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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169088/systematically-investigating-the-impact-of-medication-on-the-gut-microbiome
#1
REVIEW
Lisa Maier, Athanasios Typas
In the recent years, there is accumulating evidence for a strong impact of medication on the gut microbiota composition. This evidence comes from metagenomics-based associations and extends beyond classical antibacterials to a handful of human-targeted drugs. To answer whether such effects are direct and explore their consequences in human health, we need to develop experimental platforms that will allow for systematic profiling of drug-microbiota interactions. Here, we discuss approaches, considerations, experimental setups and strategies that can be used to tackle this need, but can be also readily transmitted to related questions in the microbiome field...
November 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169028/relationships-of-depression-and-anxiety-symptoms-with-seizure-frequency-results-from-a-multicenter-follow-up-study
#2
Lorenz B Dehn, Margarete Pfäfflin, Sabine Brückner, Martin T Lutz, Bernhard J Steinhoff, Thomas Mayer, Christian G Bien, Fridtjof W Nussbeck, Theodor W May
PURPOSE: Depressive and anxiety disorders are frequent among people with epilepsies. There are, however, only few longitudinal studies, which examine the relationship between these comorbid psychiatric disorders and epilepsy-related variables. Thus, we investigated the interrelationships of depression and anxiety symptoms with seizure frequency across time. METHODS: Before admittance to an epilepsy center (T1) and six months after discharge (T2), patients (n=198) with mainly difficult-to-treat epilepsies completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)...
November 13, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168963/a-comparison-of-positive-youth-development-against-depression-and-suicidal-ideation-in-youth-from-hong-kong-and-the-netherlands
#3
Cyrus L K Leung, Michael Bender, Sylvia Y C L Kwok
Background This study tests the buffering effects of positive youth development (PYD) factors against depression and suicidal ideation across Hong Kong and Dutch students. Methods We collected data on depression, suicidal ideation, history of childhood maltreatment, and PYD from 565 Dutch and Hong Kong undergraduates. The three PYD factors, prosocial attributes, positive identity, and cognitive-behavioral competence, were examined for their moderating role in the relationship among childhood maltreatment, depression, and suicidal ideation in path analysis...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168825/disease-progression-divergent-paths
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168765/phenylazopyridine-as-switch-in-photochemical-reactions-a-detailed-computational-description-of-the-mechanism-of-its-photoisomerization
#5
Josep Casellas, Gerard Alcover-Fortuny, Coen de Graaf, Mar Reguero
Azo compounds are organic photochromic systems that have the possibility of switching between cis and trans isomers under irradiation. The different photochemical properties of these isomers make azo compounds into good light-triggered switches, and their significantly different geometries make them very interesting as components in molecular engines or mechanical switches. For instance, azo ligands are used in coordination complexes to trigger photoresponsive properties. The light-induced trans-to-cis isomerization of phenylazopyridine (PAPy) plays a fundamental role in the room-temperature switchable spin crossover of Ni-porphyrin derivatives...
November 23, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168508/structural-basis-for-the-initiation-of-eukaryotic-transcription-coupled-dna-repair
#6
Jun Xu, Indrajit Lahiri, Wei Wang, Adam Wier, Michael A Cianfrocco, Jenny Chong, Alissa A Hare, Peter B Dervan, Frank DiMaio, Andres E Leschziner, Dong Wang
Eukaryotic transcription-coupled repair (TCR) is an important and well-conserved sub-pathway of nucleotide excision repair that preferentially removes DNA lesions from the template strand that block translocation of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Cockayne syndrome group B (CSB, also known as ERCC6) protein in humans (or its yeast orthologues, Rad26 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rhp26 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe) is among the first proteins to be recruited to the lesion-arrested Pol II during the initiation of eukaryotic TCR...
November 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168503/measurement-of-the-multi-tev-neutrino-interaction-cross-section-with-icecube-using-earth-absorption
#7
(no author information available yet)
Neutrinos interact only very weakly, so they are extremely penetrating. The theoretical neutrino-nucleon interaction cross-section, however, increases with increasing neutrino energy, and neutrinos with energies above 40 teraelectronvolts (TeV) are expected to be absorbed as they pass through the Earth. Experimentally, the cross-section has been determined only at the relatively low energies (below 0.4 TeV) that are available at neutrino beams from accelerators. Here we report a measurement of neutrino absorption by the Earth using a sample of 10,784 energetic upward-going neutrino-induced muons...
November 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168308/demonstrating-improved-multiple-transport-mean-free-path-imaging-capabilities-of-light-sheet-microscopy-in-the-quantification-of-fluorescence-dynamics
#8
Matthias Rieckher, Stylianos Psycharakis, Daniele Ancora, Evangelos Liapis, Athanasios Zacharopoulos, Jorge Ripoll, Nektarios Tavernarakis, Giannis Zacharakis
Optical microscopy constitutes one of the most fundamental paradigms for the understanding of complex biological mechanisms in the whole-organism and live-tissue context. Novel imaging techniques such as light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) and optical projection tomography (OPT) combined with phase-retrieval algorithms (PRT) can produce highly-resolved 3D images in multiple transport-mean-free-path scales. Our study aims to exemplify the microscopic capabilities of LSFM when imaging protein dynamics in Caenorhabditis elegans and the distribution of necrotic cells in cancer cell spheroids...
November 23, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167948/a-path-to-actionable-climate-science-perspectives-from-the-field
#9
Nicole M DeCrappeo, Gustavo A Bisbal, Alison M Meadow
The U.S. Department of the Interior Climate Science Centers (CSCs) work with natural and cultural resource managers and scientists to gather information and build tools needed to help fish, wildlife, and ecosystems adapt to the impacts of climate change. The CSCs prioritize the delivery of actionable science products (e.g., synthesized scientific information, maps, decision support tools, etc.) that are focused on key management priorities and co-produced by teams of scientists and managers. In the specific case of the Northwest CSC, we have been successful at promoting and supporting the co-production of actionable climate science at the individual project level, but it has been more difficult to replicate this success at the regional program level...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167818/a-validation-dataset-for-macaque-brain-mri-segmentation
#10
Yaël Balbastre, Denis Rivière, Nicolas Souedet, Clara Fischer, Anne-Sophie Hérard, Susannah Williams, Michel E Vandenberghe, Julien Flament, Romina Aron-Badin, Philippe Hantraye, Jean-François Mangin, Thierry Delzescaux
Validation data for segmentation algorithms dedicated to preclinical images is fiercely lacking, especially when compared to the large number of databases of Human brain images and segmentations available to the academic community. Not only is such data essential for validating methods, it is also needed for objectively comparing concurrent algorithms and detect promising paths, as segmentation challenges have shown for clinical images. The dataset we present here is a first step in this direction. It comprises 10 T2-weighted MRIs of healthy adult macaque brains, acquired on a 7 T magnet, along with corresponding manual segmentations into 17 brain anatomic labelled regions spread over 5 hierarchical levels based on a previously published macaque atlas (Calabrese et al...
February 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167724/analysis-of-resting-state-fmri-topological-graph-theory-properties-in-methamphetamine-drug-users-applying-box-counting-fractal-dimension
#11
Meysam Siyah Mansoory, Mohammad Ali Oghabian, Amir Homayoun Jafari, Alireza Shahbabaie
Introduction: Graph theoretical analysis of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data has provided new measures of mapping human brain in vivo. Of all methods to measure the functional connectivity between regions, Linear Correlation (LC) calculation of activity time series of the brain regions as a linear measure is considered the most ubiquitous one. The strength of the dependence obligatory for graph construction and analysis is consistently underestimated by LC, because not all the bivariate distributions, but only the marginals are Gaussian...
September 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167429/non-universal-transmission-phase-behaviour-of-a-large-quantum-dot
#12
Hermann Edlbauer, Shintaro Takada, Grégoire Roussely, Michihisa Yamamoto, Seigo Tarucha, Arne Ludwig, Andreas D Wieck, Tristan Meunier, Christopher Bäuerle
The electron wave function experiences a phase modification at coherent transmission through a quantum dot. This transmission phase undergoes a characteristic shift of π when scanning through a Coulomb blockade resonance. Between successive resonances either a transmission phase lapse of π or a phase plateau is theoretically expected to occur depending on the parity of quantum dot states. Despite considerable experimental effort, this transmission phase behaviour has remained elusive for a large quantum dot...
November 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167021/diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#13
REVIEW
Shaoying Li, Ken H Young, L Jeffrey Medeiros
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma worldwide, representing approximately 30-40% of all cases in different geographic regions. Patients most often present with a rapidly growing tumour mass in single or multiple, nodal or extranodal sites. The most common type of DLBCL, designated as not otherwise specified, represents 80-85% of all cases and is the focus of this review. There are also rare types of lymphoma composed of large B-cells, in aggregate about 15-20% of all neoplasms that are sufficiently distinctive to recognise separately...
November 19, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166612/impediment-of-replication-forks-by-long-non-coding-rna-provokes-chromosomal-rearrangements-by-error-prone-restart
#14
Takaaki Watanabe, Michael Marotta, Ryusuke Suzuki, Scott J Diede, Stephen J Tapscott, Atsushi Niida, Xiongfong Chen, Lila Mouakkad, Anna Kondratova, Armando E Giuliano, Sandra Orsulic, Hisashi Tanaka
Naturally stalled replication forks are considered to cause structurally abnormal chromosomes in tumor cells. However, underlying mechanisms remain speculative, as capturing naturally stalled forks has been a challenge. Here, we captured naturally stalled forks in tumor cells and delineated molecular processes underlying the structural evolution of circular mini-chromosomes (double-minute chromosomes; DMs). Replication forks stalled on the DM by the co-directional collision with the transcription machinery for long non-coding RNA...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166226/the-origins-of-fears-of-compassion-shame-and-lack-of-safeness-memories-fears-of-compassion-and-psychopathology
#15
Marcela Matos, Joana Duarte, José Pinto-Gouveia
Empirical and clinical research suggests that some individuals find self-generating compassion and receiving compassion from others difficult and aversive. However, it is unclear how these fears of compassion are linked to early experiences and to psychopathological symptoms. This study explores the relationship between shame traumatic memories, centrality of shame memories, early memories of warmth and safeness, fears of compassion, and depression, anxiety and paranoid symptoms. Participants were 302 individuals from the general community population, who completed self-report measures of fears of compassion, shame memories, early affiliative memories, and psychopathology...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166159/local-regulation-of-trail-networks-of-the-arboreal-turtle-ant-cephalotes-goniodontus
#16
Deborah M Gordon
This study examines how an arboreal ant colony maintains, extends, and repairs its network of foraging trails and nests, built on a network of vegetation. Nodes are junctions where a branch forks off from another or where a branch of one plant touching another provides a new edge on which ants could travel. The ants' choice of edge at a node appears to be reinforced by trail pheromone. Ongoing pruning of the network tends to eliminate cycles and minimize the number of nodes and thus decision points, but not the distance traveled...
December 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166134/injection-partners-hcv-and-hiv-status-among-rural-persons-who-inject-drugs-in-puerto-rico
#17
Patrick Habecker, Roberto Abadie, Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Juan Carlos Reyes, Bilal Khan, Kirk Dombrowski
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV among persons who inject drugs (PWID) and the ability of these diseases to spread through injection networks are well documented in urban areas. However, less is known about injection behaviors in rural areas. OBJECTIVES: This study focuses on the association between the number of self-reported injection partners with the PWID's self-reported HCV and HIV status. Injection networks provide paths for infection and information to flow, and are important to consider when developing prevention and intervention strategies...
November 22, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166133/dosimetric-impact-of-gastrointestinal-air-column-in-radiation-treatment-of-pancreatic-cancer
#18
Neil C Estabrook, Jonathan B Corn, Marvene E Ewing, Higinia R Cardenes, Indra J Das
OBJECTIVE: Dosimetric evaluation of air column in gastro-intestinal (GI) structures in IMRT of pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Nine sequential patients were retrospectively chosen for dosimetric analysis of air column in the GI apparatus in pancreatic cancer using cone beam CT (CBCT). The 4DCT was used for target and organs at risk (OARs) and non-coplanar IMRT was used for treatment. Once/week, these patients underwent CBCT for air filling, isocenter verification and dose calculations retrospectively...
November 22, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166052/a-jeziorski-monkhorst-fully-uncontracted-multi-reference-perturbative-treatment-i-principles-second-order-versions-and-tests-on-ground-state-potential-energy-curves
#19
Emmanuel Giner, Celestino Angeli, Yann Garniron, Anthony Scemama, Jean-Paul Malrieu
The present paper introduces a new multi-reference perturbation approach developed at second order, based on a Jeziorski-Mokhorst expansion using individual Slater determinants as perturbers. Thanks to this choice of perturbers, an effective Hamiltonian may be built, allowing for the dressing of the Hamiltonian matrix within the reference space, assumed here to be a CAS-CI. Such a formulation accounts then for the coupling between the static and dynamic correlation effects. With our new definition of zeroth-order energies, these two approaches are strictly size-extensive provided that local orbitals are used, as numerically illustrated here and formally demonstrated in the Appendix...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166022/dynamics-of-ompf-trimer-formation-in-the-bacterial-outer-membrane-of-escherichia-coli
#20
Huilin Ma, Aliza Khan, Shikha Nangia
The self-assembly of outer membrane protein F (OmpF) in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli Gram-negative bacteria was studied using multiscale molecular dynamics simulations. To facilitate the long timescale required for protein assembly, coarse-grained parameterization of E. coli outer membrane lipids was first developed. The OmpF monomers formed stable dimers at specific protein-protein interactions sites irrespective of the lipid membrane environment. The dimer intermediate was asymmetric but provided a template to form a symmetric trimer...
November 22, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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