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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222359/disgust-proneness-predicts-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-symptom-severity-in-a-clinical-sample-of-youth-distinctions-from-negative-affect
#1
Bunmi O Olatunji, Chad Ebesutani, Jingu Kim, Bradley C Riemann, David M Jacobi
BACKGROUND: Although studies have linked disgust proneness to the etiology and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in adults, there remains a paucity of research examining the specificity of this association among youth. METHOD: The present study employed structural equation modeling to examine the association between disgust proneness, negative affect, and OCD symptom severity in a clinical sample of youth admitted to a residential treatment facility (N =471)...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222324/graph-based-segmentation-of-abnormal-nuclei-in-cervical-cytology
#2
Ling Zhang, Hui Kong, Shaoxiong Liu, Tianfu Wang, Siping Chen, Milan Sonka
A general method is reported for improving the segmentation of abnormal cell nuclei in cervical cytology images. In automation-assisted reading of cervical cytology, one of the essential steps is the segmentation of nuclei. Despite some progress, there is a need to improve the sensitivity, particularly the segmentation of abnormal nuclei. Our method starts with pre-segmenting the nucleus to define the coarse center and size of nucleus, which is used to construct a graph by image unfolding that maps ellipse-like border in the Cartesian coordinate system to lines in the polar coordinate system...
January 31, 2017: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222135/precision-oncology-charting-a-path-forward-to-broader-deployment-of-genomic-profiling
#3
Alison M Schram, Michael F Berger, David M Hyman
In this Perspective, David Hyman and coauthors discuss clinical research on the application of genomic information in oncology.
February 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222006/adaptive-discrete-hypergraph-matching
#4
Junchi Yan, Changsheng Li, Yin Li, Guitao Cao
This paper addresses the problem of hypergraph matching using higher-order affinity information. We propose a solver that iteratively updates the solution in the discrete domain by linear assignment approximation. The proposed method is guaranteed to converge to a stationary discrete solution and avoids the annealing procedure and ad-hoc post binarization step that are required in several previous methods. Specifically, we start with a simple iterative discrete gradient assignment solver. This solver can be trapped in an m-circle sequence under moderate conditions, where m is the order of the graph matching problem...
February 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221808/decoupled-hierarchical-structures-for-suppression-of-leidenfrost-phenomenon
#5
Nazanin Farokhnia, Seyed Mohammad Sajadi, Peyman Irajizad, Hadi Ghasemi
Thermal management of high temperature systems through cooling droplets is limited by the existence of the Leidenfrost point (LFP), at which the formation of a continuous vapor film between a hot solid and a cooling droplet diminishes the heat transfer rate. This limit results in a bottleneck for the advancement of the wide spectrum of systems including high-temperature power generation, electronics/photonics, reactors, and spacecraft. Despite a long time effort on development of surfaces for suppression of this phenomenon, this limit has only shifted to higher temperatures, but still exists...
February 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221363/premature-primary-tooth-eruption-in-cognitive-motor-delayed-adnp-mutated-children
#6
I Gozes, A Van Dijck, G Hacohen-Kleiman, I Grigg, G Karmon, E Giladi, M Eger, Y Gabet, M Pasmanik-Chor, E Cappuyns, O Elpeleg, R F Kooy, S Bedrosian-Sermone
A major flaw in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) management is late diagnosis. Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) is a most frequent de novo mutated ASD-related gene. Functionally, ADNP protects nerve cells against electrical blockade. In mice, complete Adnp deficiency results in dysregulation of over 400 genes and failure to form a brain. Adnp haploinsufficiency results in cognitive and social deficiencies coupled to sex- and age-dependent deficits in the key microtubule and ion channel pathways...
February 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221068/why-wasn-t-prevention-included-comment-on-the-special-issue-on-undergraduate-education-in-psychology-2016
#7
Elaine Clanton Harpine
In the February/March 2016 special issue, articles by Gurung et al. (2016) and Norcross et al. (2016) called for change in undergraduate education; however, the special issue failed to include prevention. This comment shows that undergraduate education should include a specialization in prevention, focusing on prevention groups. This could offer a new 4-year career path in psychology, expanding psychology student job opportunities. Prevention groups include health prevention, school-based prevention, violence and anger prevention, and bullying prevention...
February 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221018/low-efficiency-upconversion-nanoparticles-for-high-resolution-coalignment-of-near-infrared-and-visible-light-paths-on-a-light-microscope
#8
Sriramkumar Sundaramoorthy, Adrian Garcia Badaracco, Sophia M Hirsch, Jun Hong Park, Tim Davies, Julien Dumont, Mimi Shirasu-Hiza, Andrew C Kummel, Julie C Canman
The combination of near-infrared (NIR) and visible wavelengths in light microscopy for biological studies is increasingly common. For example, many fields of biology are developing the use of NIR for optogenetics, in which an NIR laser induces a change in gene expression and/or protein function. One major technical barrier in working with both NIR and visible light on an optical microscope is obtaining their precise coalignment at the imaging plane position. Photon upconverting particles (UCPs) can bridge this gap as they are excited by NIR light but emit in the visible range via an anti-Stokes luminescence mechanism...
February 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220858/time-reversal-breaking-induced-quantum-spin-hall-effect
#9
Wei Luo, D X Shao, Ming-Xun Deng, W Y Deng, L Sheng
We show that quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect does not occur in a square lattice model due to cancellation of the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling coming from different hopping paths. However, we show that QSH effect can be induced by the presence of staggered magnetic fluxes alternating directions square by square. When the resulting Peierls phase takes a special value , the system has a composite symmetry ΘΡ- with Θ the time-reversal operator and Ρ- transforming the Peierls phase from γ to γ - , which protects the gapless edge states...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220796/beyond-the-classic-vta-extended-amygdala-projections-to-da-striatal-paths-in-the-primate
#10
Julie L Fudge, Emily A Kelly, Ria Pal, Joseph L Bedont, Lydia Park, Brian Ho
The central extended amygdala (CEA) has been conceptualized as a 'macrosystem' that regulates various stress-induced behaviors. Consistent with this, the CEA highly expresses corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), an important modulator of stress responses. Stress alters goal-directed responses associated with striatal paths, including maladaptive responses such as drug seeking, social withdrawal, and compulsive behavior. CEA inputs to the midbrain dopamine (DA) system are positioned to influence striatal functions through mesolimbic DA-striatal pathways...
February 21, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220759/musculoskeletal-model-based-control-interface-mimics-physiologic-hand-dynamics-during-path-tracing-task
#11
Dustin Lee Crouch, Helen Huang
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the feasibility of a novel, customizable, simplified EMG-driven musculoskeletal model for estimating coordinated hand and wrist motions during a real-time path tracing task. APPROACH: A two-degree-of-freedom (DOF) computational musculoskeletal model was implemented for real-time EMG-driven control of a stick figure hand displayed on a computer screen. After 5 to 10 minutes of undirected practice, subjects were given 3 attempts to trace 10 straight paths, one at a time, with the fingertip of the virtual hand...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220755/ribosomal-mutations-promote-the-evolution-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-a-multidrug-environment
#12
James E Gomez, Benjamin B Kaufmann-Malaga, Carl N Wivagg, Peter B Kim, Melanie R Silvis, Nikolai Renedo, Thomas R Ioerger, Rushdy Ahmad, Jonathan Livny, Skye Fishbein, James C Sacchettini, Steven A Carr, Deborah T Hung
Antibiotic resistance arising via chromosomal mutations is typically specific to a particular antibiotic or class of antibiotics. We have identified mutations in genes encoding ribosomal components in Mycobacterium smegmatis that confer resistance to several structurally and mechanistically unrelated classes of antibiotics and enhance survival following heat shock and membrane stress. These mutations affect ribosome assembly and cause large-scale transcriptomic and proteomic changes, including the downregulation of the catalase KatG, an activating enzyme required for isoniazid sensitivity, and upregulation of WhiB7, a transcription factor involved in innate antibiotic resistance...
February 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220457/innovative-development-path-of-ethnomedicines-the-interpretation-of-the-path
#13
REVIEW
Zhaoyun Zhu, Dehuan Fu, Yali Gui, Tao Cui, Jingkun Wang, Ting Wang, Zhizhong Yang, Yanfei Niu, Zhennan She, Li Wang
One of the primary purposes of the innovative development of ethnomedicines is to use their excellent safety and significant efficacy to serve a broader population. To achieve this purpose, modern scientific and technological means should be referenced, and relevant national laws and regulations as well as technical guides should be strictly followed to develop standards and to perform systemic research in producing ethnomedicines. Finally, ethnomedicines, which are applied to a limited extent in ethnic areas, can be transformed into safe, effective, and quality-controllable medical products to relieve the pain of more patients...
February 21, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220165/new-insights-into-the-electroreduction-of-ethylene-sulfite-as-an-electrolyte-additive-for-facilitating-solid-electrolyte-interphase-formation-in-lithium-ion-batteries
#14
Youmin Sun, Yixuan Wang
To help understand the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation facilitated by electrolyte additives of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) the supermolecular clusters [(ES)Li(+)(PC)m](PC)n (m = 1-2; n = 0, 6 and 9) were used to investigate the electroreductive decompositions of the electrolyte additive ethylene sulfite (ES) as well as the solvent propylene carbonate (PC) with density functional theory. The results show that ES can be reduced prior to PC, resulting in a reduction precursor that will then undergo a ring opening decomposition to yield a radical anion...
February 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220077/noninvasive-assessment-of-the-effect-of-position-and-exercise-on-pulse-arrival-to-peripheral-vascular-beds-in-healthy-volunteers
#15
Yurie Obata, Qi J Ong, J T Magruder, Helen Grichkevitch, Dan E Berkowitz, Daniel Nyhan, Jochen Steppan, Viachaslau Barodka
Background: The effects of position and exercise on pulse wave distribution across a healthy, compliant arterial tree are not fully understood. We studied the effects of exercise and position on the pattern of pulse arrival times (PATs) in healthy volunteers. Moreover, we compared the pulse arrival time ratios to the respective distance ratios between different locations. Methods: Thirteen young healthy volunteers were studied, using an electrocardiogram and plethysmograph to simultaneously record pulse wave arrival at the ear lobe, index finger and big toe...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220071/efficient-computation-of-functional-brain-networks-toward-real-time-functional-connectivity
#16
Juan García-Prieto, Ricardo Bajo, Ernesto Pereda
Functional Connectivity has demonstrated to be a key concept for unraveling how the brain balances functional segregation and integration properties while processing information. This work presents a set of open-source tools that significantly increase computational efficiency of some well-known connectivity indices and Graph-Theory measures. PLV, PLI, ImC, and wPLI as Phase Synchronization measures, Mutual Information as an information theory based measure, and Generalized Synchronization indices are computed much more efficiently than prior open-source available implementations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219827/the-intervening-role-of-urgency-on-the-association-between-childhood-maltreatment-ptsd-and-substance-related-problems
#17
Rebecca Mirhashem, Holley C Allen, Zachary W Adams, Katherine van Stolk-Cooke, Alison Legrand, Matthew Price
A range of risk factors lead to opioid use and substance-related problems (SRP) including childhood maltreatment, elevated impulsivity, and psychopathology. These constructs are highly interrelated such that childhood maltreatment is associated with elevated impulsivity and trauma-related psychopathology such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and impulsivity-particularly urgency-and PTSD are related. Prior work has examined the association between these constructs and substance-related problems independently and it is unclear how these multi-faceted constructs (i...
February 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219615/the-path-to-smoking-cessation-in-the-usa
#18
Aaron van Dorn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219423/predictors-of-dieting-and-non-dieting-approaches-among-adults-living-in-australia
#19
Stuart Leske, Esben Strodl, Xiang-Yu Hou
BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of research comparing why dieting and non-dieting approaches are adopted. A greater understanding of reasons underlying dieting and non-dieting attempts will help to identify target beliefs for interventions to support and motivate adults to attempt whatever approach they are willing and/or able to pursue. We investigated the predictors of dieting and non-dieting approaches in Australian adults using predictors that were identified in a previous qualitative study...
February 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219416/the-safe-screw-path-along-inferior-border-of-the-arcuate-line-at-acetabular-area-an-anatomical-study-based-on-ct-scans
#20
Chun Bi, Jiandong Wang, Xiaoxi Ji, Zhijian Ma, Fang Wang, Xiangsen Zeng, Dongmei Wang, Qiugen Wang
BACKGROUND: Misplaced screw during the internal fixation of acetabular fractures may penetrate the hip joint which might cause chondrolysis and traumatic osteoarthritis in the future. This study aims to acquire the safe path for screw insertion along inferior border of the arcuate line fixation route at acetabular area. METHODS: Computed tomography (CT) scans of 98 patients without pelvic trauma were rebuilt for three-dimensional models of pelvis. After depicting the fixation route curve, five cross-sections perpendicularly to the curve were established from the anterior of pelvis to the posterior along inferior border of the arcuate line...
February 20, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
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