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Atherosclerosis calcium

Devika Kapuria, Varun K Takyar, Ohad Etzion, Pallavi Surana, James H O'Keefe, Christopher Koh
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming common in the United States and throughout the world and can progress to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. There is a strong association between coronary artery disease and NAFLD due to common risk factors, such as metabolic syndrome, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. Subclinical atherosclerosis, defined as coronary artery calcification in asymptomatic patients, has been shown to have a higher incidence in patients with NAFLD. We performed a meta-analysis to examine the association of NAFLD with subclinical atherosclerosis measured by coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring...
August 2018: Hepatology communications
Yahui Kong, Chih-Heng Hsieh, Laura C Alonso
The CDKN2A/B genomic locus is associated with risk of human cancers and metabolic disease. Although the locus contains several important protein-coding genes, studies suggest disease roles for a lesser-known antisense lncRNA encoded at this locus, called ANRIL . ANRIL is a complex gene containing at least 21 exons in simians, with many reported linear and circular isoforms. Like other genes, abundance of ANRIL is regulated by epigenetics, classic transcription regulation, splicing, and post-transcriptional influences such as RNA stability and microRNAs...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Hadii M Mamudu, Pooja Subedi, Timir Paul, Ali E Alamin, Arsham Alamian, Liang Wang, David Stewart, Antwan Jones, Sam Harirforoosh, Gerald Blackwell, Matthew Budoff
AIM: To examine the risk factor of coronary artery calcium (CAC) in individuals with diabetes and those without diabetes in Central Appalachia. METHODS: Study population included 2479 asymptomatic participants who underwent CAC screening between August 2012 and November 2016. CAC score was classified into four categories [0 (no plaque), 1-99 (mild plaque), 100-399 (moderate plaque), and ≥400 (severe plaque)]. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the association between CAC and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among participants with diabetes, age and gender matched controls, and randomly selected controls...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Zubair A Khan, Imke Janssen, Joanne K Mazzarelli, Lynda H Powell, Andrius Dumasius, Susan A Everson-Rose, Emma Barinas-Mitchell, Karen Matthews, Samar R El Khoudary, Perry J Weinstock, Steven M Hollenberg
Cardiovascular disease risk increases in women after the menopausal transition; why this inflection point occurs remains uncertain. We aimed to characterize the influence of menopause on vascular aging by prospective assessment of change in indexes of subclinical atherosclerosis across the menopausal transition. We evaluated 411 healthy women from SWAN Heart, an ancillary study of SWAN (Study of Women's Health Across the Nation), for subclinical atherosclerosis at baseline and again after an average of 2.3 years...
July 4, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Ling Yu, Li Kang, Xiao-Zhuan Ren, Zong-Li Diao, Wen-Hu Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Serum soluble Klotho (sKlotho) plays a role in cardiovascular disease in some populations. However, information regarding the effect of serum sKlotho on atherosclerosis in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) is limited. Therefore, we tested the level of serum sKlotho in MHD patients to investigate atherosclerosis disease and determine the relationship between sKlotho and atherosclerosis. METHODS: Using cross-sectional research, anthropometric and laboratory data were collected for 330 MHD patients...
July 31, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
James G Ravenel, John W Nance
Lung cancer screening has been shown in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) to result in a statistically significant decrease in lung cancer specific mortality. Also within that trial there was shown to be a 7% decrease in all-cause mortality. While the reasons for this benefit are not entirely clear, it may relate to the detection and treatment of other important findings. Smokers not only have a higher risk of lung cancer, but also increased risk of atherosclerosis. The latter can be detected by the discovery of aortic and/or coronary artery calcium on unenhanced CT...
June 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
Akira Sekikawa, Hemant Mahajan, Sayaka Kadowaki, Takashi Hisamatsu, Naoko Miyagawa, Akira Fujiyoshi, Aya Kadota, Hiroshi Maegawa, Kiyoshi Murata, Katsuyuki Miura, Daniel Edmundowicz, Hirotsugu Ueshima
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Clinical trials of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) among high-risk groups in Japan in which consumption of mairne-omega-3 fatty acids (OM3) is much higher than other countries showed slower progression of coronary atherosclerosis. We aimed to determine the cross-sectional associations of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and calcium density with OM3, EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), two principal OM3, in the general population in Japan. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The Shiga Epidemiological Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis examined a population-based sample of 1074 men aged 40-79 in 2006-08 for computed tomography-measured CAC score (CCS), a well-established biomarker of coronary atherosclerosis, CAC density score (CDS), a potential marker of plaque stabilization, serum levels of OM3, and risk factors...
July 26, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Matteo Nardin, Monica Verdoia, Lucia Barbieri, Giuseppe De Luca
Platelets represent one of the main actors involved in pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Mean platelet volume (MPV) has been proposed as marker of platelet reactivity and thrombotic risk. However, still debated is whether higher MPV constitutes an independent determinant of CAD or just the consequence of an association with several cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the impact of metabolic syndrome (MetS), on MPV and its relationship with angiographically defined CAD...
July 26, 2018: Platelets
Adam Lemanowicz, Waldemar Leszczyński, Grażyna Rusak, Marcin Białecki, Przemysław Ratajczak
Purpose: Obesity is a well-known of risk factor for atherosclerosis and the amount of visceral adipose tissue is considered as an independent predictor of coronary artery disease (CAD). An aim of the study was to investigate the distribution of intrathoracic adipose tissue in morbidly obese patients. Material and methods: Fifty-one patients with morbid obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2 ) and thirty controls were scanned in a coronary calcium scoring protocol. Control group consisted of patients scanned due to a clinical suspicion of CAD, who did not fulfill obesity criteria...
2018: Polish Journal of Radiology
Hooman Bakhshi, Zahra Meyghani, Satoru Kishi, Tiago A Magalhães, Andrea Vavere, Pieter H Kitslaar, Richard T George, Hiroyuki Niinuma, Johan H C Reiber, Aisha Betoko, Matthew Matheson, Carlos E Rochitte, Marcelo F Di Carli, Christopher Cox, João A C Lima, Armin Arbab-Zadeh
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the performance of various cardiac computed tomography (CT)-derived atherosclerotic plaque metrics for predicting provocable myocardial ischemia. BACKGROUND: The association of coronary arterial diameter stenosis with myocardial ischemia is only modest, but cardiac CT provides several other, readily available atherosclerosis metrics, which may have incremental value. METHODS: The study analyzed 873 nonstented coronary arteries and their myocardial perfusion territories in 356 patients (mean 62 years of age) enrolled in the CORE320 (Coronary Artery Evaluation using 320-row Multidetector Computed Tomography Angiography and Myocardial Perfusion) study...
July 13, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Andreja Figurek, Goce Spasovski
PURPOSE: The complexity of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) led to many preclinical and clinical trials. The role of sclerostin in renal pathophysiology remained unresolved, and question whether sclerostin is related to cardiovascular (CV) outcome in patients with CKD is still open. Our aim was to evaluate the possible association between serum sclerostin levels and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in CV pathophysiology through various CKD stages. METHODS: Eighty-eight patients in various CKD stages were involved in this analysis...
July 20, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Emanuel Harari, Liang Guo, Samantha L Smith, Ka Hyun Paek, Raquel Fernandez, Atsushi Sakamoto, Hiroyoshi Mori, Matthew D Kutyna, Anwer Habib, Sho Torii, Anne Cornelissen, Hiroyuki Jinnouchi, Anuj Gupta, Frank D Kolodgie, Renu Virmani, Aloke V Finn
OBJECTIVE: Drug-eluting stents eluting canonical mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitors are widely used to treat coronary artery disease but accelerate the development of atherosclerosis within the stent (neoatherosclerosis)-a leading cause of late stent failure. We recently showed that canonical mTOR inhibitors bind FKBP12.6 (12.6-kDa FK506-binding protein 12), displace it from calcium release channels, resulting in activation of PKCα (protein kinase Cα) and dissociation of p-120-catenin (p120) from VE-CAD (vascular endothelial cadherin; promoting endothelial barrier dysfunction [EBD])...
July 19, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Philip Greenland, Michael J Blaha, Matthew J Budoff, Raimund Erbel, Karol E Watson
Coronary artery calcium (CAC) is a highly specific feature of coronary atherosclerosis. On the basis of single-center and multicenter clinical and population-based studies with short-term and long-term outcomes data (up to 15-year follow-up), CAC scoring has emerged as a widely available, consistent, and reproducible means of assessing risk for major cardiovascular outcomes, especially useful in asymptomatic people for planning primary prevention interventions such as statins and aspirin. CAC testing in asymptomatic populations is cost effective across a broad range of baseline risk...
July 24, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Antonio B Fernandez, Kevin D Ballard, Tien Y Wong, Mengye Guo, Robyn L McClelland, Gregory Burke, Mary Frances Cotch, Barbara Klein, Matthew Allison, Ronald Klein
BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) shares many similarities with cardiovascular disease (CVD) pathophysiology. We sought to determine the relationship of AMD to the progression of coronary artery calcium (CAC) using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). METHODS: Our cohort consisted of 5803 adults aged 45 to 84 years free of known cardiovascular disease (CVD). Retinal photographs were taken during visit 2 (Aug 2002-Jan 2004)...
2018: PloS One
Marie-Louise Hermansen, Benjamin Sandholt, Andreas Fuchs, Henrik Sillesen, Lars Køber, Klaus Fuglsang Kofoed, Mikkel Faurschou, Søren Jacobsen
Objective: To investigate the association between LN, renal function and atherosclerosis measured by coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid plaque in a cross-sectional study of patients with SLE. Methods: Presence of CAC and carotid plaque was measured in 147 SLE patients with and without LN. The patients were divided into four groups according to LN and renal function [by first quartile of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): 70 ml/min/1.73 m2]. Impaired renal function was defined by an eGFR <70 ml/min/1...
July 16, 2018: Rheumatology
Abdulameer A Al-Mosawi, Hussein Nafakhi, Mohammed Bader Hassan, Mohammed Alareedh, Hasan A Al-Nafakh
BACKGROUND: Several novel ECG markers are proposed to predict the risk of sudden cardiac death in several clinical conditions in the recent years. However, little is known about the association of pericardial fat or obesity with these markers. OBJECTIVES: To assess the possible relationship between pericardial fat volume (PFV) and body mass index (BMI) with novel ECG markers (Tp-e, Tp-e/QT, Tp-e/QTc*QRS and QTc/QRS) in patients with coronary atherosclerosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 100 patients with suspected coronary artery disease who underwent 64-slice multi-detector CT angiography...
July 2018: Journal of Electrocardiology
Feng-Jung Yang, Kai-Hsiang Shu, Hung-Yuan Chen, I-Yu Chen, Fang-Yun Lay, Yi-Fang Chuang, Chien-Sheng Wu, Wan-Chuan Tsai, Yu-Sen Peng, Shih-Ping Hsu, Chih-Kang Chiang, George Wang, Yen-Ling Chiu
Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that persistent human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is associated with several health-related adverse outcomes including atherosclerosis and premature mortality in individuals with normal renal function. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) exhibit impaired immune function and thus may face higher risk of HCMV-related adverse outcomes. Whether the level of anti-HCMV immune response may be associated with the prognosis of hemodialysis patients is unknown...
2018: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
Zhong-Qun Wang, Le-le Jing, Jin-Chuan Yan, Zhen Sun, Zheng-Yang Bao, Chen Shao, Qi-Wen Pang, Yue Geng, Li-Li Zhang, Li-Hua Li
The formation of advanced glycation end-products(AGEs) is an important cause of metabolic memory in diabetic patients and a key factor in the formation of atherosclerosis(AS) plaques in patients with diabetes mellitus. Related studies showed that AGEs could disrupt hemodynamic steady-state and destroy vascular wall integrity through the endothelial barrier damage, foam cell(FC) formation, apoptosis, calcium deposition and other aspects. At the same time, AGEs could initiate oxidative stress and inflammatory response cascade via receptor-depended and non-receptor-dependent pathways, promoting plaques to develop from a steady state to a vulnerable state and eventually tend to rupture and thrombosis...
July 10, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
James Oluwagbamigbe Fajemiroye, Luiz Carlos da Cunha, Roberto Saavedra-Rodríguez, Karla Lima Rodrigues, Lara Marques Naves, Aline Andrade Mourão, Elaine Fernanda da Silva, Nabofa Enivwenaye Egide Williams, José Luis Rodrigues Martins, Romes Bittencourt Sousa, Ana Cristina Silva Rebelo, Angela Adamsk da Silva Reis, Rodrigo da Silva Santos, Marcos Luiz Ferreira-Neto, Gustavo Rodrigues Pedrino
Aging is characterized by functional decline in homeostatic regulation and vital cellular events. This process can be linked with the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In this review, we discussed aging-induced biological alterations that are associated with CVDs through the following aspects: (i) structural, biochemical, and functional modifications; (ii) autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation; (iii) epigenetic alterations; and (iv) atherosclerosis and stroke development. Aging-mediated structural and biochemical modifications coupled with gradual loss of ANS regulation, vascular stiffening, and deposition of collagen and calcium often disrupt cardiovascular system homeostasis...
2018: BioMed Research International
Milind Y Desai, Paul C Cremer, Paul Schoenhagen
Thoracic aortic calcification (TAC) is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, and for the cardiovascular imager, is predominantly encountered in 4 settings: 1) incidentally, for example, during a coronary artery calcium scan; 2) as part of dedicated screening; 3) in the evaluation of an embolic event; or 4) in procedural planning. This review focuses on TAC in these contexts. Within atherosclerosis, TAC is common, variable in extent, and begins in the intima with a patchy distribution. In metabolic disorders, aortitis, and radiation-associated cardiovascular disease, calcification preferentially involves the media and is often more concentric...
July 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
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