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Optimal duration of antibiotic

Samaneh Kameli, Ali Mehrizad
Recent improvements based on heterojunction nanocomposites have opened new possibilities in photocatalysis. In this research, an ultrasound assisted co-precipitation method was used to fabricate silver, zinc sulfide, and reduced graphene oxide (Ag-ZnS/rGO) nanocomposite, and characterization results indicated that 3% Ag-ZnS spherical nanoparticles are successfully embedded in rGO matrix. The potential of the Ag-ZnS/rGO, as a visible light active photocatalyst, was assessed through optimizing degradation of Tetracycline (TC) by response surface methodology...
August 14, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
David Y Graham, Maria Pina Dore, Hong Lu
Recent Helicobacter pylori treatment guidelines recommend the 4-drug combinations bismuth quadruple therapy and concomitant therapy. Areas covered: We review antimicrobial therapy for H. pylori in the context of antimicrobial therapy in general and specifically in relation to good antimicrobial stewardship (defined as optimal selection, dose, and duration of an antimicrobial that results in the best clinical outcome for the treatment of infection, with minimal toxicity to the patient and minimal impact on subsequent resistance)...
August 13, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Michael M Kheir, Timothy L Tan, Colin T Ackerman, Ronuk Modi, Carol Foltz, Javad Parvizi
BACKGROUND: Owing to the difficulty isolating microorganisms in periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), current guidelines recommend that 3-5 intraoperative samples be cultured and maintained for 3-14 days. We investigated (1) the optimal number of culture samples and growth duration to diagnose PJI and (2) the microbiology profile at our institution. METHODS: A retrospective review of 711 patients (329 hips, 382 knees) with PJI that met Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria from 2000 to 2014 was performed...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
U Abubakar, S A Syed Sulaiman, A G Adesiyun
Background Audit of antibiotic prophylaxis is an important strategy used to identify areas where stewardship interventions are required. Objectives To evaluate compliance with surgical antibiotic prophylaxis in obstetrics and gynaecology surgeries and determine the Defined Daily Dose (DDD) of antibiotic. Settings Three public tertiary hospitals located in Northern Nigeria. Methods This prospective study included women who had obstetrics and gynaecology surgeries with no infection at the time of incision. Appropriateness of antibiotic prophylaxis was determined by a clinical pharmacist...
July 27, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
R X Gu, H Wei, Y Wang, B C Liu, C L Zhou, D Lin, K Q Liu, S N Wei, B F Gong, G J Zhang, Y T Liu, X L Zhao, X Y Gong, Y Li, S W Qiu, Y C Mi, J X Wang
Objectives: To investigate the influence of duration of antibiotic therapy on the prognosis of patients with AML who had Gram-negative bloodstream infection during consolidation chemotherapy. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from 591 patients enrolled from the registered "A Phase III study on optimizing treatment based on risk stratification for acute myeloid leukemia, ChiCTR-TRC-10001202" treatment protocol between September 2010 and January 2016 in different treatment cycles. Results: A total of 119 episodes of Gram-negative bloodstream infection occurred during consolidation chemotherapy...
June 14, 2018: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
Sarah Luu, Claire Dendle, Penelope Jones, Samar Ojaimi, Ian J Woolley
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quality of patient knowledge and rates of adherence to guidelines amongst splenectomised patients registered to the Spleen Australia registry. METHOD: Registrants recruited for assessment of residual splenic function post-splenectomy also underwent an assessment of quality of knowledge and a review of their long-term management. Eligible patients were ≥ 18 years of age, registered to the Spleen Australia clinical registry and had been splenectomised at least 1 year prior to their visit...
July 18, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Amritpal Kaur, Rajan Bhagat, Navjot Kaur, Nusrat Shafiq, Vikas Gautam, Samir Malhotra, Vikas Suri, Ashish Bhalla
Background: Tremendous infectious disease burden and rapid emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens continues to burden our healthcare system. Antibiotic stewardship program often implements antibiotic policies that help in preventing unnecessary use of antibiotics and in optimizing management. To develop such a policy for management of infections in the emergency unit, it is important to analyze the information regarding antibiotic prescription patterns in patients presenting to the emergency room referred from various healthcare settings...
July 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
S Reuter, G Deuschl, D Berg, A Helmers, D Falk, K Witt
INTRODUCTION: The deep brain stimulation (DBS) withdrawal syndrome (DBS-WDS) is a rare, life-threatening complication in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with long disease duration and stimulation when stimulation is terminated for extended periods mostly due to infection of the DBS-hardware. METHODS, RESULTS: In five patients explantation became necessary because of infection after a mean of 11.4 years (range 4-15 years) of DBS and a mean disease duration of 24...
July 2, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Christoph Spiekermann, Johannes Roth, Thomas Vogl, Markus Stenner, Claudia Rudack
Peritonsillar inflammation is a common characteristic of both peritonsillar abscess (PTA) and peritonsillitis (PC). The aim of the present study was to apply the PTA score as an objective criterion to identify patients with peritonsillar inflammation (PI) who might profit from medical treatment. Hence, the recently developed PTA score was applied retrospectively on patients suffering from acute tonsillitis, peritonsillitis, and peritonsillar abscess. Analysis of the clinical data, the follow-up, and the initial PTA score was performed...
2018: Disease Markers
Giorgia Montrucchio, Gabriele Sales, Silvia Corcione, Francesco G De Rosa, Luca Brazzi
More than two-thirds of critically ill patients receive an antimicrobial therapy with a percentage between 30 and 50% of all prescribed antibiotics reported to be unnecessary, inappropriate or misused. Since inappropriate prescription of antibiotic drugs concurs to dissemination of the multi-drug resistant organisms, a reasoned antibiotics use is crucial especially in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), where up to 60% of the admitted patients develops an infection during their ICU stay. Even if the concept of Antimicrobial Stewardship (AS) has been clearly described as a series of coordinated interventions designed to improve antimicrobial agents use, few studies are reporting about its effectiveness to improve outcomes, reduce adverse events and costs and decrease resistance rate spread...
July 9, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
Yong Xiang, Yi-Yi Xuan, Guangheng Li
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Candidal prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are very rare, and the optimal management for these patients is still unknown. A 54-year-old man with traumatic arthritis due to previous electric injury successfully retained the implant despite the successive infection with MRSA and Candida albicans after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Continuous lavage with vancomycin was used to control MRSA infection and repeated local washout plus oral swallow with voriconazole tablet were administered to eradicate C...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Roberto W Dal Negro, Luca Bonadiman, Paola Turco
Background: Bronchial asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airways. Beclomethasone dipropionate/Formoterol (BDP/F) and Fluticasone furoate/Vilanterol (FF/V) are two of the most effective LABA/ICS combinations for managing persistent bronchial asthma. Aim of the study was to compare the outcomes achieved in mild-to-moderate asthma patients assuming BDP/F 100/6 μg b.i.d. (Group A) or FF/V 92/22 μg once-daily (Group B) for 12-months. No head-to-head long-term comparison is available at present...
2018: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
Valkovic T, Gacic V, Nacinovic-Duletic A
Based on our earlier research into the main characteristics and risk factors for infections in hospitalized patients with multiple myeloma, we created the numerical Multiple Myeloma Index for Risk of Infection (MMIRI) to predict infection in myeloma patients. The included factors that could influence the pathogenesis and incidence of infections were sex, performance status, Durie Salmon stage of disease, International Staging System, serum creatinine level, immune paresis, neutropenia, serum ferritin level, the presence of any catheters, disease duration, stable/progressive disease, and type of therapy...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Laura Koppen, Katie J Suda, Susan Rowan, Jessina McGregor, Charlesnika T Evans
BACKGROUND: Gaining a better understanding of dental prescribing can help identify opportunities for intervention regarding optimal medication use. The purpose of this study is to characterize opioid and antibiotic prescribing patterns of dentists in the United States for Medicare Part D beneficiaries. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of national 2014 Medicare Part D Prescriber Public Use File data. Providers in the data set with dental-related disciplines were included (n = 99,797)...
August 2018: Journal of the American Dental Association
Kailynn J DeRonde, Jennifer E Girotto, David P Nicolau
Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO), often occurring in young children, is the most frequently diagnosed type of osteomyelitis in pediatric patients. Optimizing antibiotics is essential as delays to receipt of appropriate therapy can lead to chronic osteomyelitis, as well as impairments in bone growth and development. Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are in a key position to help improve the care of patients with AHO as they contain a pharmacist with expertise in antibiotic drug selection, optimization of dosing, and microbiologic test review...
June 19, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Chun-Hung Chang, Shang-Wen Tsai, Cheng-Fong Chen, Po-Kuei Wu, Wing-Wai Wong, Ming-Chau Chang, Wei-Ming Chen
INTRODUCTION: Evidence about the optimal timing for total hip replacement (THR) in HIV-positive patients is scant. HYPOTHESIS: Preoperative criteria: cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) counts>200cells/mm3 and an undetectable HIV virus load before THR, improve infection rates, aseptic loosenings, and functional outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 16 HIV-positive patients who had undergone 25 THRs between 2003 and 2015. None had hemophilia, and none were intravenous drug users (IVDUs)...
June 27, 2018: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
François Graham, Sophia Tsabouri, Jean-Christoph Caubet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present the most recent evidence on beta-lactam hypersensitivity reactions in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Drug provocation tests (DPTs) are the gold standard when investigating beta-lactam allergy in children and evidence is increasingly supporting DPTs without skin tests as a safe approach when evaluating children with nonimmediate mild reactions to beta-lactams. Of note, data are limited in the adolescent population, and this attitude may not apply to this age group...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Timothy L Tan, Michael M Kheir, Alexander J Rondon, Javad Parvizi, Jaiben George, Carlos A Higuera, Noam Shohat, Antonia F Chen
BACKGROUND: Two-stage exchange arthroplasty involves resection and reimplantation of new implants at a later stage. An antibiotic-free period is often advocated by surgeons before reimplantation. However, there is no conclusive evidence supporting the utility or duration of this practice. This study evaluated the utility and optimal duration of the antibiotic-free period before reimplantation. METHODS: Electronic infection databases of 2 institutions were retrospectively reviewed from 2000 to 2014 to identify 785 patients who underwent 2-stage exchange arthroplasty, of which 409 were reimplanted without any surgeries between the first and second stage...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Maya Beganovic, Kerry L LaPlante
Up to 50% of hospital-administered and 70% of nursing home-administered antimicrobials are inappropriately prescribed. There is a great need to focus local, national and global efforts on appropriate antibiotic use. Formal programs dedicated to appropriate antibiotic use have been established in most US hospitals. These antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) exist to ensure that the correct drug, dose and duration of an antimicrobial is given, and only when there is a true bacterial infection (as opposed to bacterial colonization or a viral infection)...
June 1, 2018: Rhode Island Medical Journal
Carmelo Scarpignato, Giovanni Barbara, Angel Lanas, Lisa L Strate
Diverticulosis is a common anatomical condition, which appears to be age-dependent. Individuals who develop chronic gastrointestinal symptoms or complications are referred to as having diverticular disease. Although the diagnosis of this condition can be relatively straightforward, randomized controlled trials are scarce and management often follows tradition rather than principles of evidence-based medicine. This report deals with the topics discussed during a symposium held during the United European Gastroenterology Week (Barcelona, October 2017)...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
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