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duration of the antibiotic period

Sanggun Roh, Nobuhiro Kimura, Kazushi Sakamoto, Koki Nishihara, Keiichi Suzuki, Kazuo Katoh
The aim of this study was to evaluate butyrate supplementation of antibiotic-free milk replacer and starter on growth performance in male Holstein calves. Twenty-nine calves were divided into two groups. Group C (n = 13) was fed antibiotic-free milk replacer without supplementation, and Group B (n = 16) was fed antibiotic-free milk replacer supplemented with butyrate (1.6 % DM of Gustor BP70® ). Starter in Group B contained 0.3 % DM of Gustor BP70® . The intake of milk replacer was lower in group B than in C (p = 0...
August 16, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Friederike Bachmann, Thomas Adam, Frank Friedersdorff, Lutz Liefeldt, Torsten Slowinski, Klemens Budde, Johannes Waiser
BACKGROUND: Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP) is an integral part of kidney transplantation to prevent surgical site infections (SSI). In July 2015, we changed our standard from a multiple-dose to a single-dose (SD) prophylaxis. Here, we report on results with both regimens and a related survey among Eurotransplant renal transplantation centers. METHODS: From July 2015, all kidney graft recipients of our center were scheduled to receive SD i.v. cefazolin (group SD, n = 107)...
August 14, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Marion Houard, Anahita Rouzé, Geoffrey Ledoux, Sophie Six, Emmanuelle Jaillette, Julien Poissy, Sébastien Préau, Frédéric Wallet, Julien Labreuche, Saad Nseir, Benoit Voisin
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common ICU-acquired infection. Recently, the incidence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLE) has substantially increased in critically ill patients. Identifying patients at risk for VAP related to ESBLE could be helpful to improve the rate of appropriate initial antibiotic treatment, and to reduce unnecessary exposure to carbapenems. The primary objective was to identify risk factors for VAP related to ESBLE...
2018: PloS One
A Bond, A Teubner, M Taylor, C Cawley, J Varden, A Abraham, P R Chadwick, M Soop, G L Carlson, S Lal
INTRODUCTION: The management of intestinal failure (IF) requires safe and sustained delivery of parenteral nutrition (PN). The long-term maintenance of central venous catheter (CVC) access is therefore vital, with meticulous catheter care and salvage of infected CVCs being of prime importance. CVC-related infection and loss of intravenous access are important causes of morbidity and mortality in IF. Avoidance, prompt recognition and appropriate management of CVC-related infections are crucial components of IF care...
July 27, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Virginie Pommelet, Patricia Mariani, Romain Basmaci, Mathieu Tourdjman, Laurence Morin, Jean Gaschignard, Agathe de Lauzanne, Chloé Lemaitre, Stéphane Bonacorsi, Albert Faye
Background: Enteric fever in France is primarily travel-associated. Characteristics of paediatric cases are scarce and information from field studies in endemic countries might not be generalizable to non-endemic countries. Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed all cases of typhoid and paratyphoid fever treated in a French paediatric tertiary care centre from 1993 through 2015. Results: Fifty cases of enteric fever due to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (n = 44) and Paratyphi (n = 6) were identified...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
Yizhao Shen, Hongrong Wang, Tao Ran, Ilkyu Yoon, Atef Mohamed Saleem, Wenzhu Yang
The study objective was to investigate the effects of site of delivering Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP) on ruminal pH and fermentation characteristics, and the site and extent of feed digestion in the digestive tract of beef heifers fed high-grain diets. Examining the ruminal and postruminal effects of SCFP is important for understanding the potential use of SCFP as an alternative for current industry-standard antibiotics used in beef cattle rations. Five beef heifers (initial BW = 561 ± 11...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Leigh Anne Keough, Amy Krauss, Joanna Q Hudson
Background Patients requiring SLED are often critically ill and/or hemodynamically unstable, and often need antibiotic therapy for life-threatening infections. Antibiotic dosing recommendations for intermittent hemodialysis and continuous renal replacement therapy are not appropriate for SLED and there is substantial concern for under dosing. Objective To characterize the adequacy of antibiotic dosing during SLED. SETTING: Inpatient adult acute care hospital. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed for the period of October 2010 to August 2013 to identify patients who received SLED and at least one of the selected antibiotics: cefepime, daptomycin, piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem, and vancomycin...
July 26, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Peyman Naderi, Kiana Shirani, Rasool Soltani, Farzin Khorvash, Seyed Saeed Naji Esfahani
Objective: Inappropriate use of antibiotics is associated with detrimental effects including emergence of antibiotic resistance. This study aimed to evaluate the use of meropenem, an extended-spectrum antibiotic, in a referral teaching hospital to detect different types of errors in its prescription. Methods: In a cross-sectional study performed over a 6-month period (2014-2015), hospitalized adult patients who received meropenem for any indication were randomly selected...
April 2018: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
Jordan R Murphy, Sudeshna Paul, Anne L Dunlop, Elizabeth J Corwin
Postpartum depression is a relatively common occurrence that may carry lifelong consequences. Also common is the exposure of pregnant and postpartum women in the United States to antibiotics, especially during the peripartum period. Antibiotic exposure is known to alter gut microbial composition and structure, contributing to a dysbiotic, or imbalanced gut microbiome, and is a mechanism suggested for the increased risk of depressive symptoms following antibiotic exposure in non-pregnant, non-postpartum populations...
July 19, 2018: Research in Nursing & Health
S Reuter, G Deuschl, D Berg, A Helmers, D Falk, K Witt
INTRODUCTION: The deep brain stimulation (DBS) withdrawal syndrome (DBS-WDS) is a rare, life-threatening complication in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with long disease duration and stimulation when stimulation is terminated for extended periods mostly due to infection of the DBS-hardware. METHODS, RESULTS: In five patients explantation became necessary because of infection after a mean of 11.4 years (range 4-15 years) of DBS and a mean disease duration of 24...
July 2, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Emily Bongard, Alike W van der Velden, Johanna Cook, Ben Saville, Philippe Beutels, Rune Munck Aabenhus, Curt Brugman, Slawomir Chlabicz, Samuel Coenen, Annelies Colliers, Melanie Davies, Muireann De Paor, An De Sutter, Nick A Francis, Dominik Glinz, Maciek Godycki-Ćwirko, Herman Goossens, Jane Holmes, Margareta Ieven, Menno de Jong, Morten Lindbaek, Paul Little, Frederico Martinón-Torres, Ana Moragas, József Pauer, Markéta Pfeiferová, Ruta Radzeviciene-Jurgute, Pär-Daniel Sundvall, Antoni Torres, Pia Touboul, Dionyssios Varthalis, Theo Verheij, Christopher C Butler
INTRODUCTION: Effective management of seasonal and pandemic influenza is a high priority internationally. Guidelines in many countries recommend antiviral treatment for older people and individuals with comorbidity at increased risk of complications. However, antivirals are not often prescribed in primary care in Europe, partly because its clinical and cost effectiveness has been insufficiently demonstrated by non-industry funded and pragmatic studies. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Antivirals for influenza-Like Illness? An rCt of Clinical and Cost effectiveness in primary CarE is a European multinational, multicentre, open-labelled, non-industry funded, pragmatic, adaptive-platform, randomised controlled trial...
July 12, 2018: BMJ Open
Szimonetta Lohner, Viktória Jakobik, Krisztina Mihályi, Sara Soldi, Sotirios Vasileiadis, Stephan Theis, Manuela Sailer, Carolin Sieland, Károly Berényi, Günther Boehm, Tamás Decsi
Background: Inulin-type fructans used in formula have been shown to promote microbiota composition and stool consistency closer to those of breastfed infants and to have beneficial effects on fever occurrence, diarrhea, and incidence of infections requiring antibiotic treatment in infants. Objectives: The primary study aim was to explore whether prophylactic supplementation with prebiotic fructans is able to influence the frequency of infectious diseases in kindergarten children during a winter period...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Marianne Bollestad, Nils Grude, Sigrid Solhaug, Niclas Raffelsberger, Nina Handal, Hans-Johnny Schjelderup Nilsen, Monica Regine Romstad, Andreas Emmert, Yngvar Tveten, Arne Søraas, Pål A Jenum, Synne Jenum, Janne Møller-Stray, Einar Tollaksen Weme, Morten Lindbaek, Gunnar Skov Simonsen
Objectives: To compare the clinical and bacteriological outcomes of pivmecillinam treatment for community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli versus non-ESBL-producing E. coli in an outpatient setting. Methods: A prospective, multicentre, observational cohort study of women aged ≥16 years, with pivmecillinam-treated community-acquired UTIs caused by E. coli with or without ESBL production, recruited from primary care, was conducted in the period from April 2013 to August 2016...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
A Shudo, H Kishimoto, K Takaoka, K Noguchi
Tooth extraction in patients receiving bisphosphonates is thought to be a risk factor for osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ); however, ONJ did not develop, even when tooth extraction was performed with continued oral bisphosphonate therapy. A drug holiday from bisphosphonates before tooth extraction may not be necessary. INTRODUCTION: It is controversial whether bisphosphonate withdrawal is necessary prior to invasive procedures such as tooth extraction in order to prevent bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ)...
July 2, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Lijuan Chen, Tongsheng Fu, Hao Gu, Ying Jie, Zhongmou Sun, Donghong Jiang, Jibing Yu, Xinxing Zhu, Jianjiang Xu, Jiaxu Hong
The aim of the study was to review the distribution, current trends, and microbiological characteristics of bacterial pathogens isolated from dacryocystitis patients in China during the last 15 years.This is a retrospective multiple-center noncomparative case series. The medical records of 15,452 consecutive patients from 7 cities diagnosed as having dacryocystitis between 2002 and 2016 were reviewed. The patients' demographics, microbiological data, and antibiotic sensitivity were reviewed and analyzed.A total of 3344 lacrimal sac content cultures were taken (21...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Gaud Catho, Marlieke De Kraker, Brigitte Waldispühl Suter, Roberta Valotti, Stephan Harbarth, Laurent Kaiser, Luigia Elzi, Rodolphe Meyer, Enos Bernasconi, Benedikt D Huttner
INTRODUCTION: Inappropriate use of antimicrobials in hospitals contributes to antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) interventions aim to improve antimicrobial prescribing, but they are often resource and personnel intensive. Computerised decision supportsystems (CDSSs) seem a promising tool to improve antimicrobial prescribing but have been insufficiently studied in clinical trials. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The COMPuterized Antibiotic Stewardship Study trial, is a publicly funded, open-label, cluster randomised, controlled superiority trial which aims to determine whether a multimodal CDSS intervention integrated in the electronic health record (EHR) reduces overall antibiotic exposure in adult patients hospitalised in wards of two secondary and one tertiary care centre in Switzerland compared with 'standard-of-care' AMS...
June 27, 2018: BMJ Open
Roberto W Dal Negro, Luca Bonadiman, Paola Turco
Background: Bronchial asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airways. Beclomethasone dipropionate/Formoterol (BDP/F) and Fluticasone furoate/Vilanterol (FF/V) are two of the most effective LABA/ICS combinations for managing persistent bronchial asthma. Aim of the study was to compare the outcomes achieved in mild-to-moderate asthma patients assuming BDP/F 100/6 μg b.i.d. (Group A) or FF/V 92/22 μg once-daily (Group B) for 12-months. No head-to-head long-term comparison is available at present...
2018: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
Boudewijn Catry, Katrien Latour, Robin Bruyndonckx, Camellia Diba, Candida Geerdens, Samuel Coenen
Background: Treatment duration, treatment interval, formulation and type of antimicrobial (antibiotic) are modifiable factors that will influence antimicrobial selection pressure. Currently, the impact of the route of administration on the occurrence of resistance in humans is unclear. Methods: In this retrospective multi-center cohort study, we assessed the impact of different variables on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in pathogens isolated from the urinary tract in older adults...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Rebecca Normansell, Ben Sayer, Samuel Waterson, Emma J Dennett, Manuela Del Forno, Anne Dunleavy
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic respiratory condition that affects over 300 million adults and children worldwide. It is characterised by wheeze, cough, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Symptoms typically are intermittent and may worsen over a short time, leading to an exacerbation. Asthma exacerbations can be serious, leading to hospitalisation or even death in rare cases. Exacerbations may be treated by increasing an individual's usual medication and providing additional medication, such as oral steroids...
June 25, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ashish Lal Shrestha, Harshjeet Singh Bal, Sundeep M C Kisku, Sudipta Sen
INTRODUCTION: Primary obstructive megaureters (POM) can be treated with one of the following options: conservative management with antibiotic chemoprophylaxis and active observation of the hydroureteronephrosis (HUN) until suspicion of renal deterioration; refluxing/non-refluxing ureteric reimplantation with antibiotic suppression; temporary double-J stenting; endoscopic balloon dilatation; endoureterotomy; and end cutaneous ureterostomy (ECU). OBJECTIVE: To study the profile of patients with POM and assess the efficacy, safety and outcome of ECU as an interim procedure...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
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