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Antibiotic time

Junpeng Zhang, Weiying Li, Jiping Chen, Feng Wang, Wanqi Qi, Yue Li
Bacterial antibiotic resistance (BAR) is profoundly important to human health, but the environmental reservoirs of resistance determinants are poorly understood. BAR of biofilm and tap water were analyzed by using a water distribution simulator where different doses of chlorine and chloramine were used in this study. The results revealed that the disinfectants (≥2 mg/L) suppressed antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) in tap water and biofilms, while disinfected water and biofilms had a high relative abundance of ARB...
November 24, 2018: Environmental Pollution
David Tenero, Nicholas Farinola, Elchonon M Berkowitz, Courtney A Tiffany, Yanwen Qian, Zhengyu Xue, Aparna Raychaudhuri, David F Gardiner
This was a first-time-in-human randomized, double-blind, single-center, placebo-controlled dose-escalation study to determine the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of GSK3342830 after single and repeat intravenous doses in healthy adult subjects (NCT0271424). Sixty-two subjects were enrolled: 48 subjects in part 1 (single dose) and 14 subjects in part 2 (multiple doses). Following single intravenous infusions, total systemic exposure of GSK3342830 was dose proportional over the 250- to 6000-mg dose range evaluated, whereas peak exposure was approximately dose proportional over the dose range...
December 10, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
Giorgio Berlot, Claudio Michele Vassallo, Nicola Busetto, Margarita Nieto Yabar, Tatiana Istrati, Silvia Baronio, Giada Quarantotto, Mattia Bixio, Giulia Barbati, Roberto Dattola, Irene Longo, Antonino Chillemi, Alice Scamperle, Fulvio Iscra, Ariella Tomasini
BACKGROUND: The administration of endovenous immunoglobulins in patients with septic shock could be beneficial and preparations enriched with IgA and IgM (ivIgGAM) seem to be more effective than those containing only IgG. In a previous study Berlot et al. demonstrated that early administration of ivIgGAM was associated with lower mortality rate. We studied a larger population of similar patients aiming either to confirm or not this finding considering also the subgroup of patients with septic shock by multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens...
December 10, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
Ewelina Kosior, Adam Reich
INTRODUCTION: Erysipelas and bacterial cellulitis are two of the most common infectious skin diseases. They are usually caused by the β-hemolytic group of Streptococcus, and less frequently by other bacteria. The objective of the study was to assess the factors affecting the length of stay of patients admitted to hospital with erysipelas or bacterial cellulitis. METHODS: The study was based on the retrospective analysis of medical records of patients diagnosed with erysipelas or bacterial cellulitis...
December 7, 2018: Dermatology and Therapy
Lin-Ling Yu, Zi-Fen Luo, Ying-Ying Zhang, Shi-Chuan Wu, Cao Yang, Jian-Hua Cheng
The presence of tetracycline antibiotics (TCS) in the water and wastewater has raised growing concern due to its potential environmental impacts; thus, their removal is of high importance. In this study, a novel aluminum-based MOF/graphite oxide (Al-MOF/GO) granule was prepared as an adsorbent for the removal of TCS including oxytetracycline (OTC) and chlortetracycline (CTC). The adsorbent was characterized via XRD, FTIR, BET, SEM, and XPS methods. The granules exhibited similar crystal structure and some new mesopores appearing compared to the parent Al-MOF/GO powder...
December 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dafna Yahav, Erica Franceschini, Fidi Koppel, Adi Turjeman, Tanya Babich, Roni Bitterman, Ami Neuberger, Nesrin Ghanem-Zoubi, Antonella Santoro, Noa Eliakim-Raz, Barak Pertzov, Tali Steinmetz, Anat Stern, Yaakov Dickstein, Elias Maroun, Hiba Zayyad, Jihad Bishara, Danny Alon, Yonatan Edel, Elad Goldberg, Claudia Venturelli, Cristina Mussini, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
Background: Gram-negative bacteremia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Data to guide the duration of antibiotic therapy are limited. Methods: Randomized, multicenter, open-label, non-inferiority trial. Inpatients with Gram-negative bacteremia, afebrile and hemodynamically stable for at least 48 hours, were randomized to receive 7 (intervention) or 14 days (control) of covering antibiotic therapy. Patients with uncontrolled focus of infection were excluded...
December 11, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Amanual Getnet Mersha
Background: Antibiotic resistance is a global burden and reduction of antimicrobial resistance requires change in antimicrobial prescribing behavior of health workers. The current study aimed to evaluate the attitude and perception of Ethiopian medical interns towards antimicrobials resistance. Methods: A multi center cross-sectional institutional based survey was conducted from August 2016 to October 2016 among medical interns in Ethiopia. Data entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences program (SPSS) software version 21...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Orsolya Felde, Zsuzsa Kreizinger, Kinga Mária Sulyok, Veronika Hrivnák, Krisztián Kiss, Ákos Jerzsele, Imre Biksi, Miklós Gyuranecz
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections are responsible for significant economic losses in the swine industry. Commercially available vaccines are not able to inhibit the colonisation of the respiratory tract by M. hyopneumoniae absolutely, therefore vaccination can be completed with antibiotic treatment to moderate clinical signs and improve performances of the animals. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of M. hyopneumoniae is time-consuming and complicated; therefore, it is not accomplished routinely. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility to 15 different antibiotics of M...
2018: PloS One
Wei Luo, Zhen Geng, Zhaoyang Li, Shuilin Wu, Zhenduo Cui, Shengli Zhu, Yanqin Liang, Xianjin Yang
Background: Calcium sulphate cement (CSC) is widely used as an osteoconductive biomaterial in bone repair and regeneration. Purpose: In this study, porous TiO2 microspheres were added to CSC to achieve a controlled and sustained drug (gentamicin) release. Methods: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis were conducted to analyse the morphology, phase composition, and surface area of the TiO2 micro-spheres and composite cements...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Manal H G Kanaan
Background and Aim: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most recognized "superbugs" and a common cause of community-associated and nosocomial infections; furthermore, when chicken meat is considered a good growth medium for S. aureus to make a plausible vehicle to propagate MRSA, then this study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of ozonated water (0.5 ppm) in the elimination or reduction of MRSA contaminating fresh and frozen chicken meat sold in local markets in the Wasit Province...
November 2018: Veterinary World
Julio Diaz Caballero, Shawn T Clark, Pauline W Wang, Sylva L Donaldson, Bryan Coburn, D Elizabeth Tullis, Yvonne C W Yau, Valerie J Waters, David M Hwang, David S Guttman
Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung infections caused by members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, such as Burkholderia multivorans, are associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity. We performed a population genomics study of 111 B. multivorans sputum isolates from one CF patient through three stages of infection including an early incident isolate, deep sampling of a one-year period of chronic infection occurring weeks before a lung transplant, and deep sampling of a post-transplant infection. We reconstructed the evolutionary history of the population and used a lineage-controlled genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach to identify genetic variants associated with antibiotic resistance...
December 7, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
V D Skripko, I K Churpiy, I Ya Mykhailoiko, A L Kovalenko, E V Talikova
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cytoflavin inclusion in therapy regimens of patients with diabetic foot syndrome and medicalcinosis on the microcirculation of the lower limb blood vessels. For this purpose, 64 patients with type II diabetes mellitus (subcompensated form), diabetic foot syndrome and signs of medicalcinosis foot blood vessels of various severity were examined. All patients were divided into 2 groups depending on the therapy scheme: patients of group I (33 people) received insulin, antibiotics, disaggregants, statins, anti-inflammatory drugs, painkillers, detoxification therapy...
2018: Khirurgiia
Shuyan Wei, Charles Green, Lillian S Kao, Brandy B Padilla-Jones, Van T T Truong, Charles E Wade, John A Harvin
BACKGROUND: Organ/space surgical site infection (OS-SSI) develops frequently after trauma laparotomies and is associated with significant morbidity. No valid model exists to accurately risk-stratify the probability of OS-SSI development after emergent laparotomy. Risk stratification for OS-SSI in these patients could guide promising, but unproven, interventions for OS-SSI prevention, such as more frequent dosing of intraoperative antibiotics or direct peritoneal resuscitation.We hypothesize that in trauma patients who undergo emergent laparotomy, probability of OS-SSI can be accurately estimated using patient data available during the index operation...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Xiaoyan Chen, Ying Liu, Xian Fang, Zhuo Li, Haihui Pu, Jingbo Chang, Junhong Chen, Shun Mao
Antibiotic residue, as emerging pollution resulting from antibiotic abuse, poses a serious threat on ecosystem and human health. Conventional methods for antibiotic detection, e.g., liquid/gas chromatography, are based on complicated instruments and time-consuming; therefore, efforts have been made to realize in situ and real-time monitoring of antibiotics. Here, a miniaturized and integratable electronic antibiotic sensor based on field-effect transistor (FET) is reported. The reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheet is used as the channel material and the aptamer RNA for tobramycin is modified onto rGO as the probe...
November 22, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
J A Lebrón, F J Ostos, M López-López, M L Moyá, O Kardell, A Sánchez, C J Carrasco, M García-Calderón, C B García-Calderón, I V Rosado, P López-Cornejo
The use of nanovectors in several medicinal treatments has reached a great importance in the last decade. Some drugs need to be protected to increase their lifetimes in the blood flow, to avoid degradation, to be delivered into target cells or to decrease their side effects. The goal of this work was to design and prepare nanovectors formed by novel surfactants derived from the [Ru(bpy)3 ]2+ complex. These amphiphilic molecules are assembled to form metallomicelles which can act as pharmaceutical agents and, at the same time, as nanovectors for several drugs...
November 29, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Karina Esparza, Hayat Onyuksel
The purpose of this work was to develop a practical and scalable method to encapsulate the hydrophobic antibiotic thiostrepton (TST) in sterically stabilized micelles (SSM). Using the conventional method of thin-film hydration, we encapsulated up to 5 drug molecules per SSM (diameter ∼16nm). However, since this method is not suitable for large-scale production - a limiting factor for clinical translation - we applied the co-solvent freeze-drying method using tert-butanol (TBA): water co-solvent system. We found that the presence of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) salts in the lyophilized cake accelerated the reconstitution time and allowed efficient drug encapsulation without the formation of larger drug particles...
December 6, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Zhongqiang Yan, Yu Zhou, Mingmei Du, Yanling Bai, Bowei Liu, Meiliang Gong, Hongbin Song, Yigang Tong, Yunxi Liu
BACKGROUND: Following the alarming outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumonia (CRKP) in five intensive care units (ICUs) of a tertiary care hospital in China, a prospective investigation of CRKP colonized/infected patients was conducted. AIM: To describe the diffusion and transmission of CRKP among epidemiologically linked ICU patients, staff and environment. METHODS: Enhanced CRKP infected/colonized case monitoring was performed by the real-time nosocomial infection surveillance system (RT-NISS)...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Hatem I Mokhtar, Randa A Abdel-Salam, Ghada M Hadad
Sulfonamides and trimethoprim combinations have been used extensively as antimicrobial agents for prevention and treatment of human and animal infections. Although many microextraction methods were developed for monitoring their residues in environmental water, none of these methods applied liquid-liquid microextraction for this purpose. This work presents for the first time a simultaneous Salt Assisted Liquid-Liquid Microextraction SALLME coupled with HPLC-UV for determination of trimethoprim and six common sulfonamide residues (sulfathiazole, sulfadiazine, sulfadmidine, sulfamethoxazole sulfadoxine and sulfaquinoxaline) in water samples...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Chun-Yi Lee, Yu-Ping Fang, Yu-Fen Chang, Tsung-Hua Wu, Yu-Ying Yang, Yhu-Chering Huang
OBJECTIVE: To compare the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates between an old, urban hospital and a new, rural hospital over the same time period. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed molecular characteristics of 398 MRSA bloodstream isolates collected between 2007 and 2013 from two hospitals in Taiwan, 202 isolates from the old one and 196 isolates from the new one (opened in 2007). RESULTS: The rate of multiple antibiotics resistance was significantly higher in the old hospital (93%) than in the new hospital (81%) (p <0...
December 7, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Marisa C Gaspar, Alberto A C C Pais, João J S Sousa, Julien Brillaut, Jean-Christophe Olivier
Aerosol antibiotics are an interesting alternative to oral or intravenous therapy in Cystic Fibrosis lung infections. Levofloxacin (LVX) inhaled solution is already an effective option. In this study, the aim was the development of LVX-loaded PLGA microspheres (MS) for pulmonary administration as a dry powder. MS were prepared, for the first time, by a modified double emulsion solvent evaporation method with premix membrane homogenization. Aqueous phases were saturated with LVX and a fatty acid (lauric acid) was added to avoid the drug escaping from the organic phase...
December 7, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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