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Atherosclerosis calcium

Martina C de Knegt, Morten Haugen, Jesper J Linde, Jørgen Tobias Kühl, Børge G Nordestgaard, Lars V Køber, Jens D Hove, Klaus F Kofoed
PURPOSE: Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) provides important prognostic information of coronary atherosclerosis. We investigated intraobserver and interobserver QCT reproducibility in asymptomatic individuals, patients with acute chest pain without acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and patients with acute chest pain and ACS. METHODS: Fifty patients from each cohort, scanned between 01/02/2010-14/11/2013 and matched according to age and gender, were retrospectively assessed for inclusion...
2018: PloS One
Limor Goldenberg, Walid Saliba, Hashem Hayeq, Rabea Hasadia, Abdel-Rauf Zeina
Cardiovascular (CV) morbidity, atherosclerosis, and obesity are all targets of clinical concern and vast research, as is the association between them. Aim of this study is to assess the impact of adipose tissue (including visceral and subcutaneous fat) on abdominal aorta calcification measured on non-enhanced computed tomography (CT). We retrospectively included 492 patients who underwent non-enhanced CT scans during workup for clinically suspected renal colic. All scans were reviewed for abdominal aorta calcification, liver attenuation, and thickness of visceral and subcutaneous fat...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yun-Kyeong Cho, Chang-Wook Nam, Bon-Kwon Koo, Joshua Schulman-Marcus, Bríain Ó Hartaigh, Heidi Gransar, Yao Lu, Stephan Achenbach, Mouaz Al-Mallah, Daniele Andreini, Jeroen J Bax, Matthew J Budoff, Filippo Cademartiri, Tracy Q Callister, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Kavitha Chinnaiyan, Benjamin J W Chow, Ricardo C Cury, Augustin Delago, Gudrun Feuchtner, Martin Hadamitzky, Jörg Hausleiter, Philipp A Kaufmann, Yong-Jin Kim, Jonathon Leipsic, Erica Maffei, Hugo Marques, Gianluca Pontone, Gilbert L Raff, Ronen Rubinshtein, Leslee J Shaw, Todd C Villines, Daniel S Berman, Erica C Jones, Jessica M Peña, Fay Y Lin, James K Min
BACKGROUND: The extent to which the presence and extent of subclinical atherosclerosis by coronary computed tomography angiography influences a potential mortality benefit of statin is unknown. We evaluated the relationship between statin therapy, mortality, and subclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS: In the CONFIRM study, patients with normal or non-obstructive plaque (<50% diameter stenosis) for whom data on baseline statin use was available were included. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) was quantified using the Agatston score...
2018: PloS One
Emilie H Zobel, Signe A Winther, Philip Hasbak, Bernt J von Scholten, Lene Holmvang, Andreas Kjaer, Peter Rossing, Tine W Hansen
Aims: To evaluate myocardial flow reserve (MFR) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in persons with Type 1 diabetes with or without albuminuria and in non-diabetic controls. MFR reflects the function of large epicardial arteries and myocardial microcirculation. CAC represents structural aspects of atherosclerosis. In addition, we evaluated the association of MFR and CAC with retinopathy, another microvascular complication. Methods and results: Cross-sectional study in Type 1 diabetes, stratified by normoalbuminuria (NORMO; n = 30) and macroalbuminuria (MACRO; n = 30), and in non-diabetic controls (n = 30)...
December 7, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Oscar H Del Brutto, Robertino M Mera, Aldo F Costa, Gautam Matcha, Pablo R Castillo
The atherosclerotic origin of abdominal aorta (AA) aneurysms is controversial. Using the Atahualpa Project Cohort, we aimed to assess the relationship between the AA diameter and two surrogates of cervicocephalic atherosclerosis, including the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and the presence of carotid siphon calcifications (CSC). Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years undergoing ultrasound examinations of the abdominal aorta and the carotid arteries (to calculate the AA diameter and the cIMT), and head CT (to assess CSC severity) were included...
November 30, 2018: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
Jeonggyu Kang, Yoosoo Chang, Seolhye Kim, Ki-Chul Sung, Hocheol Shin, Seungho Ryu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The relationship between blood pressure (BP) levels given in the new hypertension guidelines by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in low-risk young adults is unknown. We evaluated the association between the new BP categories and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in low-risk, young and middle-aged adults. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 96,166 Koreans who underwent a health examination including cardiac tomography estimation of CAC scores in 2012-2017...
December 1, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Vanita R Aroda, Robert E Ratner
IN BRIEF Metformin, an established therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, has demonstrated safety and effectiveness in the prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes in people at high risk. The Diabetes Prevention Program randomized clinical trial demonstrated that intensive lifestyle intervention and metformin therapy reduced progression to diabetes by 58 and 31%, respectively, compared to placebo in people at risk of type 2 diabetes. Although lifestyle intervention was beneficial in all groups, metformin had a selectively greater effect in those who were more obese, had a higher fasting glucose, had a history of gestational diabetes, or were younger...
November 2018: Diabetes Spectrum: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
Oluremi Ajala, Yingze Zhang, Aman Gupta, Jessica Bon, Frank Sciurba, Divay Chandra
BACKGROUND: Smokers are highly susceptible to lung and cardiovascular disease that can reduce their survival. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a protein in the circulation that may suppress vascular and pulmonary inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that diminished circulating TRAIL levels would be associated with poor survival in smokers with lung and cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Serum TRAIL level was measured by immunoassay in 474 smokers...
December 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Rajasekharreddy Pala, Maha Jamal, Qamar Alshammari, Surya M Nauli
Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles found in most mammalian cell types. Cilia act as sensory organelles that transmit extracellular clues into intracellular signals for molecular and cellular responses. Biochemical and molecular defects in primary cilia are associated with a wide range of diseases, termed ciliopathies, with phenotypes ranging from polycystic kidney disease, liver disorders, mental retardation, and obesity to cardiovascular diseases. Primary cilia in vascular endothelia protrude into the lumen of blood vessels and function as molecular switches for calcium (Ca2+ ) and nitric oxide (NO) signaling...
November 27, 2018: Cells
Martin Tibuakuu, Oluwaseun E Fashanu, Di Zhao, James D Otvos, Todd T Brown, Sabina A Haberlen, Eliseo Guallar, Matthew J Budoff, Frank J Palella, Jeremy J Martinson, Akintunde O Akinkuolie, Samia Mora, Wendy S Post, Erin D Michos
OBJECTIVE: GlycA, a novel NMR biomarker of inflammation, has been associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population, but its association with CVD among HIV-infected individuals is unknown. We examined the associations between GlycA and subclinical coronary plaque among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men participating in MACS. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of 935 men with plasma measurement of GlycA and noncontrast cardiac computed tomography (CT) and/or coronary CT angiography...
November 19, 2018: AIDS
Yoosoo Chang, Seungho Ryu, Ki-Chul Sung, Yong Kyun Cho, Eunju Sung, Han-Na Kim, Hyun-Suk Jung, Kyung Eun Yun, Jiin Ahn, Hocheol Shin, Sarah Helen Wild, Christopher D Byrne
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may differentially affect risk of cardiovascular mortality. To investigate whether early liver disease due to AFLD or NAFLD have similar or dissimilar effects on risk of early coronary artery atherosclerosis, we have investigated the associations between AFLD and NAFLD and coronary artery calcium (CAC). DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was performed in 105 328 Korean adults who attended a health check-up programme...
November 24, 2018: Gut
Sarah Louise Fishman, Halis Sonmez, Craig Basman, Varinder Singh, Leonid Poretsky
BACKGROUND: Traditional risk factors are insufficient to explain all cases of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and their receptors may play important roles in the development and progression of CAD. BODY: Hyperglycemia is the hallmark feature of DM. An increase in the incidence of both micro-and macrovascular complications of diabetes has been observed with increased duration of hyperglycemia. This association persists even after glycemic control has been achieved, suggesting an innate mechanism of "metabolic memory...
November 23, 2018: Molecular Medicine
Chih-Hao Yang, Chih-Wei Hsia, Thanasekaran Jayakumar, Joen-Rong Sheu, Chih-Hsuan Hsia, Themmila Khamrang, Yen-Jen Chen, Manjunath Manubolu, Yi Chang
Platelets play a major role in hemostatic events and are associated with various pathological events, such as arterial thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Iridium (Ir) compounds are potential alternatives to platinum compounds, since they exert promising anticancer effects without cellular toxicity. Our recent studies found that Ir compounds show potent antiplatelet properties. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro antiplatelet, in vivo antithrombotic and structure⁻activity relationship (SAR) of newly synthesized Ir complexes, Ir-1, Ir-2 and Ir-4, in agonists-induced human platelets...
November 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
John Jeffrey Carr
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and worldwide. Despite major advances in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction, enhanced prevention of ischemic heart disease remains critical to improving the health of individuals and communities. The computed tomographic coronary artery calcium score is an established imaging biomarker that identifies the presence and amount of coronary atherosclerosis in an individual and their future risk for clinical cardiovascular disease and premature cardiovascular death...
January 2019: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Roberto M Mendonça, Arthur L Araruna, Flora V Alves, Thaís R Souza, Antonio G Oliveira, Eryvaldo S T Egito, Ana K Gonçalves
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women worldwide, resulting in 8.6 million deaths annually. Computed tomography (CT) has been used to evaluate coronary artery calcification by quantifying the coronary calcium score (CCS)-a validated marker of cardiovascular risk. Additionally, mammography is the only method for population screening of breast cancer, but could also identify atherosclerosis, known as breast vascular calcification (BVC) . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
November 19, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Marcio H Miname, Marcio Sommer Bittencourt, Sérgio R Moraes, Rômulo I M Alves, Pamela R S Silva, Cinthia E Jannes, Alexandre C Pereira, José E Krieger, Khurram Nasir, Raul D Santos
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of coronary artery calcium (CAC) as a predictor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) (fatal or not myocardial infarction, stroke, unstable angina requiring revascularization, and elective myocardial revascularization) events in asymptomatic primary prevention molecularly proven heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) subjects receiving standard lipid-lowering therapy. BACKGROUND: FH is associated with premature ASCVD...
November 8, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Xiaoxiao Yang, He Zhang, Yuanyuan Shi, Zanzhe Yu, Hao Yan, Zhaohui Ni, Jiaqi Qian, Wei Fang
BACKGROUND: To examine serum angiopoietin-2 (Angpt-2) in relation to malnutrition, inflammation, atherosclerosis and cardiac valvular calcification, so-called MIAC syndrome and its predictive role in outcomes of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted in 324 chronic PD patients. Biochemical analysis was performed at baseline for serum angiopoietins, albumin and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and echocardiography was done to detect cardiac valvular calcification...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Masayoshi Kukida, Masaki Mogi, Harumi Kan-No, Kana Tsukuda, Hui-Yu Bai, Bao-Shuai Shan, Toshifumi Yamauchi, Akinori Higaki, Li-Juan Min, Jun Iwanami, Takafumi Okura, Jitsuo Higaki, Masatsugu Horiuchi
Vascular calcification is a common finding in atherosclerosis and in patients with chronic kidney disease. The renin-angiotensin system plays a role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular remodeling. Here, we examined the hypothesis that angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2) stimulation has inhibitory effects on phosphate-induced vascular calcification. In vivo, calcification of the thoracic aorta induced by an adenine and high-phosphate diet was markedly attenuated in smooth muscle cell-specific AT2-overexpressing mice (smAT2-Tg) compared with wild-type and AT2-knockout mice (AT2KO)...
November 5, 2018: Kidney International
Niccolo Pignatelli, Botong Ma, Shantanu Sengputa, Partho Sengupta, Kunda Mungulmare, Richard Ribon Fletcher
In the context of global health, telemedicine, and low-resource settings, we present a non-invasive smart-phone based device that can be used to screen for atherosclerosis,which is the leading factor for ischemic heart attacks and strokes. Using acustom Android mobile application, our device computes Pulse Wave Velocity(PWV) using the pulse signals from photo-plethysmographic (PPG) probes, which are simultaneously clipped onto the ear, index finger, and big toe of a human subject. Unlike other designs which require the use of an ECG reference, our mobile device uses only PPG signals and is entirely powered by the mobile phone via the USB port...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Stewart Dowding, Constantine Zakkaroff, Stephen Moore, Tim David
This work investigates the effect of arterial bifurcation angulation on atherosclerosis development through in-silico simulations of coupled cell dynamics. The computational model presented here combines cellular pathways, fluid dynamics, and physiologically-realistic vessel geometries as observed in the human vasculature. The coupled cells model includes endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with ion dynamics, hetero and homotypic coupling, as well as electro-diffusive coupling. Three arterial bifurcation surface models were used in the coupled cells simulations...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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