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Cold laser

Fu-Ying Lee, Zong-Zhe Wu, Li-Chi Kao, Feng-Mei Chang, Sheng-Wen Chen, Shiu-Ko JangJian, Hui-Yu Cheng, Wei-Liang Chen, Yu-Ming Chang, Kuang Yao Lo
Further scale down the dimension of silicon-based integrated circuit is a crucial trend in semiconductor fabrication. One of the most critical issues in the nano-device fabrication is to confirm the atomic structure evolution of the ultrathin shallow junction. In this report, UV Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and reflective second harmonic generation (RSHG) are utilized to monitor the pulse laser induced atomic structure evolution of ultralow-energy high-dose Boron implanted Si(110) at room and cold substrate temperature...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Andrew A Plumb, Nam Trung Huynh, Jamie Guggenheim, Edward Zhang, Paul Beard
PURPOSE: To determine if a new photoacoustic imaging (PAI) system successfully depicts (1) peripheral arteries and (2) microvascular circulatory changes in response to thermal stimuli. METHODS: Following ethical permission, 8 consenting subjects underwent PAI of the dorsalis pedis (DP) artery, and 13 completed PAI of the index fingertip. Finger images were obtained after immersion in warm (30-35 °C) or cold (10-15 °C) water to promote vasodilation or vasoconstriction...
October 10, 2017: European Radiology
Maurizio Cutolo, Vanessa Smith, Daniel E Furst, Dinesh Khanna, Ariane L Herrick
RP is an exaggerated vasospastic response to cold or emotion. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with either parallel group or cross-over trials should be mainly considered. Cross-over design, which is good for early phase trials of immediate or very short-term outcomes, is important in a condition as heterogeneous as RP: a wash-out period between treatment arms should always be included to minimize the possibility of a period (carry-over) effect. Duration of RP trials is usually constrained by the need to complete these over a single season, usually winter when the weather is colder...
September 1, 2017: Rheumatology
Ming-Mei Liu, Bin Qi, Zheng-Xu Liu, Jin-Shun Zhan, Kang Zhan, Guo-Qi Zhao
The aim of this study was to optimize the conditions for the extraction of low-abundance proteins (LAPs) and the removal of abundant proteins (APs; β-conglycinin and glycinin) from soybean meal. Single factor and orthogonal experiments were designed to determine the effects of four factors (isopropanol concentration, total extraction time, ultrasonic power, and ultrasonic time) on protein concentration in isopropanol extracts. Proteins in the isopropanol supernatant and the cold acetone precipitate of isopropanol were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS)...
2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Robert Dima, Vinicius Tieppo Francio, Chris Towery, Saied Davani
Introduction • Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a form of light therapy that triggers biochemical changes within cells. Photons are absorbed by cellular photoreceptors, triggering chemical alterations and potential biochemical benefits to the human body. LLLT has been used in pain management for years and is also known as cold laser therapy, which uses low-frequency continuous laser of typically 600 to 1000 nm wavelength for pain reduction and healing stimulation. Many studies have demonstrated analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects provided by photobiomodulation in both experimental and clinical trials...
October 2, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
Wen-Sen Lai, Sheng-Yao Cheng, Yuan-Yung Lin, Pei-Lin Yang, Hung-Che Lin, Li-Hsiang Cheng, Jinn-Moon Yang, Jih-Chin Lee
For chronic rhinitis that is refractory to medical therapy, surgical intervention such as endoscopic vidian neurectomy (VN) can be used to control the intractable symptoms. Lasers can contribute to minimizing the invasiveness of ENT surgery. The aim of this retrospective study is to compare in patients who underwent diode laser-assisted versus traditional VN in terms of operative time, surgical field, quality of life, and postoperative complications. All patients had refractory rhinitis with a poor treatment response to a 6-month trial of corticosteroid nasal sprays and underwent endoscopic VN between November 2006 and September 2015...
October 3, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
Florian Schenk, Patricia Weber, Julian Vogler, Lars Hecht, Andreas Dietzel, Günter Gauglitz
Lateral flow type detection is becoming interesting not only in regions with a poor medical infrastructure but also for practitioners in day-to-day clinical work or for veterinary control in case of possible epidemics. In this work, we describe the first steps of development of a multi-channel strip with potential internal calibration of multiparametric and colorimetric lateral flow assays for the simultaneous detection of the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) and Salmonella enteritidis (S...
October 2, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
M Barberio, M Scisciò, S Vallières, S Veltri, A Morabito, P Antici
We present a method for the synthesis of micro-crystals and micro-structured surfaces using laser-accelerated protons. In this method, a solid surface material having a low melting temperature is irradiated with very-short laser-generated protons, provoking in the ablation process thermodynamic conditions that are between the boiling and the critical point. The intense and very quick proton energy deposition (in the ns range) induces an explosive boiling and produces microcrystals that nucleate in a plasma plume composed by ions and atoms detached from the laser-irradiated surface...
October 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yuan Shi, Hong Qin, Nathaniel J Fisch
Large amplitude waves in magnetized plasmas, generated either by external pumps or internal instabilities, can scatter via three-wave interactions. While three-wave scattering is well known in collimated geometry, what happens when waves propagate at angles with one another in magnetized plasmas remains largely unknown, mainly due to the analytical difficulty of this problem. In this paper, we overcome this analytical difficulty and find a convenient formula for three-wave coupling coefficient in cold, uniform, magnetized, and collisionless plasmas in the most general geometry...
August 2017: Physical Review. E
H T Schmidt, G Eklund, K C Chartkunchand, E K Anderson, M Kamińska, N de Ruette, R D Thomas, M K Kristiansson, M Gatchell, P Reinhed, S Rosén, A Simonsson, A Källberg, P Löfgren, S Mannervik, H Zettergren, H Cederquist
We apply near-threshold laser photodetachment to characterize the rotational quantum level distribution of OH^{-} ions stored in the cryogenic ion-beam storage ring DESIREE at Stockholm University. We find that the stored ions relax to a rotational temperature of 13.4±0.2  K with 94.9±0.3% of the ions in the rotational ground state. This is consistent with the storage ring temperature of 13.5±0.5  K as measured with eight silicon diodes but in contrast to all earlier studies in cryogenic traps and rings where the rotational temperatures were always much higher than those of the storage devices at their lowest temperatures...
August 18, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Adam S Chatterley, Benjamin Shepperson, Henrik Stapelfeldt
We demonstrate 3D spatial alignment of 3,5-dichloroiodobenzene molecules embedded in helium nanodroplets using nonresonant elliptically polarized 160 ps laser pulses at a 1 kHz repetition rate. Through Coulomb explosion imaging and ion-ion covariance mapping, the 3D alignment is characterized and found to be stronger than that of isolated molecules. The 3D alignment follows the intensity profile of the alignment laser pulse almost adiabatically, except for a delayed response in the helium droplets, which could be exploited for field-free 3D alignment...
August 18, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Nitzan Akerman, Michael Karpov, Yair Segev, Natan Bibelnik, Julia Narevicius, Edvardas Narevicius
We demonstrate simultaneous deceleration and trapping of a cold atomic and molecular mixture. This is the first step towards studies of cold atom-molecule collisions at low temperatures as well as application of sympathetic cooling. Both atoms and molecules are cooled in a supersonic expansion and are loaded into a moving magnetic trap that brings them to rest via the Zeeman interaction from an initial velocity of 375  m/s. We use a beam seeded with molecular oxygen, and entrain it with lithium atoms by laser ablation prior to deceleration...
August 18, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Mateja Suk, Ivona Bago, Marko Katić, Damir Šnjarić, Marija Šimundić Munitić, Ivica Anić
The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) in the removal of filling remnants from root canals after rotary phase of retreatment and to examine the difference in the amount of residual material considering the type of sealer. Thirty-six extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented and randomly divided into three groups according to the filling material used: group 1: EndoSequence BC Sealer (Brassler, USA), group 2: MTA Fillapex (Angelus Solucoes Odontologicas, Londrina, Brasil), and group 3: AH Plus sealer (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany)...
September 19, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
Maribet Gamboa, Maria Claret Tsuchiya, Suguru Matsumoto, Hisato Iwata, Kozo Watanabe
Proteome variation among natural populations along an environmental gradient may provide insights into how the biological functions of species are related to their local adaptation. We investigated protein expression in five stream stonefly species from four geographic regions along a latitudinal gradient in Japan with varying climatic conditions. The extracted proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization of time-of-flight (MALDI TOF/TOF), yielding 446 proteins...
September 19, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
S Agustsson, G Bianchi, R Calabrese, L Corradi, A Dainelli, A Khanbekyan, C Marinelli, E Mariotti, L Marmugi, G Mazzocca, L Moi, L Ricci, L Stiaccini, L Tomassetti
We report on the direct experimental observation of the 7pP23/2→7dD2 optical transitions in 209 and 210 francium isotopes. By continuously monitoring the fluorescence emitted by the isotopes collected in a magneto-optical trap (MOT), the electric dipole transitions 7pP23/2→7dD25/2 of Fr209, not yet experimentally observed, and 7pP23/2→7dD25/2, 7pP23/2→7dD25/2 of Fr210 were detected as sub-Doppler depletion dips of the cold atom population. This approach allowed unambiguous identification of the excited state hyperfine structures, even in the absence of a large stable vapor...
September 15, 2017: Optics Letters
A V Steele, A Schwarzkopf, J J McClelland, B Knuffman
We present measurements of focal spot size and brightness in a focused ion beam system utilizing a laser-cooled atomic beam source of Cs ions. Spot sizes as small as (2.1 ± 0.2) nm (one standard deviation) and reduced brightness values as high as (2.4 ± 0.1) × 10(7) A m(-2) Sr(-1) eV(-1) are observed with a 10 keV beam. This measured brightness is over 24 times higher than the highest brightness observed in a Ga liquid metal ion source. The behavior of brightness as a function of beam current and the dependence of effective source temperature on ionization energy are examined...
June 2017: Nano Futures
Ludmila B Boinovich, Evgeny B Modin, Adeliya R Sayfutdinova, Kirill A Emelyanenko, Alexander L Vasiliev, Alexandre M Emelyanenko
Industrial application of metallic materials is hindered by several shortcomings, such as proneness to corrosion, erosion under abrasive loads, damage due to poor cold resistance, or weak resistance to thermal shock stresses, etc. In this study, using the aluminum-magnesium alloy as an example of widely spread metallic materials, we show that a combination of functional nanoengineering and nanosecond laser texturing with the appropriate treatment regimes can be successfully used to transform a metal into a superhydrophobic material with exceptional mechanical and chemical properties...
September 7, 2017: ACS Nano
Martin Pitzer, Kilian Fehre, Maksim Kunitski, Till Jahnke, Lothar Schmidt, Horst Schmidt-Böcking, Reinhard Dörner, Markus Schöffler
This article shows how the COLTRIMS (Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy) or the "reaction microscope" technique can be used to distinguish between enantiomers (stereoisomers) of simple chiral species on the level of individual molecules. In this approach, a gaseous molecular jet of the sample expands into a vacuum chamber and intersects with femtosecond (fs) laser pulses. The high intensity of the pulses leads to fast multiple ionization, igniting a so-called Coulomb Explosion that produces several cationic (positively charged) fragments...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jan Heggenes, Arvid Odland, Tomas Chevalier, Jörgen Ahlberg, Amanda Berg, Håkan Larsson, Dag K Bjerketvedt
Mammalian herbivores have important top-down effects on ecological processes and landscapes by generating vegetation changes through grazing and trampling. For free-ranging herbivores on large landscapes, trampling is an important ecological factor. However, whereas grazing is widely studied, low-intensity trampling is rarely studied and quantified. The cold-adapted northern tundra reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) is a wide-ranging keystone herbivore in large open alpine and Arctic ecosystems. Reindeer may largely subsist on different species of slow-growing ground lichens, particularly in winter...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Fangzhao Alex An, Eric J Meier, Bryce Gadway
Ultracold atoms in optical lattices offer a unique platform for investigating disorder-driven phenomena. While static disordered site potentials have been explored in a number of experiments, a more general, dynamical control over site-energy and off-diagonal tunnelling disorder has been lacking. The use of atomic quantum states as synthetic dimensions has introduced the spectroscopic, site-resolved control necessary to engineer more tailored realisations of disorder. Here, we present explorations of dynamical and tunneling disorder in an atomic system by controlling laser-driven dynamics of atomic population in a momentum-space lattice...
August 23, 2017: Nature Communications
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