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duration of the antibiotic period

Maki Jitsumura, Andrew Laurence Cunningham, Matthew David Hitchings, Saiful Islam, Angharad P Davies, Paula E Row, Andrew D Riddell, James Kinross, Tom S Wilkinson, G J Jenkins, John G Williams, Dean Anthony Harris
BACKGROUND: The interaction of the gut microbiota with the human host is implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and immunological diseases including ulcerative colitis (UC). Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a method of restoring gut microbial diversity is of increasing interest as a therapeutic approach in the management of UC. The current literature lacks consensus about the dose of FMT, route of administration and duration of response. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This single-blinded randomised trial will explore the feasibility of FMT in 30 treatment-naïve patients with histologically confirmed distal UC limited to the recto-sigmoid region (up to 40 cm from the anal verge)...
October 18, 2018: BMJ Open
Catharina Hommelsheim, Mathias Sichau, Roland Heipel, Eckhard Müller, Sören Gatermann, Michael Pfeifer, Santiago Ewig
BACKGROUND: The impact of respiratory tract pathogens and infection on outcomes in patients with prolonged weaning is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: We studied predictors of weaning outcomes (death and failure to achieve spontaneous ventilation) in a population treated during a 3.5-year period in a specialized and certified weaning centre. METHODS: Patient data were retrieved retrospectively from the clinical charts. Complete datasets were available in 173 patients...
October 17, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Achraf Sayed-Hassan, Ruben Hermann, Frédéric Chidiac, Eric Truy, Nicolas Guevara, Sonanda Bailleux, Olivier Deguine, Blandine Baladi, Yohan Gallois, Alexis Bozorg-Grayeli, Yannick Lerosey, Benoit Godey, Cécile Parietti-Winkler, Bruno Pereira, Thierry Mom
Importance: Infection after cochlear implantation is a rare but serious event that can lead to meningitis. There is no consensus on prevention of infection in these patients, and each center applies its own strategy. Objective: To describe the rates of major surgical site infection for patients undergoing cochlear implantation who receive prolonged antibiotic treatment compared with those who receive a single perioperative dose of antibiotic prophylaxis. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent cochlear implantation between January 1, 2011, and July 8, 2015, with a postoperative follow-up of 1 to 3 years...
October 11, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Alejandra Morales-Cartagena, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Antonio Lalueza, Jaime Lora-Tamayo, Rafael San Juan, Francisco López-Medrano, Julia Origüen, Fernando Chaves, José María Aguado
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated improved survival when the management of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (BSI) is compliant with evidence-based therapeutic interventions. Whether this effect extends to low-risk sources, such as catheter-related BSI, remains unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively included 225 episodes of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus catheter-related BSI diagnosed in our centre during two non-consecutive periods: 2002-2004 (first period (101 episodes)) and 2009-2013 (second period (124 episodes))...
October 16, 2018: Infectious Diseases
David Chirio, Marion Le Marechal, Pamela Moceri, Arnaud de la Chapelle, Sylvie Chaillou-Optiz, Anaïs Mothes, Cédric Foucault, Laurence Maulin, Chirine Parsaï, Pierre-Marie Roger, Elisa Demonchy
We aimed to identify factors associated with unfavorable outcome in patients treated for infective endocarditis (IE), with a focus on departure from European guidelines. We conducted a retrospective audit of all adult patients treated for endocarditis during a 1-year period across a regional network of nine care centers in the south-east of France. Medical records were reviewed regarding patient and infection characteristics, antibiotic therapy, outcome, and compliance to the European Society of Cardiology guidelines...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Vinay P Rao, Jianhua Wu, Richard Gillott, M Wazir Baig, Pankaj Kaul, Jonathan A T Sandoe
OBJECTIVES: Surgery is often required for acute infective endocarditis (IE) to repair or replace damaged heart valves. Traditionally, long courses of antibiotic treatment have been prescribed after surgery for active IE for fear of infecting newly implanted/repaired valves, but the need for this, in the present era of enhanced antimicrobial stewardship, has been questioned. In our institution, the choice and duration of antimicrobial therapy is tailored to individual patients by a multidisciplinary team with an interest in IE...
October 10, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
A V Sazhin, T V Nechay, S M Titkova, A E Tyagunov, M V Anurov, K Yu Melnikov-Makarchuk, A A Tyagunov, I V Ermakov, N S Glagolev, L S Kurashinova, E A Ivanova, V S Nechay, A V Karpov, A T Mirzoyan, G B Ivakhov, Yu S Balakirev
AIM: To analyze outcomes of fast track rehabilitation in patients with acute appendicitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective, randomized multi-center trial including 86 patients was conducted. There were 38 patients in the main group and 48 in the control group. All patients underwent laparoscopic appendectomy under endotracheal anesthesia. Protocol included informing, no premedication, glucose infusion prior to surgery, antibiotics administration, mesoappendix excision, limited deployment of drainage tubes, intraabdominal prolonged anesthesia, minimal pneumoperitoneum, limited irrigation, minimum power monopolar electrocautery, antiemetics, early activation and eating (2 and 6 hours after surgery)...
2018: Khirurgiia
Laura Trolle Saust, Lars Bjerrum, Volkert Siersma, Magnus Arpi, Malene Plejdrup Hansen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate areas in need of quality improvement within the diagnostic process and antibiotic treatment of acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in Danish general practice by using quality indicators (QIs). DESIGN AND SETTING: During a 4-week period in winter 2017, a prospective registration of patients diagnosed with RTIs was conducted in general practice in two regions of Denmark. SUBJECTS: Throughout the registration period each patient with symptoms of an RTI was registered...
October 8, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
Oh-Hyun Cho, In-Gyu Bae, Song Mi Moon, Seong Yeon Park, Yee Gyung Kwak, Baek-Nam Kim, Shi Nae Yu, Min Hyok Jeon, Tark Kim, Eun Ju Choo, Eun Jung Lee, Tae Hyong Kim, Seong-Ho Choi, Jin-Won Chung, Kyung-Chung Kang, Jung Hee Lee, Yu-Mi Lee, Mi Suk Lee, Ki-Ho Park
Spinal implant infection is a rare but significant complication of spinal fusion surgery, and the most common pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus. It is difficult to treat due to this pathogen's biofilm-forming ability and antibiotic resistance. We evaluated the therapeutic outcome of treatments for S aureus spinal implant infections. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with S aureus spinal implant infections at 11 tertiary-care hospitals over a 9-year period. Parameters predictive of treatment failure and recurrence were analyzed by Cox regression...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Camila Brandão Polakowski, Massakazu Kato, Vinicius Basso Preti, Maria Eliana Madalozzo Schieferdecker, Antonio Carlos Ligocki Campos
OBJECTIVES: Gastrointestinal microflora is involved in the development and regulation of the immune response. Non-pathogenic bacteria are important to prevent the development and subsequent invasion of enteropathogenic bacteria. Surgical trauma and intestinal preparation can disrupt the intestinal microbiota balance. Modulating the microbiota in the preoperative period in patients with colorectal cancer may have an effect on the occurrence of postoperative complications. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preoperative synbiotic administration in patients with colorectal cancer subjected to colorectal resection...
July 11, 2018: Nutrition
Minoru Kobayashi, Toshitaka Uematsu, Gaku Nakamura, Hidetoshi Kokubun, Tomoya Mizuno, Hironori Betsunoh, Takao Kamai
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is considered a risk factor for acquisition of febrile urinary tract infection (f-UTI), but information on the association of diabetes with subsequent course of the disease is lacking. Thus, we investigated the clinical variables including diabetic status which determined the clinical course in patients with community-acquired f-UTI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients hospitalized consecutively for f-UTI between February 2016 and January 2018 were used for this single center study...
September 2018: Infection & Chemotherapy
Liesbet De Bus, Bram Gadeyne, Johan Steen, Jerina Boelens, Geert Claeys, Dominique Benoit, Jan De Waele, Johan Decruyenaere, Pieter Depuydt
BACKGROUND: Preparing an antibiotic stewardship program requires detailed information on overall antibiotic use, prescription indication and ecology. However, longitudinal data of this kind are scarce. Computerization of the patient chart has offered the potential to collect complete data of high resolution. To gain insight in our global antibiotic use, we aimed to explore antibiotic prescription in our intensive care unit (ICU) from various angles over a prolonged time period. METHODS: We studied all adult patients admitted to Ghent University Hospital ICU from 1 January 2013 until 31 December 2016...
September 29, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Sam E Grigg, Patrick Date, Zoe Loh, Ortis Estacio, Douglas F Johnson, Eliza A Hawkes, Andrew Grigg
PURPOSE: There is a paucity of data regarding the utility of routine urine cultures in adults with febrile neutropenia (FN) without urinary symptoms receiving protocolised antibiotics. This is reflected by inconsistent recommendations in international and regional FN guidelines. We addressed this issue by retrospectively reviewing the impact of routine urine cultures on antibiotic management in haematology cancer inpatients at a tertiary hospital. METHODS: All haematology inpatients over a 5-year period (2011-2015) were retrospectively reviewed for episodes of FN (neutrophil count < 0...
September 27, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Lifen Pan, Shufang Tan, Linlan Cao, Xiaoling Feng
Background: To investigate and analyze the risk factors of operating room-related infections after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), to propose corresponding infection control management strategies, and to verify and evaluate the effectiveness of the strategy implementation. Methods: Patients with coronary heart disease who underwent CABG in a hospital from January 2015 to December 2016 were selected for inclusion in this study. The following patient variables were documented: demographics, history of underlying diseases (hypertension and diabetes), preoperative American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, skin preparation method, perioperative use of antibiotics, operation duration, intraoperative hypothermia, intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative blood transfusion, presence of visitors in the operating room, consecutive use of the same operating room, qualification of the surgeon, and surgical site infection...
August 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Chanakya Sharma, Helen Keen
INTRODUCTION: Biologic disease modifying anti rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) have significantly improved the prognosis for patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). However, due to their immunosuppressive nature, concerns remain about the potential for infection in patients receiving these medications. AIMS: The aim of this review is to evaluate the incidence of serious infections (SI) in a Western Australian cohort of patients with RA who are receiving bDMARDs. The role of confounders including age, gender, co-morbidities and use of glucocorticoids was also evaluated...
September 19, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Marine Roulliaud, Bruno Pereira, Justine Cosme, Charline Mourgues, Catherine Sarret, Vincent Sapin, Nicolas Caron, Damien Bouvier
Fever is a frequent reason for consultation in pediatric emergency departments and raises the question of biological and radiological examinations. Rapidly obtaining the result of C-reactive protein (CRP) level is essential in front of the steady increase of the number of visits. We carried out a prospective study within the pediatric emergency department of the University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand from January to April 2017, in order to evaluate the interest of the capillary CRP in point of care (POCT)...
October 1, 2018: Annales de Biologie Clinique
Ümit Doğan, Sümeyra Ağca
AIM: To analyze the possible risk factors in the development of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) through an evaluation of skin allergy tests and data obtained from questionnaires. METHODS: The study included a total of 75 SAC patients and 71 control subjects without SAC diagnosis who were admitted to the Abant Izzet Baysal University Medical Faculty Ophthalmology Clinic between March 2016 and December 2016. Skin prick tests were performed for all participants...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Roberto W Dal Negro, Luca Bonadiman, Paola Turco
BACKGROUND: Fluticasone furoate/vilanterol (FF/V) is an effective long-acting β2 agonist/inhaled corticosteroid combination for managing persistent bronchial asthma. The aim of the study was to assess the outcomes achievable in patients with mild to moderate asthma receiving FF/V 92/22 µg once daily for 12 months. METHODS: Data were automatically and anonymously obtained from the institutional database: forced expiratory volume in 1 s predicted values; the exacerbation and hospitalization rates; days of hospitalization; general practitioner (GP) or specialist visits; days of inactivity; courses of systemic steroids or antibiotics were recorded at baseline and after 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
Getachew Alemkere
BACKGROUND: Surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis guidelines are considered as important interventional tools for antimicrobial resistance. Guideline compliance was poor across different countries and thus results in an inappropriate and overuse of antibiotics. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the selection, timing and duration of prophylactic antibiotic administration among surgical patients in Nekmte referral hospital. METHOD: Prospective, facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from 1st April to 30th June 2017...
2018: PloS One
P J Allen, W Baumgartner, E Brinkman, R J Devries, H A Stewart, D L Aboagye, S W Ramee, M A Ciaramella, C M Culpepper, L Petrie-Hanson
Pectoral fin healing in fin spines and rays were examined in juvenile Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus following three different sampling techniques (n = 8-9 fish per treatment): entire leading fin spine removed, a 1-2 cm portion removed near the point of articulation, or a 1-2 cm portion removed from a secondary fin ray. Also, to determine whether antibiotic treatment influences healing, an additional group of fish (n = 8) was not given an injection of an oxytetracycline (OTC)-based antibiotic following removal of the entire leading fin spine...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
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