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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813033/a-vision-based-wayfinding-system-for-visually-impaired-people-using-situation-awareness-and-activity-based-instructions
#1
Eunjeong Ko, Eun Yi Kim
A significant challenge faced by visually impaired people is 'wayfinding', which is the ability to find one's way to a destination in an unfamiliar environment. This study develops a novel wayfinding system for smartphones that can automatically recognize the situation and scene objects in real time. Through analyzing streaming images, the proposed system first classifies the current situation of a user in terms of their location. Next, based on the current situation, only the necessary context objects are found and interpreted using computer vision techniques...
August 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812981/the-experimental-study-on-the-emanation-power-of-a-flow-through-thoron-source-made-from-incandescent-gas-mantles
#2
Yunxiang Wang, Lei Zhang, Qiuju Guo
To improve the quality of the calibration of thoron concentration activity measurement, an experimental study on the emanation power of a flow-through thoron source based on incandescent gas mantles was carried out in this paper. The thoron activity concentrations of the outflowed air from the flow-through source were measured using RAD7, and the quantitative relationship between thoron concentrations and flowrates was studied through theoretical analysis, and the thoron emanation powers were obtained from the fitting of the relationship above...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812878/nanomechanical-imaging-of-the-diffusion-of-fullerene-into-conjugated-polymer
#3
Dong Wang, Ken Nakajima, Feng Liu, Shaowei Shi, Thomas P Russell
The large Young's modulus difference between chemically modified fullerene (PCBM) and a conjugated polymer was used to nanomechanically map the diffusion of PCBM into PTB7, a high efficiency low band gap conjugated polymer. The sharp tip in nanomechanical atomic force microscopy (AFM) ensures a high-resolution nanomechanical characterization of the diffusion front, with the intrinsic benefits of revealing the mechanical properties of the mixtures. Localized structure changes induced by diffusion were investigated by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction methods...
August 16, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812876/cocatalysing-pt-pto-phase-junction-nanodots-on-hierarchically-porous-tio2-for-highly-enhanced-photocatalytic-hydrogen-production
#4
Xiaoning Ren, Zhiyi Hu, Jun Jin, Liang Wu, Chao Wang, Jing Liu, Fu Liu, Min Wu, Yu Li, Gustaaf Van Tendeloo, Bao-Lian Su
Phase-junction between cocatalyst and semiconductor host is quite effective to enhance the photocatalytic activity, and is widely studied while the report on the phase-juncted cocatalyst is still rare. In this work, we report the deposition of the Pt/PtO phase-juncted nanodots as cocatalyst via NaOH modification of an interconnected meso-macroporous TiO2 network with high surface area and inner-particle mesopores to enhance the performance of photocatalytic H2 production. Our results show that NaOH modification can largely influence the Pt/PtO phase-juncted nanodots formation and dispersity...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812868/light-and-strong-hierarchical-porous-sic-foam-for-efficient-electromagnetic-interference-shielding-and-thermal-insulation-at-elevated-temperatures
#5
Caiyun Liang, Zhenfeng Wang, Lina Wu, Xiaochen Zhang, Huan Wang, Zhijiang Wang
A novel light but strong SiC foam with hierarchical porous architecture are fabricated by using dough as raw material via carbonization and followed carbothermal reduction with silicon source. A significant synergistic effect is achieved by embedding meso and nano pores in micro-sized porous skeleton, which endows the SiC foam with high-performance electromagnetic interference shielding (EMI), thermal insulation and mechanical properties. The micro-sized skeleton withstands the high stress. The meso- and nano-sized pores enhance the multiple reflection of the incident electromagnetic waves and elongate the path of heat transfer...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812847/evidence-informed-deliberative-processes-for-universal-health-coverage-broadening-the-scope-comment-on-priority-setting-for-universal-health-coverage-we-need-evidence-informed-deliberative-processes-not-just-more-evidence-on-cost-effectiveness
#6
Unni Gopinathan, Trygve Ottersen
Universal health coverage (UHC) is high on the global health agenda, and priority setting is fundamental to the fair and efficient pursuit of this goal. In a recent editorial, Rob Baltussen and colleagues point to the need to go beyond evidence on cost-effectiveness and call for evidence-informed deliberative processes when setting priorities for UHC. Such processes are crucial at every step on the path to UHC, and hopefully we will see intensified efforts to develop and implement processes of this kind in the coming years...
November 27, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812745/hysteresis-and-bonding-reconstruction-in-the-pressure-induced-b3-b1-phase-transition-of-3c-sic
#7
Miguel A Salvadó, R Franco, Pilar Pertierra, T Ouahrani, J M Recio
The determination of kinetic factors affecting phase metastability is crucial for the design of materials out of the ambient conditions. At a given temperature, the kinetic barrier associated with the reconstruction of the bonding network of a pressure-induced phase transition can be only overcome at pressures where the available vibrational energy of the system is equal or higher than the corresponding activation energy. Our work demonstrates that these pressures provide boundaries to hysteresis cycles that can be evaluated following a three-step computational strategy: (i) total energy electronic structure calculations, (ii) determination of vibrational contributions by means of a simple Debye model, and (iii) description of the energetic profile along the transition path in the framework of the martensitic approximation...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812693/direct-benefits-and-evolutionary-transitions-to-complex-societies
#8
Cody J Dey, Constance M O'Connor, Holly Wilkinson, Susanne Shultz, Sigal Balshine, John L Fitzpatrick
The selective forces that drive the evolution of cooperation have been intensely debated. Evolutionary transitions to cooperative breeding, a complex form of cooperation, have been hypothesized to be linked to low degrees of promiscuity, which increases intragroup relatedness and the indirect (that is, kin selected) benefits of helping. However, ecological factors also promote cooperative breeding, and may be more important than relatedness in some contexts. Identifying the key evolutionary drivers of cooperative breeding therefore requires an integrated assessment of these hypotheses...
April 18, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812668/evolutionary-transitions-towards-eusociality-in-snapping-shrimps
#9
Solomon Tin Chi Chak, J Emmett Duffy, Kristin M Hultgren, Dustin R Rubenstein
Animal social organization varies from complex societies where reproduction is dominated by a single individual (eusociality) to those where reproduction is more evenly distributed among group members (communal breeding). Yet, how simple groups transition evolutionarily to more complex societies remains unclear. Competing hypotheses suggest that eusociality and communal breeding are alternative evolutionary endpoints, or that communal breeding is an intermediate stage in the transition towards eusociality. We tested these alternative hypotheses in sponge-dwelling shrimps, Synalpheus spp...
March 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812630/our-path-to-better-science-in-less-time-using-open-data-science-tools
#10
Julia S Stewart Lowndes, Benjamin D Best, Courtney Scarborough, Jamie C Afflerbach, Melanie R Frazier, Casey C O'Hara, Ning Jiang, Benjamin S Halpern
Reproducibility has long been a tenet of science but has been challenging to achieve-we learned this the hard way when our old approaches proved inadequate to efficiently reproduce our own work. Here we describe how several free software tools have fundamentally upgraded our approach to collaborative research, making our entire workflow more transparent and streamlined. By describing specific tools and how we incrementally began using them for the Ocean Health Index project, we hope to encourage others in the scientific community to do the same-so we can all produce better science in less time...
May 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812601/recent-extinctions-disturb-path-to-equilibrium-diversity-in-caribbean-bats
#11
Luis Valente, Rampal S Etienne, Liliana M Dávalos
Islands are ideal systems to model temporal changes in biodiversity and reveal the influence of humans on natural communities. Although theory predicts biodiversity on islands tends towards an equilibrium value, the recent extinction of large proportions of island biotas complicates testing this model. The well-preserved subfossil record of Caribbean bats-involving multiple insular radiations-provides a rare opportunity to model diversity dynamics in an insular community. Here, we reconstruct the diversity trajectory in noctilionoid bats of the Greater Antilles by applying a dynamic model of colonization, extinction and speciation to phylogenetic and palaeontological data including all known extinct and extant species...
January 9, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812316/literacy-acquisition-influences-children-s-rapid-automatized-naming
#12
Robin L Peterson, Anne B Arnett, Bruce F Pennington, Brian Byrne, Stefan Samuelsson, Richard K Olson
Previous research has established that learning to read improves children's performance on reading-related phonological tasks, including phoneme awareness (PA) and nonword repetition. Few studies have investigated whether literacy acquisition also promotes children's rapid automatized naming (RAN). We tested the hypothesis that literacy acquisition should influence RAN in an international, longitudinal population sample of twins. Cross-lagged path models evaluated the relationships among literacy, PA, and RAN across four time points from pre-kindergarten through grade 4...
August 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812203/assessment-of-methodologies-to-calculate-intraventricular-pressure-differences-in-computational-models-and-patients
#13
Francisco J Londono-Hoyos, Abigail Swillens, Joris Van Cauwenberge, Brett Meyers, Maheswara Reddy Koppula, Pavlos Vlachos, Julio A Chirinos, Patrick Segers
Intraventricular pressure differences (IVPDs) govern left ventricular (LV) efficient filling and are a significant determinant of LV diastolic function. Our primary aim is to assess the performance of available methods (color M-mode (CMM) and 1D/2D MRI-based methods) to determine IVPDs from intracardiac flow measurements. Performance of three methods to calculate IVPDs was first investigated via an LV computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. CFD velocity data were derived along a modifiable scan line, mimicking ultrasound/MRI acquisition of 1D (IVPDCMM/IVPD1D MRI) and 2D (IVPD2D MRI) velocity-based IVPD information...
August 16, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812005/left-ventricular-rigid-body-rotation-in-a-patient-with-acromegaly-from-the-magyar-path-study
#14
Attila Nemes, Árpád Kormányos, Péter Domsik, Anita Kalapos, Csaba Lengyel, Zsuzsanna Valkusz, Tamás Forster
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811615/coherent-tunneling-in-an-algan-aln-gan-heterojunction-captured-through-an-analogy-with-a-mos-contact
#15
Yannick Baines, Julien Buckley, Jérôme Biscarrat, Gennie Garnier, Matthew Charles, William Vandendaele, Charlotte Gillot, Marc Plissonnier
Due to their wide band gaps, III-N materials can exhibit behaviors ranging from the semiconductor class to the dielectric class. Through an analogy between a Metal/AlGaN/AlN/GaN diode and a MOS contact, we make use of this dual nature and show a direct path to capture the energy band diagram of the nitride system. We then apply transparency calculations to describe the forward conduction regime of a III-N heterojunction diode and demonstrate it realizes a tunnel diode, in contrast to its regular Schottky Barrier Diode designation...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811559/two-color-heterodyne-laser-interferometry-for-long-distance-stage-measurement-with-correction-of-uncertainties-in-measured-optical-distances
#16
Zhaowu Liu, Wenhao Li, Bayanheshig, Xiaotian Li, Shan Jiang, Ying Song, Qiang Lv
We designed a new system that eliminates deviations by correcting uncertainty in optical distance measurements in the laser two-color heterodyne interferometer. In simulations, eliminating the uncertainty from the atmosphere, the deviation in the uncertainty of the optical distance was 50 times greater with the two-color method than with the one-color method. Adding a correction arm reduces the deviation caused by the uncertainties in measured optical distances. The uncertainty in the measured path length is reduced to 20 nm over a path length of 1500 mm, giving a relative uncertainty of 1...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811307/an-interview-with-jenny-nichols
#17
Aidan Maartens
Jennifer Nichols is a Principal Investigator at the Cambridge Stem Cell Institute and Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience at the University of Cambridge, UK. Her lab works on lineage segregation and the establishment of pluripotency in the mammalian embryo. In 2017 she was awarded the British Society for Developmental Biology's Cheryll Tickle Medal, given to mid-career female scientists with outstanding achievements in developmental biology. We met Jenny in her Cambridge office to talk about pluripotency in vitro and in vivo, the importance of collaboration in her career path, and what playing a musical instrument has in common with research...
August 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811131/assessment-of-translational-risk-in-drug-research-role-of-biomarker-classification-and-mechanism-based-pkpd-concepts
#18
Sandra A G Visser, Tjerk J H Bueters
In 2005, Danhof and coauthors proposed a new biomarker classification in the context of the application of mechanism-based PKPD modeling. They defined the term 'biomarker' as a measure that characterizes a drug-induced response, which is on the causal path between drug administration and clinical outcome. The biomarker classification identified seven categories that provide different insights into the kinetics of drug action, such as target site distribution, target engagement, or into the impact of the drug on physiology or disease...
August 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810758/molecular-conformation-of-linear-alkane-molecules-from-gas-phase-to-bulk-water-through-the-interface
#19
Ezequiel L Murina, Roberto Fernández-Prini, Claudio Pastorino
We studied the behavior of long chain alkanes (LCAs) as they were transferred from gas to bulk water, through the liquid-vapor interface. These systems were studied using umbrella sampling molecular dynamics simulation and we have calculated properties like free energy profiles, molecular orientation, and radius of gyration of the LCA molecules. The results show changes in conformation of the solutes along the path. LCAs adopt pronounced molecular orientations and the larger ones extend appreciably when partially immersed in the interface...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810740/cis-trans-isomerization-in-secondary-amides-reaction-paths-nitrogen-inversion-and-relevance-to-peptidic-systems
#20
Balmukund Sureshkumar Thakkar, John S M Svendsen, Richard Alan Engh
Cis/trans isomerization of 2º-amide bonds is a key step in a wide range of important processes. Here we present a theoretical assessment of cis/trans isomerization of 2º-amide bonds using B3LYP density functional methods, describing two reaction paths and corresponding geometry changes during isomerization of N-methylacetamide (NMA) and glycylglycine methyl ester (GGMe). The isomerization begins via a common path, as the extended π-bonding of the amide bond maintains approximate planarity of the O-C-N-H dihedral angle, with only gradually increasing pyramidalization of the nitrogen atom, until a bifurcation point is reached...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
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