ruihuan Li, Junchao Yan
Plasma technology is applied in various fields, which involves in stimulating the germinability and amelioration of crop seeds, increasing crop production and displaying high quality, stress tolerance and other beneficial traits. Crucial techniques of plasma treating seeds (PTS) are introduced and the technical applications of activating seeds with key parameters of plasma discharge equipment are discussed. With a lot of laboratory researches and field tests, the biological effects of non-thermal PTS are analyzed...
August 8, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Leonidas Rempelos, Abujawad Mohammed Almuayrifi, Marcin Baranski, Catherine Tetard-Jones, Mick Eyre, Peter Shotton, Ismail Cakmak, Levent Ozturk, Julia Mary Cooper, Nikolaos Volakakis, Christoph Schmidt, Enas Sufar, Juan Wang, Andrew Wilkinson, Eduardo A S Rosa, Benjamin Zhao, Terry J Rose, Carlo Leifert, Paul Bilsborrow
Agricultural intensification over the last 40 years has increased cereal yields, but there is very limited information on the effects of intensification practices (e.g. non-diverse rotations, mineral NPK fertiliser and pesticides) on crop health and quality. Results from the study reported here suggest that the use of mineral NPK fertilisers reduces phenolic acid and flavonoid concentrations in leaves, and increases the susceptibility of wheat to lodging and powdery mildew, when compared to composted FYM inputs...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Beata Myśków, Magdalena Góralska, Natalia Lenarczyk, Ilona Czyczyło-Mysza, Stefan Stojałowski
BACKGROUND: Rolling of leaves (RL) is a phenomenon commonly found in grasses. Morphology of the leaf is an important agronomic trait in field crops especially in rice; therefore, majority of the rice breeders are interested in RL. There are only few studies with respect to RL of wheat and barley; however, the information regarding the genetic base of RL with respect to the shape of leaf in rye is lacking. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the localization of loci controlling RL on high density consensus genetic map of rye...
August 9, 2018: BMC Genetics
Jonathan Proctor, Solomon Hsiang, Jennifer Burney, Marshall Burke, Wolfram Schlenker
Solar radiation management is increasingly considered to be an option for managing global temperatures1,2 , yet the economic effects of ameliorating climatic changes by scattering sunlight back to space remain largely unknown3 . Although solar radiation management may increase crop yields by reducing heat stress4 , the effects of concomitant changes in available sunlight have never been empirically estimated. Here we use the volcanic eruptions that inspired modern solar radiation management proposals as natural experiments to provide the first estimates, to our knowledge, of how the stratospheric sulfate aerosols created by the eruptions of El Chichón and Mount Pinatubo altered the quantity and quality of global sunlight, and how these changes in sunlight affected global crop yields...
August 8, 2018: Nature
Gina Mills, Katrina Sharps, David Simpson, Håkan Pleijel, Michael Frei, Kent Burkey, Lisa Emberson, Johan Uddling, Malin Broberg, Zhaozhong Feng, Kazuhiko Kobayashi, Madhoolika Agrawal
Increasing both crop productivity and the tolerance of crops to abiotic and biotic stresses is a major challenge for global food security in our rapidly changing climate. For the first time, we show how the spatial variation and severity of tropospheric ozone effects on yield compare with effects of other stresses on a global scale, and discuss mitigating actions against the negative effects of ozone. We show that the sensitivity to ozone declines in the order soybean > wheat > maize > rice, with genotypic variation in response being most pronounced for soybean and rice...
August 7, 2018: Global Change Biology
Jakob Bönnighausen, Nicolas Schauer, Wilhelm Schäfer, Jörg Bormann
Fusarium graminearum is a filamentous ascomycete and the causal agent of Fusarium head blight on wheat that threatens food and feed production worldwide as infection reduces crop yield both quantitatively by interfering with kernel development and qualitatively by poisoning any remaining kernels with mycotoxins. In wheat, F. graminearum infects spikelets and colonizes the entire head by growing through the rachis node at the bottom of each spikelet. Without the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), the pathogen cannot penetrate the rachis node and wheat is able to resist colonization...
August 7, 2018: New Phytologist
Tong Liu, Li Sun, Åke Nordberg, Anna Schnürer
This study investigated whether biogas reactor performance, including microbial community development, in response to a change in substrate composition is influenced by initial inoculum source. For the study, reactors previously operated with the same grass⁻manure mixture for more than 120 days and started with two different inocula were used. These reactors initially showed great differences depending on inoculum source, but eventually showed similar performance and overall microbial community structure...
August 5, 2018: Microorganisms
A S Nehe, S Misra, E H Murchie, K Chinnathambi, M J Foulkes
Nitrogen (N) fertilizer represents a significant cost for the grower and may also have environmental impacts through nitrate leaching and N2 O (a greenhouse gas) emissions associated with denitrification. The objectives of this study were to quantify the genetic variability in N-use efficiency (NUE) in Indian spring wheat cultivars and identify traits for improved NUE for application in breeding. Twenty eight bread wheat cultivars and two durum wheat cultivars were tested in field experiments in two years in Maharashtra, India...
August 1, 2018: Field Crops Research
Gustavo A Slafer, Roxana Savin
Deleterious effects of heat on crop yields are well documented and the occurrence of heat stresses will likely be a major constraint to achieving increased yields of major crops. Thus, agronomic and genetic strategies for increased resilience to high temperatures will be necessary. Much of the work done on this area has been focused to identify genetic sources of increased resilience and much less has been done on the crop ecology side. Nitrogen (N) fertilization is within the most common management practices used in cereal production, however, there have been limited efforts to elucidate to what degree the level of soil fertility may affect the magnitude of the high temperature effect on crop yield...
August 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Mahin Saberi, Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres-Sanavy, Rasoul Zare, Hamid Ghomi
Plasma treatment is recognized as a suitable technology to improve germination efficiency of numerous seeds. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate whether cold air plasma can change the quality and quantity of wheat yield. Effects of cold plasma treatment on wheat (Pishgam variety) yield were studied by a randomized complete block design experiment at the Faculty of Agriculture of Tarbiat Modarres University, Iran, during 2015-17. Seeds were pre-treated with 80 W of cold plasma at four levels of time, 60, 120, 180 and 240 seconds...
August 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sumitha Nallu, Jason A Hill, Kristine Don, Carlos Sahagun, Wei Zhang, Camille Meslin, Emilie Snell-Rood, Nathan L Clark, Nathan I Morehouse, Joy Bergelson, Christopher W Wheat, Marcus R Kronforst
Interactions between herbivorous insects and their host plants are a central component of terrestrial food webs and a critical topic in agriculture, where a substantial fraction of potential crop yield is lost annually to pests. Important insights into plant-insect interactions have come from research on specific plant defences and insect detoxification mechanisms. Yet, much remains unknown about the molecular mechanisms that mediate plant-insect interactions. Here we use multiple genome-wide approaches to map the molecular basis of herbivory from both plant and insect perspectives, focusing on butterflies and their larval host plants...
August 3, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Rhoda A T Brew-Appiah, Zara B York, Vandhana Krishnan, Eric H Roalson, Karen A Sanguinet
A comprehensive understanding of wheat responses to environmental stress will contribute to the long-term goal of feeding the planet. ALERNATIVE OXIDASE (AOX) genes encode proteins involved in a bypass of the electron transport chain and are also known to be involved in stress tolerance in multiple species. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the AOX gene family in diploid and hexaploid wheat. Four genes each were found in the diploid ancestors Triticum urartu, and Aegilops tauschii, and three in Aegilops speltoides...
2018: PloS One
Lida Shahsavani Mojarrad, Ali Rafe
Mixture experiment was applied to optimize the canned cross-linked high-amylose starch yellow alkaline noodle formula. Processing factors of canned yellow alkaline noodle (YAN) cross-linked by MTGase at different levels of Hylon VII were surveyed. The factors were wheat flour, Hylon VII starch (HAS) as a high-amylose starch, and water in the mixture to achieve reduction in cooking loss, water uptake, swelling index, and thickness. Due to the effect of retort processing on YAN, pH, color, and texture were also examined...
July 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
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