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Complement c4

Kai-Zhuo Wang, Lin Feng, Wei-Dan Jiang, Pei Wu, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou
The present study explored the effects of dietary gossypol on the gut health of on-growing grass carp. The fish were fed six diets containing different levels of free gossypol (0, 121.38, 243.94, 363.89, 759.93 and 1162.06 mg/kg diet) from gossypol-acetic acid for 60 days and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 days. The results showed that dietary gossypol (1) could aggravate enteritis and damage the structure of intestinal epithelial cells, (2) decreased the lysozyme (LZ) and Acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, complement 3 (C3), C4 and immunoglobulin M (IgM) contents, and it down-regulated the Hepcidin (rather than distal intestine (DI)), immunoglobulin Z (IgZ), liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP)-2B, Mucin2 and β-defensin-1 mRNA levels in the proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and DI, (3) up-regulated intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interferon γ2 (IFN-γ2), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6 (only in PI), IL-8 and IL-12p35 mRNA levels partly related to nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling, and (4) down-regulated the mRNA levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, interleukin 4/13A (IL-4/13A) (except IL-4/13B), IL-10 and IL-11 partly relating to target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling in the intestines of on-growing grass carp...
December 10, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Susan A Boackle
Sometimes new ideas come from old places. Complement's central role in lupus pathogenesis has been known for years, and a reduction in C3 and C4 levels is one of the strongest biomarkers for increased lupus disease activity. However, every rheumatologist knows that some patients with no symptoms of active lupus will present with low complement levels, whereas some patients with aggressive disease have levels that never budge from the "normal" range. How can we better utilize the biomarkers associated with the complement system to guide therapy in lupus - both to predict lupus flares so that damage from unwanted inflammation can be prevented and to allow withdrawal of therapy after inflammation has resolved so as to minimize harm from toxic immunosuppressants? This article is protected by copyright...
December 7, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
María N Barrachina, Aurelio M Sueiro, Vanessa Casas, Irene Izquierdo, Lidia Hermida-Nogueira, Esteban Guitián, Felipe F Casanueva, Joaquín Abián, Montserrat Carrascal, María Pardo, Ángel García
Plasma-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been extensively described as putative biomarkers in different diseases. Interestingly, increased levels of EVs subpopulations are well-known to associate with obesity. The goal of this study was to identify EVs-derived biomarkers in plasma from obese patients in order to predict the development of pathological events associated with obesity. Samples were obtained from 22 obese patients and their lean-matched controls which were divided into two cohorts: one for a 2D-DIGE-based study, and the other one for a label free LC-MS/MS-based approach...
December 7, 2018: Proteomics
Liliana Laskaris, Andrew Zalesky, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Maria A Di Biase, Gursharan Chana, Bernhard T Baune, Chad Bousman, Barnaby Nelson, Patrick McGorry, Ian Everall, Christos Pantelis, Vanessa Cropley
The complement cascade has been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether peripheral complement levels differ in cases compared to controls, change over the course of illness and whether they are associated with current symptomatology. This study aimed to: i) investigate whether peripheral complement protein levels are altered at different stages of illness, and ii) identify patterns among complement protein levels that predict clinical symptoms. Complement factors C1q, C3 and C4 were quantified in 183 participants [n = 83 Healthy Controls (HC), n = 10 Ultra-High Risk (UHR) for psychosis, n = 40 First Episode Psychosis (FEP), n = 50 Chronic schizophrenia] using Multiplex ELISA...
December 5, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Dolores Pérez, Ljudmila Stojanovich, Laura Naranjo, Natasa Stanisavljevic, Gordana Bogdanovic, Manuel Serrano, Antonio Serrano
Background: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an acquired autoimmune disorder defined by the presence of both clinical (thromboembolic events or pregnancy morbidity) and laboratory (antiphospholipid antibodies, aPL) manifestations. Despite their importance, several clinical manifestations strongly associated with APS such as livedo reticularis (LR), thrombocytopenia, sicca-ophthalmic(sicca), heart, or neurological manifestations are not included in the APS clinical classification criteria. Circulating immune complexes (CIC) formed by Beta-2-glycoprotein I (B2GPI) and aPL (B2-CIC) have been described and their presence has been related with thrombotic events...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mariana Gaya da Costa, Felix Poppelaars, Cees van Kooten, Tom E Mollnes, Francesco Tedesco, Reinhard Würzner, Leendert A Trouw, Lennart Truedsson, Mohamed R Daha, Anja Roos, Marc A Seelen
Introduction: The complement system is essential for an adequate immune response. Much attention has been given to the role of complement in disease. However, to better understand complement in pathology, it is crucial to first analyze this system under different physiological conditions. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the inter-individual variation in complement activity and the influences of age and sex. Methods: Complement levels and functional activity were determined in 120 healthy volunteers, 60 women, 60 men, age range 20-69 year...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Cristina Morelli, Vincenzo Formica, Stefania Pellicori, Antonello Menghi, Maria Domenica Guarino, Roberto Perricone, Mario Roselli
BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant hereditary disorder characterized by episodic swelling of many body regions (especially throat and abdomen), potentially triggered by medication. No data are available for HAE in patients with cancer assigned to standard chemotherapy. The aim of our study was to identify circulating mediators potentially predictive of acute HAE attacks during chemotherapy. PATIENT AND METHODS: Repeated blood testing (approximately every week) for complement system members (C3, C4, CH50, C1 inhibitor, C1-inhibitor functional C1Q), D-dimers and for routine haematochemistry were performed in a 42-year-old male affected by type 2 HAE during standard adjuvant oxaliplatin/fluorouracil-based chemotherapy administered for stage III radically resected rectal cancer...
December 2018: Anticancer Research
Feng Xiong, Wei Ge, Chao Ma
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the proteomic profiles of amyloid plaques (APs) from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched non-AD brains and APP/PS1 transgenic model mice. METHODS: APs and adjacent control regions were collected from fresh-frozen brain sections using laser capture dissection. Proteins were quantitated using tag-labeling coupled high-throughput mass spectra. RESULTS: Over 4000 proteins were accurately quantified, and more than 40 were identified as highly enriched in both AD and non-AD APs, including APOE, midkine, VGFR1, and complement C4...
November 28, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Qizong Lao, Marcia Des Jardin, Rahul Jayakrishnan, Monique Ernst, Deborah P Merke
CYP21A2 defects result in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired adrenal steroidogenesis. CYP21A2 lies within the major histocompatibility complex in an area of the genome highly susceptible to genetic variation. Alterations in the neighboring complement component 4 isotypes C4A and C4B have been associated with psychiatric and autoimmune disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate C4A and C4B in patients with CAH in relation to CYP21A2 genotype and psychiatric and autoimmune comorbidity...
December 2018: Human Genetics
Sujittra Kluayhomthong, Chulee Ubolsakka-Jones, Pornanan Domthong, Wipa Reechaipichitkul, David A Jones
STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, randomized crossover trial. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of the combination of incentive spirometry with oscillation (OIS) and positive expiratory pressure with oscillation (OPEP) to promote secretion clearance in intubated patients with cervical spinal cord injury. SETTING: Spinal cord unit, tertiary care hospital, North East Thailand. METHODS: Thirteen intubated patients (C4-7, AIS score C) with secretion retention performed three interventions randomly allocated on consecutive days, a Sham deep breathing, OPEP and OPEP + OIS breathing exercise...
November 20, 2018: Spinal Cord
Mi Na Rhie, Young Bin Cho, Yeonjoo Lee, Ok Bin Kim
Actinobacillus succinogenes is a natural succinate producer, which is the result of fumarate respiration. Succinate production from anaerobic growth with C4 -dicarboxylates requires transporters catalysing uptake and efflux of C4 -dicarboxylates. Transporter Asuc_1999 (DcuE) found in A. succinogenes belongs to the Dcu family and was considered the main transporter for fumarate respiration. However, deletion of dcuE affected L-malate uptake of A. succinogenes rather than fumarate uptake. DcuE complemented anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli on L-malate or fumarate; thus, the transporter was characterised in E...
November 19, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Miranda E Pitt, Minh Duc Cao, Mark S Butler, Soumya Ramu, Devika Ganesamoorthy, Mark A T Blaskovich, Lachlan J M Coin, Matthew A Cooper
Background: Polymyxin B and E (colistin) have been pivotal in the treatment of XDR Gram-negative bacterial infections; however, resistance has emerged. A structurally related lipopeptide, octapeptin C4, has shown significant potency against XDR bacteria, including polymyxin-resistant strains, but its mode of action remains undefined. Objectives: We sought to compare and contrast the acquisition of resistance in an XDR Klebsiella pneumoniae (ST258) clinical isolate in vitro with all three lipopeptides to potentially unveil variations in their mode of action...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Ebun Omoyinmi, Iman Mohamoud, Kimberly Gilmour, Paul A Brogan, Despina Eleftheriou
It is now increasingly recognized that some monogenic autoinflammatory diseases and immunodeficiencies cause vasculitis, although genetic causes of vasculitis are extremely rare. We describe a child of non-consanguineous parents who presented with cutaneous vasculitis, digital ischaemia and hypocomplementaemia. A heterozygous p.R1042G gain-of-function mutation (GOF) in the complement component C3 gene was identified as the cause, resulting in secondary C3 consumption and complete absence of alternative complement pathway activity, decreased classical complement activity, and low levels of serum C3 with normal C4 levels...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Chao Hu, Long Li, Peipei Ding, Ling Li, Xiaowen Ge, Long Zheng, Xuanchuan Wang, Jina Wang, Weitao Zhang, Na Wang, Hongyu Gu, Fan Zhong, Ming Xu, Ruiming Rong, Tongyu Zhu, Weiguo Hu
Complement activation is involved in the pathogenesis of ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI), which is an inevitable process during kidney transplantation. Therefore, complement-targeted therapeutics hold great potential in protecting the allografts from IRI. We observed universal deposition of C3d and membrane attack complex in human renal allografts with delayed graft function or biopsy-proved rejection, which confirmed the involvement of complement in IRI. Using FB -, C3 -, C4 -, C5 -, C5aR1 -, C5aR2 -, and C6 -deficient mice, we found that all components, except C5aR2 deficiency, significantly alleviated renal IRI to varying degrees...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Konstantinos Tselios, Dafna D Gladman, Murray B Urowitz
BACKGROUND: In recent years, low disease activity emerged as a state that is associated with improved long-term outcomes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Our aim was to review the current concepts for low disease activity in SLE in order to serve as the basis of a future consensus for standardization. METHODS: The PubMed database was searched for relevant articles from inception up to July 2018. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms) included "lupus" AND "low disease activity" OR "minimal disease activity"...
October 16, 2018: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
Anna Valerieva, Marco Cicardi, James Baraniuk, Maria Staevska
Background: Hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by episodes of acute subcutaneous swelling, and/or recurrent severe abdominal pain. The disease is potentially fatal if the upper-airway is involved. Iatrogenic harm can occur if HAE is not considered in the differential diagnosis, the specialists are not aware of the natural history, diagnosis and treatment of HAE, or as a result of unnecessary surgical and other iatrogenic interventions...
2018: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Polliana Mihaela Leru, Vlad Florin Anton, Horia Bumbea
Background: Angioedema due to acquired deficiency of C1-inhibitor (C1-INH-AAE) is a rare disease sharing some clinical and laboratory similarities with hereditary angioedema, but with late onset and no positive family history. The underlining cause may be malignant or due to autoimmune diseases, but some cases remain idiopathic. Case presentation: We report a case of a 75 year old woman suffering from recurrent episodes of angioedema since the age of 66, considered first induced by treatment with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEI)...
2018: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Soumi Gupta, Kelly Lau, Cary O Harding, Gillian Shepherd, Ryan Boyer, John P Atkinson, Vijaya Knight, Joy Olbertz, Kevin Larimore, Zhonghu Gu, Mingjin Li, Orli Rosen, Stephen J Zoog, Haoling H Weng, Becky Schweighardt
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the immunogenicity of pegvaliase (recombinant Anabaena variabilis phenylalanine [Phe] ammonia lyase [PAL] conjugated with polyethylene glycol [PEG]) treatment in adults with phenylketonuria (PKU) and its impact on safety and efficacy. METHODS: Immunogenicity was assessed during induction, upward titration, and maintenance dosing regimens in adults with PKU (n = 261). Total antidrug antibodies (ADA), neutralizing antibodies, immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG antibodies against PAL and PEG, IgG and IgM circulating immune complex (CIC) levels, complement components 3 and 4 (C3/C4), plasma Phe, and safety were assessed at baseline and throughout the study...
October 23, 2018: EBioMedicine
Shanshan Wei, Zhenghui Yang, Shuangde Xie, Xuebiao Peng, Li Gong, Ke Zhao, Kang Zeng, Kuan Lai
BACKGROUND: The study was a retrospective case-controlled study. We aimed to determine the clinical and laboratory features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and compared the features of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) with those of SLE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 38 patients with SLE with AITD (SLE-AITD) and 190 age- and gender-matched SLE patients. The distribution of sociodemographic and clinical factors was compared between the SLE-AITD and SLE groups using Chi-square tests for gender and t tests for others...
October 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Xianyong Bu, Xuqiu Lian, Yi Wang, Chengzeng Luo, Shengqiang Tao, Yilu Liao, Jiaming Yang, Aijing Chen, Yuhong Yang
The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of dietary yeast culture on immune response related to TLR2-MyD88-NF-kβ signaling pathway, antioxidant capability and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila for Ussuri catfish (Pseudobagrus ussuriensis). A total of 240 Ussuri catfish (mean weight of 7.39 ± 0.32 g) were randomly distributed into four groups that fed diets containing 0 (Y0), 10 (Y1), 20 (Y2) and 30 (Y3) g kg-1 yeast culture for 8 weeks. The results indicated that dietary 10 g kg-1 yeast culture supplementation significantly down-regulated mRNA levels of TLR2, MyD88, NF-kβ p65, IL-1β and IL-8 in the liver tissue compared with the control group (P < 0...
October 22, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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