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Holding chamber

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092041/aedes-albopictus-production-in-urban-stormwater-catch-basins-and-manhole-chambers-of-downtown-shanghai-china
#1
Qiang Gao, Fei Wang, Xihong Lv, Hui Cao, Fei Su, Jianjun Zhou, Peien Leng
BACKGROUND: The near-surface urban drainage system in Shanghai is highly complex, with hundreds of thousands of catch basins (CBs) and manhole chambers (MCs). Comparatively little is known about the breeding of mosquitoes in this vast system, especially for the locally predominant species Aedes albopictus. A cross-sectional mosquito sampling study was conducted from late July to early August of 2017 using 539 CBs and 309 MCs located in 10 communities of downtown Shanghai. We measured the water-holding status of the drainage systems and density of mosquito larvae...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30028917/the-gradient-perfusion-model-part-3-an-extraordinary-case-of-decompression-sickness
#2
Lientra Q Lu, Michael B Strauss, Stuart S Miller
Introduction: Decompression sickness (DCS) has been associated with unusual circumstances such as breath-hold diving, shallow depths, and short bottom times. We report a case of DCS with an extraordinary cause and course. Materials and Methods: A 72-year-old healthy Hispanic female was referred to our 24/7 Hyperbaric Medicine Unit for emergency hyperbaric oxygen recompression treatment (HBO2 RCT) after developing lower-extremity paralysis following a hyperbaric air exposure in a homemade hyperbaric chamber...
May 2018: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928649/spacer-devices-for-inhaled-therapy-why-use-them-and-how
#3
REVIEW
Walter Vincken, Mark L Levy, Jane Scullion, Omar S Usmani, P N Richard Dekhuijzen, Chris J Corrigan
We present an extensive review of the literature to date pertaining to the rationale for using a spacer/valved holding chamber (VHC) to deliver inhaled therapy from a pressurised, metered-dose inhaler, a discussion of how the properties of individual devices may vary according to their physical characteristics and materials of manufacture, the potential risks and benefits of ancillaries such as valves, and the evidence that they contribute tangibly to the delivery of therapy. We also reiterate practical recommendations for the correct usage and maintenance of spacers/VHCs, which we trust offer practical help and advice to patients and healthcare professionals alike...
April 2018: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849831/optimizing-the-delivery-of-inhaled-medication-for-respiratory-patients-the-role-of-valved-holding-chambers
#4
REVIEW
R Andrew McIvor, Hollie M Devlin, Alan Kaplan
Valved holding chambers (VHCs) have been used with pressurized metered-dose inhalers since the early 1980s. They have been shown to increase fine particle delivery to the lungs, decrease oropharyngeal deposition, and reduce side effects such as throat irritation, dysphonia, and oral candidiasis that are common with use of pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs) alone. VHCs act as aerosol reservoirs, allowing the user to actuate the pMDI device and then inhale the medication in a two-step process that helps users overcome challenges in coordinating pMDI actuation with inhalation...
2018: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797776/continuous-in-line-virus-inactivation-for-next-generation-bioprocessing
#5
Christopher Gillespie, Melissa Holstein, Lori Mullin, Kristen Cotoni, Ronald Tuccelli, John Caulmare, Patricia Greenhalgh
Viral inactivation plays a critical role in assuring the safety of monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics. Traditional viral inactivation involves large holding tanks in which product is maintained at a target low pH for a defined hold time, typically 30-60 min. The drive toward continuous processing and improved facility utilization has provided motivation for development of a continuous viral inactivation process. To this end, a lab-scale prototype viral inactivation system was designed, built, and characterized...
May 24, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789412/effect-of-a-nebulizer-holding-chamber-on-aerosol-delivery
#6
Rania M Sarhan, Ahmed A Elberry, Nada Saed Abdelwahab, Hoda Rabea, Mohamed Nabil Salem, Mohamed Ea Abdelrahim
BACKGROUND: A new holding chamber was designed to be used with the Aerogen Solo nebulizer to increase the aerosol emitted that reach the patient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of this holding chamber with Solo nebulizer and determine its usability with other nebulizers. METHODS: The study was divided into 2 parts. In the first part, aerosol emitted of 1 mL respirable solution (nominal dose of 5000 μg salbutamol), delivered by using the Solo nebulizer, Pro nebulizer, and jet nebulizer, connected to a T-piece or a holding chamber, was determined by using a breathing simulator set to provide a tidal volume of 500 mL, frequency of 15 breaths/min, and the inspiratory-expiratory ratio of 1:1 for adults as the quiet breathing pattern...
May 22, 2018: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724397/randomized-study-of-the-effects-of-aerochamber-plus-%C3%A2-flow-vu-%C3%A2-on-the-efficacy-pharmacokinetics-and-safety-of-glycopyrronium-formoterol-fumarate-dihydrate-metered-dose-inhaler-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#7
Faisal Fakih, Selwyn Spangenthal, Barry Sigal, Patrick Darken, Andrea Maes, Shahid Siddiqui, Michael Gillen, Colin Reisner, Ubaldo J Martin
OBJECTIVES: This study compared the efficacy, pharmacokinetics (PK), and safety of GFF MDI (Bevespi Aerosphere® ), a fixed-dose combination of glycopyrronium and formoterol fumarate dihydrate (14.4/10 μg) delivered by a metered dose inhaler (MDI) formulated using innovative co-suspension delivery technology, in patients with moderate-to-very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with and without the Aerochamber Plus® Flow-Vu® valved holding chamber (VHC). METHODS: In this multicenter, open-label, crossover, Phase III study (NCT02454959), patients were randomized to receive GFF MDI 14...
May 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707648/bridging-the-chasm-challenges-opportunities-and-resources-for-integrating-a-dissemination-and-implementation-science-curriculum-into-medical-education
#8
REVIEW
Tamar Ginossar, Carolyn J Heckman, Deborah Cragun, Lisa M Quintiliani, Enola K Proctor, David A Chambers, Ted Skolarus, Ross C Brownson
Background: Physicians are charged with implementing evidence-based medicine, yet few are trained in the science of Dissemination and Implementation (D&I). In view of the potential of evidence-based training in D&I to help close the gap between research and practice, the goal of this review is to examine the importance of D&I training in medical education, describe challenges to implementing such training, and provide strategies and resources for building D&I capacity...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605203/in-vitro-and-clinical-characterization-of-the-valved-holding-chamber-aerochamber-plus-%C3%A2-flow-vu-%C3%A2-for-administrating-tiotropium-respimat-%C3%A2-in-1-5-year-old-children-with-persistent-asthmatic-symptoms
#9
Herbert Wachtel, Mark Nagel, Michael Engel, Georges El Azzi, Ashish Sharma, Jason Suggett
BACKGROUND: When characterizing inhalation products, a comprehensive assessment including in vitro, pharmacokinetic (PK), and clinical data is required. We conducted a characterization of tiotropium Respimat® when administered with AeroChamber Plus® Flow-Vu® anti-static valved holding chamber (test VHC) with face mask in 1-5-year-olds with persistent asthmatic symptoms. METHODS: In vitro tiotropium dose and particle size distribution delivered into a cascade impactor were evaluated under fixed paediatric and adult flow rates between actuation and samplings...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550122/predicting-enteric-methane-emission-of-dairy-cows-with-milk-fourier-transform-infrared-spectra-and-gas-chromatography-based-milk-fatty-acid-profiles
#10
S van Gastelen, H Mollenhorst, E C Antunes-Fernandes, K A Hettinga, G G van Burgsteden, J Dijkstra, J L W Rademaker
The objective of the present study was to compare the prediction potential of milk Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for CH4 emissions of dairy cows with that of gas chromatography (GC)-based milk fatty acids (MFA). Data from 9 experiments with lactating Holstein-Friesian cows, with a total of 30 dietary treatments and 218 observations, were used. Methane emissions were measured for 3 consecutive days in climate respiration chambers and expressed as production (g/d), yield (g/kg of dry matter intake; DMI), and intensity (g/kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk; FPCM)...
June 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499435/desi-chickpea-genotypes-tolerate-drought-stress-better-than-kabuli-types-by-modulating-germination-metabolism-trehalose-accumulation-and-carbon-assimilation
#11
Muhammad Farooq, Aman Ullah, Dong-Jin Lee, Salem S Alghamdi, Kadambot H M Siddique
Chickpea is mostly grown in rainfed environments and, consequently, its growth is affected by drought stress. This study comprised two independent experiments to investigate the physiological basis of drought tolerance in desi and kabuli chickpea genotypes. In Experiment 1, six genotypes each of desi and kabuli types were planted in soil-filled pots under natural conditions. Ten days after planting, soil moisture was maintained at 75% water holding capacity (well-watered) or 50% water holding capacity (drought stress)...
May 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475161/house-hold-unit-for-the-treatment-of-fluoride-iron-arsenic-and-microorganism-contaminated-drinking-water
#12
Vijaykumar L Dhadge, Chitta Ranjan Medhi, Murchana Changmai, Mihir Kumar Purkait
A first of its kind hybrid electrocoagulation-filtration prototype unit was fabricated for the removal of fluoride, iron, arsenic and microorganisms contaminated drinking water. The unit comprised of 3 chambers, chamber A consisting of an inlet for the water to be treated and an outlet for the treated water along with one block of aluminum electrodes. Chamber B consisted of ceramic membrane filtration assembly at the bottom over a metallic support which filters the flocs so produced in chamber A and chamber C consisting of space to collect the treated water...
May 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392150/a-multichannel-computer-driven-system-to-raise-aquatic-embryos-under-selectable-hypoxic-conditions
#13
Sanjeeva Metikala, Herbert Neuhaus, Thomas Hollemann
The formation of a functional cardiovascular system is an essential step in the early vertebrate embryo. Nevertheless, the effect of hypoxia on the developmental program of organisms was studied rarely. In particular, this holds true for vertebrate embryos that depend on a functional placenta for proper development and had not been studied in this respect due to the obvious limitation. We established a protocol to culture aquatic embryos, which enabled us to culture a high number of Xenopus embryos until tadpole stage under defined hypoxic conditions in four hypoxia chambers simultaneously, employing a computerized system...
2018: Hypoxia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386509/platinum-bearing-chromite-layers-are-caused-by-pressure-reduction-during-magma-ascent
#14
Rais Latypov, Gelu Costin, Sofya Chistyakova, Emma J Hunt, Ria Mukherjee, Tony Naldrett
Platinum-bearing chromitites in mafic-ultramafic intrusions such as the Bushveld Complex are key repositories of strategically important metals for human society. Basaltic melts saturated in chromite alone are crucial to their generation, but the origin of such melts is controversial. One concept holds that they are produced by processes operating within the magma chamber, whereas another argues that melts entering the chamber were already saturated in chromite. Here we address the problem by examining the pressure-related changes in the topology of a Mg2 SiO4 -CaAl2 Si2 O8 -SiO2 -MgCr2 O4 quaternary system and by thermodynamic modelling of crystallisation sequences of basaltic melts at 1-10 kbar pressures...
January 31, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378477/a-review-of-the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-valved-holding-chamber-vhc-literature-with-a-focus-on-the-aerochamber-plus-flow-vu-anti-static-vhc
#15
Sanjeeva Dissanayake, Jason Suggett
Valved holding chambers (VHCs) reduce the need for inhalation-actuation coordination with pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs), reduce oropharyngeal drug deposition and may improve lung deposition and clinical outcomes compared to pMDIs used alone. While VHCs are thus widely advocated for use in vulnerable patient groups within clinical and regulatory guidelines, there is less consensus as to whether the performance differences between different VHCs have clinical implications. This review evaluates the VHC literature, in particular the data pertaining to large- versus small-volume chambers, aerosol performance with a VHC adjunct versus a pMDI alone, charge dissipative/conducting versus non-conducting VHCs, and facemasks, to ascertain whether potentially meaningful differences between VHCs exist...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317646/engineering-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-a-functional-skeletal-muscle-tissue
#16
Lingjun Rao, Ying Qian, Alastair Khodabukus, Thomas Ribar, Nenad Bursac
The generation of functional skeletal muscle tissues from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has not been reported. Here, we derive induced myogenic progenitor cells (iMPCs) via transient overexpression of Pax7 in paraxial mesoderm cells differentiated from hPSCs. In 2D culture, iMPCs readily differentiate into spontaneously contracting multinucleated myotubes and a pool of satellite-like cells endogenously expressing Pax7. Under optimized 3D culture conditions, iMPCs derived from multiple hPSC lines reproducibly form functional skeletal muscle tissues (iSKM bundles) containing aligned multi-nucleated myotubes that exhibit positive force-frequency relationship and robust calcium transients in response to electrical or acetylcholine stimulation...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284494/ferumoxytol-enhanced-black-blood-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#17
Kim-Lien Nguyen, Eun-Ah Park, Takegawa Yoshida, Peng Hu, J Paul Finn
BACKGROUND: Bright-blood and black-blood cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques are frequently employed together during a clinical exam because of their complementary features. While valuable, existing black-blood CMR approaches are flow dependent and prone to failure. We aim to assess the effectiveness and reliability of ferumoxytol enhanced (FE) Half-Fourier Single-shot Turbo Spin-echo (HASTE) imaging without magnetization preparation pulses to yield uniform intra-luminal blood signal suppression by comparing FE-HASTE with pre-ferumoxytol HASTE imaging...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283402/real-time-monitoring-and-analysis-of-zebrafish-electrocardiogram-with-anomaly-detection
#18
Michael Lenning, Joseph Fortunato, Tai Le, Isaac Clark, Ang Sherpa, Soyeon Yi, Peter Hofsteen, Geethapriya Thamilarasu, Jingchun Yang, Xiaolei Xu, Huy-Dung Han, Tzung K Hsiai, Hung Cao
Heart disease is the leading cause of mortality in the U.S. with approximately 610,000 people dying every year. Effective therapies for many cardiac diseases are lacking, largely due to an incomplete understanding of their genetic basis and underlying molecular mechanisms. Zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) are an excellent model system for studying heart disease as they enable a forward genetic approach to tackle this unmet medical need. In recent years, our team has been employing electrocardiogram (ECG) as an efficient tool to study the zebrafish heart along with conventional approaches, such as immunohistochemistry, DNA and protein analyses...
December 28, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233239/perfluorocarbon-in-delayed-recompression-with-a-mixed-gender-swine-model-of-decompression-sickness
#19
William A Cronin, Aaron A Hall, Charles R Auker, Richard T Mahon
INTRODUCTION: Perfluorocarbons (PFC) are fluorinated hydrocarbons that dissolve gases to a much greater degree than plasma and hold promise in treating decompression sickness (DCS). The efficacy of PFC in a mixed gender model of DCS and safety in recompression therapy has not been previously explored. METHODS: Swine (25 kg; N = 104; 51 male and 53 female) were randomized into normal saline solution (NSS) or PFC emulsion treatment groups and subjected to compression on air in a hyperbaric chamber at 200 fsw for 31 min...
January 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195358/novel-single-cell-mega-size-chambers-for-electrochemical-etching-of-panorama-position-sensitive-polycarbonate-ion-image-detectors
#20
Mehdi Sohrabi
A novel development is made here by inventing panorama single-cell mega-size electrochemical etching (MS-ECE) chamber systems for processing panorama position-sensitive mega-size polycarbonate ion image detectors (MS-PCIDs) of potential for many neutron and ion detection applications in particular hydrogen ions or proton tracks and images detected for the first time in polycarbonates in this study. The MS-PCID is simply a large polycarbonate sheet of a desired size. The single-cell MS-ECE invented consists of two large equally sized transparent Plexiglas sheets as chamber walls holding a MS-PCID and the ECE chamber components tightly together...
November 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
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