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Wentao Jing, Mohsen Ramezani, Kun An, Inhi Kim
The path choice behavior of battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers is influenced by the lack of public charging stations, limited battery capacity, range anxiety and long battery charging time. This paper investigates the congestion/flow pattern captured by stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) traffic assignment problem in transportation networks with BEVs, where the BEV paths are restricted by their battery capacities. The BEV energy consumption is assumed to be a linear function of path length and path travel time, which addresses both path distance limit problem and road congestion effect...
2018: PloS One
David L Georgeson, Byron H Christiansen
Idaho National Laboratory transitioned from an external dosimetry system reliant on thermoluminescent dosimeters to one that uses optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters in 2010. This change not only affected the dosimeters worn by personnel, but those found in the nuclear-accident dosimeters used across Idaho National Laboratory. The elimination of on-site use and processing of thermoluminescent dosimeters impacted Idaho National Laboratory's ability to process nuclear-accident dosimeters in a timely manner...
March 14, 2018: Health Physics
Delida Sanchez, Whitney N Adams, Sarah C Arango, Alaina E Flannigan
The current study examined the link between racial-ethnic microaggressions and psychological distress among 308 Asian American (n = 164) and Latinx American (n = 144) college students (54% female). Additionally, coping strategies (engagement and disengagement) were examined as potential mediators in this link. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the Racial-Ethnic Microaggressions Scale (REMS) was conducted to test the factor structure with an Asian American and Latinx American emerging adult population (Ages 18-26)...
March 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
Vivian M Gonzalez, Lucía L Neander
OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether three facets of impulsivity previously shown to be associated with suicidal ideation and attempts (negative urgency, lack of premeditation, and lack of perseverance) help to account for the established association between problem solving deficits and suicidal ideation. METHOD: Emerging adult college student drinkers with a history of at least passive suicidal ideation (N = 387) completed measures of problem solving, impulsivity, and suicidal ideation...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Jingxin Zhang, Eike Langbehn, Dennis Krupke, Nicholas Katzakis, Frank Steinicke
Telepresence systems have the potential to overcome limits and distance constraints of the real-world by enabling people to remotely visit and interact with each other. However, current telepresence systems usually lack natural ways of supporting interaction and exploration of remote environments (REs). In particular, single webcams for capturing the RE provide only a limited illusion of spatial presence, and movement control of mobile platforms in today's telepresence systems are often restricted to simple interaction devices...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Ahmad Nazmi Bin Ahmad Fuad, Kamal Deep, Wei Yao, Philip Rowe
This article presents the construction of a flexible drill which is designed to cut a curved canal in the bone or remove bone materials, to improve the outcome of orthopedic surgery and to facilitate minimally invasive. This article reports the design of the flexible drill and uses it in an experimental rig to evaluate the drilling force generated when cutting bovine bone. The experiments facilitate the measurement of action forces between the mill bits when moving the tip toward or across a bone sample in various configurations caused by bending the flexible drill sheath to enable cutting of a curved path of variable radius in the bone...
March 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Valentin V Karasiev, James W Dufty, S B Trickey
Realizing the potential for predictive density functional calculations of matter under extreme conditions depends crucially upon having an exchange-correlation (XC) free-energy functional accurate over a wide range of state conditions. Unlike the ground-state case, no such functional exists. We remedy that with systematic construction of a generalized gradient approximation XC free-energy functional based on rigorous constraints, including the free-energy gradient expansion. The new functional provides the correct temperature dependence in the slowly varying regime and the correct zero-T, high-T, and homogeneous electron gas limits...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Dongshuai Hou, Tiejun Yang, Jinhui Tang, Shaochun Li
Graphene oxide (GO) reinforced cement nanocomposites open up a new path for sustainable concrete design. In this paper, reactive force-field molecular dynamics was utilized to investigate the structure, reactivity and interfacial bonding of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H)/GO nanocomposite functionalized by hydroxyl (C-OH), epoxy (C-O-C), carboxyl (COOH) and sulfonic (SO3 H) groups with a coverage of 10%. The silicate chains in the hydrophilic C-S-H substrate provided numerous non-bridging oxygen sites and counter ions (Ca ions) with high reactivity, which allowed interlayer water molecules to dissociate into Si-OH and Ca-OH...
March 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yancong Feng, Rui Tan, Yan Zhao, Rongtan Gao, Luyi Yang, Jinlong Yang, Hao Li, Guofu Zhou, Haibiao Chen, Feng Pan
A novel hybrid single Li-ion conductor (SLIC) for a Li-ion solid electrolyte was prepared by mixing aluminate complexes-polyethylene glycol (LiAl-PEG) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) for solid-state Li-ion batteries. The LiAl-PEG/PEO blend possesses high thermal stability and electrochemical stability with an oxidation decomposition voltage up to 4.8 V. Notably, this hybrid SLIC exhibits not only excellent Li-ion migration kinetics, but also good ionic conductivity as high as 4.0 × 10-5 and 2.6 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 30 and 100 °C, respectively, which is much higher than previously reported SLICs...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Dehbia Benkerrou, Matteo Ceccarelli
One of the greatest health threats facing modern medicine is the emergence of new bacterial strains which are increasingly resistant to almost all currently available antibiotics. According to a CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) report published in 2013, 63% of Acinetobacter species have been identified as Multidrug resistant strains. As for other Gram-negative bacteria, the presence of an outer membrane increases the intrinsic resistance of A. baumannii to most antibiotics. The outer membrane of A...
March 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Joshua L Haworth, Adam J Strang, Mathias Hieronymus, Mark S Walsh
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Many people use balance training as a rehabilitation or habilitation modality. Although the time course of changes to temporal and spatial aspects of postural sway over the initial weeks of such training is as yet unclear. Particularly, we sought to explore the effects of training on sway during a dynamic task of stance on an ultra-compliant surface. Such a task provides different mechanical, and thus sensorimotor, constraints compared to stance on a solid surface...
March 15, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Soojin Park, Esra Kürüm
Randomized experiments are often complicated because of treatment noncompliance. This challenge prevents researchers from identifying the mediated portion of the intention-to-treated (ITT) effect, which is the effect of the assigned treatment that is attributed to a mediator. One solution suggests identifying the mediated ITT effect on the basis of the average causal mediation effect among compliers when there is a single mediator. However, considering the complex nature of the mediating mechanisms, it is natural to assume that there are multiple variables that mediate through the causal path...
March 15, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
Folakemi T Odedina, R R Reams, E Kaninjing, J Nguyen, B Mochona, D E Lyon, N Askins, L S Behar-Horenstein
With the growing burden of cancer in minority populations and limited progress in eliminating cancer disparities, it has become important to develop a diverse oncology workforce in basic, clinical, and behavioral research who will address cancer disparities and increase the participation of minority populations in clinical trials. To address the lack of well-trained underrepresented minority cancer scientists in Florida, the University of Florida collaborated with Florida A&M University in 2012 to establish the Florida Prostate Cancer Research Training Opportunities for Outstanding Leaders (ReTOOL) Program...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Cordell M Baker, Joshua D Burks, Robert G Briggs, Adam D Smitherman, Chad A Glenn, Andrew K Conner, Dee H Wu, Michael E Sughrue
Introduction: Supplementary motor area (SMA) syndrome is a constellation of temporary symptoms that may occur following tumors of the frontal lobe. Affected patients develop akinesia and mutism but often recover within weeks to months. With our own case examples and with correlations to fiber tracking validated by gross anatomical dissection as ground truth, we describe a white matter pathway through which recovery may occur. Methods: Diffusion spectrum imaging from the Human Connectome Project was used for tractography analysis...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Jun Sugawara, Tsubasa Tomoto, Hirofumi Tanaka
As an initial step to better define heart-brachial pulse wave velocity (hbPWV), a novel measure of proximal aortic stiffness, we proposed and validated a simple formula to estimate the arterial path length (Lhb) for hbPWV. In 190 patients aged 19-79 years, the reference Lhb was measured by a three-dimensional MRI. Using multiple regression analysis and fivefold cross-validation, estimation formulae were created using age, sex, and height. hbPWV was calculated as Lhb divided by the time interval from the second heart sound to the dicrotic notch on the brachial pressure wave...
March 14, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Xuan Zhang, Xiaohan Sun
We propose a time division multiplexing passive optical network (TDM-PON) monitoring scheme based on the optical pulse width modulation (OPWM) by using a simple asymmetric loop (AL) located near the optical network unit (ONU). Various pulse widths can be easily obtained by configuring the appropriate length of the patchcord used to generate the path difference between two branches of a 1 × 2 splitter. Different wavelengths can be assigned to the same pulse width, which can further increase the network size...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Olivier Bles, Thibault Boehly, Jean-Louis Deneubourg, Stamatios C Nicolis
In socials insects, exploration is fundamental for the discovery of food resources and determines decision-making. We investigated how the interplay between the physical characteristics of the paths leading to food sources and the way it impacts the behaviour of individual ants affects their collective decisions. Colonies of different sizes of Lasius niger had access to two equal food sources through two paths of equal length but of different geometries: one was straight between the nest and the food source, and the other involved an abrupt change of direction at the midway point (135°)...
March 2018: Biology Letters
Robert J Miller, Kevin D Lafferty, Thomas Lamy, Li Kui, Andrew Rassweiler, Daniel C Reed
Foundation species define the ecosystems they live in, but ecologists have often characterized dominant plants as foundational without supporting evidence. Giant kelp has long been considered a marine foundation species due to its complex structure and high productivity; however, there is little quantitative evidence to evaluate this. Here, we apply structural equation modelling to a 15-year time series of reef community data to evaluate how giant kelp affects the reef community. Although species richness was positively associated with giant kelp biomass, most direct paths did not involve giant kelp...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Antonella Succurro, Oliver Ebenhöh
Understanding microbial ecosystems means unlocking the path toward a deeper knowledge of the fundamental mechanisms of life. Engineered microbial communities are also extremely relevant to tackling some of today's grand societal challenges. Advanced meta-omics experimental techniques provide crucial insights into microbial communities, but have been so far mostly used for descriptive, exploratory approaches to answer the initial 'who is there?' QUESTION: An ecosystem is a complex network of dynamic spatio-temporal interactions among organisms as well as between organisms and the environment...
March 14, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Ji Dong, Yuqiong Hu, Xiaoying Fan, Xinglong Wu, Yunuo Mao, Boqiang Hu, Hongshan Guo, Lu Wen, Fuchou Tang
BACKGROUND: Organogenesis is crucial for proper organ formation during mammalian embryonic development. However, the similarities and shared features between different organs and the cellular heterogeneity during this process at single-cell resolution remain elusive. RESULTS: We perform single-cell RNA sequencing analysis of 1916 individual cells from eight organs and tissues of E9.5 to E11.5 mouse embryos, namely, the forebrain, hindbrain, skin, heart, somite, lung, liver, and intestine...
March 14, 2018: Genome Biology
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