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oocyte meiosis

Xin Gao, Yinyi Chen, Mei Chen, Shunlan Wang, Xiaohong Wen, Shufang Zhang
Background: Bladder cancer is a malignant tumor in the urinary system with high mortality and recurrence rates. However, the causes and recurrence mechanism of bladder cancer are not fully understood. In this study, we used integrated bioinformatics to screen for key genes associated with the development of bladder cancer and reveal their potential molecular mechanisms. Methods: The GSE7476, GSE13507, GSE37815 and GSE65635 expression profiles were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, and these datasets contain 304 tissue samples, including 81 normal bladder tissue samples and 223 bladder cancer samples...
2018: PeerJ
Jun-Yu Ma, Li-Ying Yan, Zhen-Bo Wang, Shi-Ming Luo, William S B Yeung, Xiang-Hong Ou, Qing-Yuan Sun, Jie Qiao
BACKGROUND: The human oocyte transmits one set of haploid genome into female pronucleus (FPN) while discards the remaining genome into the first polar body (PB1) and the second polar body (PB2). The FPN genome carries an assembly of maternal and paternal genome that resulted from homologous recombination during the prophase of the first meiosis. However, how parental genome has been shuffled and transmitted is difficult to assess by analysing only the progeny's genome. OBJECTIVE: To assess meiotic chromatid recombination and segregation in human oocytes...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Xiaoyan Li, Min Gao, Yongfu He, Bo Xiong, Honglin Liu, Ling Gu
Intersectins (ITSNs) have been shown to act as adaptor proteins that govern multiple cellular events via regulating Cdc42 activity. However, it remains to be determined whether the ITSN-Cdc42 pathway is functional in porcine oocytes. To address this question, we used a small molecule, ZCL278, to selectively disrupt the ITSN2-Cdc42 interaction. In the present study, we find that porcine oocytes exposed to ZCL278 are unable to completely progress through meiosis. Meanwhile, the spindle defects and chromosomal congression failure are frequently detected in these oocytes...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Zijing Zhang, Yasir Ahmed-Braimah, Michael L Goldberg, Mariana F Wolfner
In almost all animals studied to date, the crucial process of egg activation, by which an arrested mature oocyte transitions into an actively developing embryo, initiates with an increase in Ca2+ in the oocyte's cytoplasm. This Ca2+ rise sets off a series of downstream events, including the completion of meiosis and the dynamic remodeling of the oocyte transcriptome and proteome, which prepares the oocyte for embryogenesis. Calcineurin is a highly conserved phosphatase that is activated by Ca2+ upon egg activation and that is required for the resumption of meiosis in Xenopus, ascidians, and Drosophila...
November 26, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Maria Giorgia Morselli, Monica Loiacono, Martina Colombo, Michele Mortarino, Gaia Cecilia Luvoni
To evaluate the ability of a 3D culture system in improving the nuclear and molecular competence of canine oocytes, barium alginate microcapsules were used for in vitro maturation (IVM) and the expression profile of one selected oocyte-secreted factor, the growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) was analysed. In Experiment I, canine grade I cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were in vitro matured in 3D microcapsules in a controlled atmosphere for 72 hr, and meiosis resumption rates were compared to those of oocytes cultured in traditional 2D microdrops of medium...
November 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Jorge Merlet, Karinna Rubio-Peña, Sara Al Rawi, Vincent Galy
The nematode C. elegans represents a powerful experimental system with key properties and advantages to study the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial DNA maternal inheritance and paternal components sorting. First, the transmission is uniparental and maternal as in many animal species; second, at fertilization sperm cells contain both mitochondria and mtDNA; and third, the worm allows powerful genetics and cell biology approaches to characterize the mechanisms underlying the uniparental and maternal transmission of mtDNA...
November 23, 2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Julia Uraji, Kathleen Scheffler, Melina Schuh
Gametes undergo a specialized and reductional cell division termed meiosis. Female gametes (oocytes) undergo two rounds of meiosis; the first meiotic division produces the fertilizable egg, while the second meiotic division occurs upon fertilization. Both meiotic divisions are highly asymmetric, producing a large egg and small polar bodies. Actin takes over various essential function during oocyte meiosis, many of which commonly rely on microtubules in mitotic cells. Specifically, the actin network has been linked to long-range vesicle transport, nuclear positioning, spindle migration and anchorage, polar body extrusion and accurate chromosome segregation in mammalian oocytes...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Gaku Shimoi, Masaru Tomita, Marino Kataoka, Yuichi Kameyama
Mammalian oocyte quality degrades over time after ovulation in vitro, which can cause fatal defects such as chromosomal aneuploidy. As various oocyte manipulations employed in assisted reproductive technology are time consuming, post-ovulatory aging is a serious problem to overcome in reproductive medicine or ova research. In this study, we investigated the effects of postovulatory aging on the incidence of chromosome aneuploidy during meiosis II, with a focus on the expression of functional proteins from the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC)...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Feng Tang, Meng-Hao Pan, Xiang Wan, Yujie Lu, Yu Zhang, Shao-Chen Sun
Background: During oocyte meiosis, the cytoskeleton dynamics, especially spindle organization, are critical for chromosome congression and segregation. However, the roles of the kinesin superfamily in this process are still largely unknown. Results: In the present study, Kif18a, a member of the kinesin-8 family, regulated spindle organization through its effects on tubulin acetylation in mouse oocyte meiosis. Our results showed that Kif18a is expressed and mainly localized in the spindle region...
2018: Cell Division
Wenyu Li, Zheran Liu, Bowen Liang, Siyang Chen, Xinping Zhang, Xiaoqin Tong, Weiming Lou, Lulu Le, Xiaoli Tang, Fen Fu
BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian cancer is one of the most severe public health threats in women. Since it is still challenging to screen in early stages, identification of core genes that play an essential role in epithelial ovarian cancer initiation and progression is of vital importance. RESULTS: Seven gene expression datasets (GSE6008, GSE18520, GSE26712, GSE27651, GSE29450, GSE36668, and GSE52037) containing 396 ovarian cancer samples and 54 healthy control samples were analyzed to identify the significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs)...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
Rosie M Martinez, Liming Liang, Catherine Racowsky, Laura Dioni, Abdallah Mansur, Michal Adir, Valentina Bollati, Andrea A Baccarelli, Russ Hauser, Ronit Machtinger
Encapsulated microRNAs (i.e., miRNAs within the extracellular vesicles, i.e., EV-miRNAs) have been detected in follicular fluid in both animal and human studies and different profiles have been associated with IVF cycle characteristics. However, limited studies to date have investigated other IVF outcomes, including fertilization status and embryo quality on day three". In this cohort, we performed a cross-sectional analysis on 126 women who contributed follicular fluid from a single follicle during a single IVF cycle...
November 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gabriela Ramos Leal, Clara Ana Santos Monteiro, Joanna Maria Gonçalves Souza-Fabjan, Carlos Otávio de Paula Vasconcelos, Luiz Altamiro Garcia Nogueira, Ana Maria Reis Ferreira, Raquel Varella Serapião
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is an important molecule in signal transduction within the cell, functioning as a second cell messenger of gonadotrophin stimulation. The concentration of cAMP in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) is known to be controlled through modulation of its synthesis by adenylyl cyclase (AC) and by degradation through the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes. One of the main obstacles for in vitro embryo production is the optimization of reproduction processes that occur in oocyte maturation...
November 10, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Eduardo M Razza, Hanne S Pedersen, Lotte Stroebech, Patricia K Fontes, Haja N Kadarmideen, Henrik Callesen, Maria Pihl, Marcelo F G Nogueira, Poul Hyttel
PURPOSE: Oocyte maturation is a complex process involving nuclear and cytoplasmic modulations, during which oocytes acquire their ability to become fertilized and support embryonic development. The oocyte is apparently "primed" for maturation during its development in the dominant follicle. As bovine oocytes immediately resume meiosis when cultured, it was hypothesized that delaying resumption of meiosis with cyclic nucleotide modulators before in vitro maturation (IVM) would allow the oocytes to acquire improved developmental competence...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Yudi Geng, Yang Xun, Shiqiao Hu, Qiaohong Lai, Lei Jin
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the differences of the ovarian stimulation (OS) characteristics, laboratory, and clinical outcomes between follicular-phase single-dose gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist protocol and GnRH antagonist protocol during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH). METHODS: About 1883 consecutive IVF/ICSI fresh cycles of normal ovarian responders were retrospectively analyzed, with 1229 in the single-dose GnRH agonist protocol group and 654 in the GnRH antagonist protocol group at Reproductive Medical Center of Tongji Hospital from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2017...
November 15, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
Justin Parreno, Velia M Fowler
Tropomodulins (Tmods) are proteins that cap the slow-growing (pointed) ends of actin filaments (F-actin). The basis for our current understanding of Tmod function comes from studies in cells with relatively stable and highly organized F-actin networks, leading to the view that Tmod capping functions principally to preserve F-actin stability. However, not only is Tmod capping dynamic, but it also can play major roles in regulating diverse cellular processes involving F-actin remodeling. Here, we highlight the multifunctional roles of Tmod with a focus on Tmod3...
November 14, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Alexandra L Nguyen, David Drutovic, Berta N Vazquez, Warif El Yakoubi, Amanda S Gentilello, Marcos Malumbres, Petr Solc, Karen Schindler
Errors in chromosome segregation during female meiosis I occur frequently, and aneuploid embryos account for 1/3 of all miscarriages in humans [1]. Unlike mitotic cells that require two Aurora kinase (AURK) homologs to help prevent aneuploidy (AURKA and AURKB), mammalian germ cells also require a third (AURKC) [2, 3]. AURKA is the spindle-pole-associated homolog, and AURKB/C are the chromosome-localized homologs. In mitosis, AURKB has essential roles as the catalytic subunit of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), regulating chromosome alignment, kinetochore-microtubule attachments, cohesion, the spindle assembly checkpoint, and cytokinesis [4, 5]...
November 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Shutong Fan, Zumu Liang, Zhiqin Gao, Zhiwei Pan, Shaojie Han, Xiaoying Liu, Chunling Zhao, Weiwei Yang, Zhifang Pan, Weiguo Feng
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignancies in men globally. The aim of the present study was to identify the key genes and pathways involved in the occurrence of PCa. Gene expression profile (GSE55945) was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Subsequently, Gene ontology analysis, KEGG pathway analysis and protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis of DEGs were performed. Finally, the identified key genes were confirmed by immunohistochemistry...
November 2018: Oncology Letters
Martin Maldonado, Tianhua Huang, Jianying Chen, Ying Zhong
In vitro maturation (IVM) in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) can be improved by the presence of human Wharton's jelly-derived MSCs (hWJ-MSCs), under specific culture conditions. COCs were cultured in twelve different culture systems, composed of four stock media, stock media conditioned with hWJ-MSCs, and stock media in which the oocytes were indirectly cocultured with the hWJ-MSCs. The rates of maturation to meiosis II were compared among the groups. G2-PLUS and coculture with DMEM-F12 were the most efficient systems for the maturation of COCs...
2018: Stem Cells International
Li Chen, Tailang Yin, Zheng-Wen Nie, Tao Wang, Ying-Ying Gao, Shu-Yuan Yin, Li-Jun Huo, Xia Zhang, Jing Yang, Yi-Liang Miao
SURVIVIN is an essential chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) subunit and participates in cell division. In this study, we used porcine oocyte as a model to investigate the roles of Survivin during porcine oocyte maturation. Survivin was highly expressed in germinal vesicle (GV) and germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) stages oocytes, mainly localized in the GV at GV stage and on the chromosomes after GVBD. We have used RNA interference to specifically deplete Survivin in oocytes during in vitro maturation (IVM)...
November 1, 2018: Cell Cycle
Tamiko Nishimura, Hana Fakim, Tobias Brandmann, Ji-Young Youn, Anne-Claude Gingras, Martin Jinek, Marc R Fabian
Meiosis arrest female 1 (MARF1) is a cytoplasmic RNA binding protein that is essential for meiotic progression of mouse oocytes, in part by limiting retrotransposon expression. MARF1 is also expressed in somatic cells and tissues; however, its mechanism of action has yet to be investigated. Human MARF1 contains a NYN-like domain, two RRMs and eight LOTUS domains. Here we provide evidence that MARF1 post-transcriptionally silences targeted mRNAs. MARF1 physically interacts with the DCP1:DCP2 mRNA decapping complex but not with deadenylation machineries...
October 26, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
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