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Atherosclerosis calcium

Martina C de Knegt, Jesper J Linde, Andreas Fuchs, Michael H C Pham, Andreas K Jensen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Henning Kelbæk, Lars V Køber, Merete Heitmann, Gitte Fornitz, Jens D Hove, Klaus F Kofoed
Aims: Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) allows assessment of morphological features of coronary atherosclerosis. We aimed to test the hypothesis that clinical patient presentation is associated with distinct morphological features of coronary atherosclerosis. Methods and results: A total of 1652 participants, representing a spectrum of clinical risk profiles [787 asymptomatic individuals from the general population, 468 patients with acute chest pain without acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and 397 patients with acute chest pain and ACS], underwent multidetector computed tomography...
October 15, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Qian Yang, Rui-Xing Yin, Xiao-Li Cao, Feng Huang, Yi-Jiang Zhou, Wu-Xian Chen
Background: This study aimed to assess the association between the angiopoietin-like protein 4 gene ( ANGPTL4 ) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum lipid levels, the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke (IS), and response to atorvastatin therapy in a Southern Chinese Han population. Methods: Genotypes of the ANGPTL4 rs4076317, rs7255436, rs1044250 and rs2967605 SNPs in 1,654 unrelated subjects (CAD, 568; IS, 537; and controls, 549) were determined by the Snapshot technology...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Sadi Poletto, Paulo R Schvartzman, Neide M Bruscato, Emilio Moriguchi
Coronary artery calcification is an early marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, but little research has been done in asymptomatic individuals under 45 years. In this cohort study with 17 years of follow-up, 155 participants were assessed in 2016 with a coronary calcium score for the association with cardiovascular risk factors. During follow-up, there was a significant increase in anthropometric measurements, cholesterol and fractions, and diastolic pressure. Participants who gained 1 cm in waist circumference had a mean reduction of 0...
September 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Christopher C Imes, Lynn M Baniak, JiYeon Choi, Faith S Luyster, Jonna L Morris, Dianxu Ren, Eileen R Chasens
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent and consequential sleep disorder in older adults. Untreated moderate to severe OSA substantially increases the risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD), which can be attributed to the accelerated progression of atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify factors that can function as correlates of endothelial function in older adults with untreated, moderate to severe OSA and CVD or CVD risk factors...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
Parveen K Garg, Neal W Jorgensen, Robyn L McClelland, J Adam Leigh, Philip Greenland, Michael J Blaha, Andrew J Yoon, Nathan D Wong, Joseph Yeboah, Matthew J Budoff
BACKGROUND: Assessment of coronary artery calcium (CAC) during lung cancer screening chest computed tomography (CT) represents an opportunity to identify asymptomatic individuals at increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. We determined the improvement in CHD risk prediction associated with the addition of CAC testing in a population recommended for lung cancer screening. METHODS: We included 484 out of 6814 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants without baseline cardiovascular disease who met U...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
Vinita Subramanya, Di Zhao, Pamela Ouyang, Wendy Ying, Dhananjay Vaidya, Chiadi E Ndumele, Susan R Heckbert, Matthew J Budoff, Wendy S Post, Erin D Michos
BACKGROUND: Sex differences in the incidence and manifestation of cardiovascular disease (CVD) suggest the involvement of sex hormones in disease pathogenesis. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) and its progression, measured by non-contrast cardiac computed tomography, are markers of subclinical atherosclerosis and predict CVD, even among low-risk women. We hypothesized that sex hormone levels were associated with CAC progression among women in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. METHODS: We studied 2759 post-menopausal women (age 65 ± 9 years), free of baseline CVD, with baseline serum sex hormones and CAC measured at Exam 1 (2000-2002)...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
Arthur J Siegel, Timothy D Noakes
While proficient cardiac resuscitation has improved survival following cardiac arrest during road races in Japan, this accomplishment does not address coronary artery disease as the underlying cause of an increasing frequency of cardiac arrest in middle-aged males during marathons and ironman triathlons in the United States since the year 2000. Based on the high prevalence of subclinical coronary artery disease by cardiac computed tomography in endurance athletes with low conventional cardiac risk factor profiles, we recommend coronary artery calcium scores as a more reliable and independent predictor of incident cardiac events including death as validated among adults aged 30-46 years...
October 5, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Ana Purroy, Carmen Roncal, Josune Orbe, Olivier Meilhac, Miriam Belzunce, Guillermo Zalba, Ricardo Villa-Bellosta, Vicente Andrés, William C Parks, José A Páramo, José A Rodríguez
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in atherosclerosis and vascular calcification. Among them, we reported that MMP10 is present in human atheroma, associated with atherosclerosis. However, it remains unclear whether MMP10 is involved in atherogenesis and vascular calcification. METHODS: MMP10 was measured in serum from patients with subclinical atherosclerosis and analyzed in carotid endarterectomies by immunostaining. ApoE-deficient mice (Apoe-/- ) were crossed to MMP10-deficient (Mmp10-/- ) mice and followed up to 20 months...
September 19, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Mahmoud Al Rifai, Miguel Cainzos-Achirica, Alka M Kanaya, Namratha R Kandula, Zeina Dardardi, Parag H Joshi, Jaideep Patel, Matthew Budoff, Joseph Yeboah, Eliseo Guallar, Roger S Blumenthal, Michael J Blaha
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: South Asian (SA) individuals are thought to represent a group that is at high-risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, the performance of the Pooled Cohort Equations (PCE) remains uncertain in SAs living in the US. We aimed to study the interplay between predicted 10-year ASCVD risk and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in SAs compared to other racial/ethnic groups. METHODS: We studied 536 SAs from the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study, and 2073 Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs), 1514 African Americans (AAs), 1254 Hispanics, and 671 Chinese Americans (CAs) from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) who were not currently on statins...
September 15, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Allison B Reiss, Nobuyuki Miyawaki, Jane Moon, Lora J Kasselman, Iryna Voloshyna, Robert D'Avino, Joshua De Leon
Mineral bone disease (MBD) is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) characterized by disruption of normal mineral homeostasis within the body. One or more of the following may occur: hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), decreased vitamin D and vascular calcification (VC). The greater the decrease in renal function, the worse the progression of CKD-MBD. These abnormalities may lead to bone loss, osteoporosis and fractures. CKD-MBD is a major contributor to the high morbidity and mortality among patients with CKD...
August 30, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Deena Goldwater, Arun Karlamangla, Sharon Stein Merkin, Karol Watson, Teresa Seeman
PURPOSE: To understand if baseline levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) are associated with either subclinical atherosclerosis or risk for adverse cardiovascular (CV) events. METHODS: The study included 930 adults from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) ancillary Stress Study. Participants, age 48-90 years at enrollment, were followed for an average of 10.2 years. IL-10 level was measured at the initial Stress Study visit...
September 5, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Rose Mary Ferreira Lisboa da Silva, Anaisa Silva Roever Borges, Nilson Penha Silva, Elmiro Santos Resende, Gary Tse, Tong Liu, Leonardo Roever, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Resting heart rate is an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with heart failure. The main objectives are to discuss the prognosis of heart rate, its association with coronary atherosclerosis, and the modalities of control of the heart rate in sinus rhythm and in the rhythm of atrial fibrillation in patients with chronic heart failure. RECENT FINDINGS: As a therapeutic option for control heart rate, medications such as beta-blockers, digoxin, and finally ivabradine have been studied...
September 17, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Ali Hosseinsabet, Mohsen Faal, Akbar Shafiee, Hassan Aghajani, Maryam Sotoudeh Anvari, Arash Jalali, Younes Nozari, Hamidreza Pourhosseini, Mojtaba Salarifar, Alireza Amirzadegan, Seyed Ebrahim Kassaian, Mohammad Alidoosti, Alimohammad Hajizeinali, Ebrahim Nematipour
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is identified as dilation of one or more segments of coronary arteries that reaches 1.5 times or more, compared with near segments that are normal. Several etiologies like atherosclerosis, autoimmune diseases and congenital anomalies have been proposed for this condition. Vitamin D deficiency activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which affects the cardiovascular system. For these reasons, we investigated the serum level of vitamin D in patients with CAE compared with individuals with normal coronary arteries...
September 1, 2018: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Lei Du, Xiwei Zhang, Liang Yan, Hao Zhang, Xuefeng Tang, Xiancheng Kong, Gang Liu, Jianping Huang
Objective Secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) is one of the most serious complications in patients on long-term hemodialysis. These patients may suffer from metabolic bone diseases, severe atherosclerosis, and undesirable cardiovascular events. Endoscopic parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation is a treatment option for those who do not respond to clinical management. This study aimed to investigate practical use of a self-made device in parathyroid autotransplantation for patients with sHPT, and to compare this device with ordinary surgical scissors...
September 9, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Fabien Picard, Neila Sayah, Vincent Spagnoli, Julien Adjedj, Olivier Varenne
Vasospastic angina (VSA) is a variant form of angina pectoris, in which angina occurs at rest, with transient electrocardiogram modifications and preserved exercise capacity. VSA can be involved in many clinical scenarios, such as stable angina, sudden cardiac death, acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmia or syncope. Coronary vasospasm is a heterogeneous phenomenon that can occur in patients with or without coronary atherosclerosis, can be focal or diffuse, and can affect epicardial or microvasculature coronary arteries...
September 6, 2018: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
Kazuhiro Osawa, Maria Esther Perez Trejo, Rine Nakanishi, Robyn L McClelland, Michael J Blaha, Ron Blankstein, John W McEvoy, Indre Ceponiene, James H Stein, Ralph L Sacco, Joseph F Polak, Matthew J Budoff
Background Current guidelines suggest treatment for many individuals who may never develop a stroke. We hypothesized that a combination of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (C IMT) data could better individualize risk assessment for ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack events. Methods A total of 4720 individuals from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis were evaluated for ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack. Cox proportional hazards models for time to incident ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack were used to examine CAC and CIMT as ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack predictors in addition to traditional risk factors...
September 5, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Mohamed M Elseweidy, Hoda E Mohamed, Rania A Elrashidy, Hebatallah H Atteia, Gehad M Elnagar, Abd El-Monem Ali
The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of 10-dehydrogingerdione (10-DHGD) and pentoxifylline (PTX) either individually or in combined form on calcium deposition in high cholesterol diet (HCD)-fed rabbits as compared to atorvastatin (ATOR), and to clarify the underlying mechanisms. Three-months-old male New Zealand white rabbits received either normal chow or HCD for 12 weeks. The latter group was subdivided into five groups and concurrently treated either with vehicle (dyslipidemic control), ATOR, 10-DHGD, PTX or combined 10-DHGD and PTX...
September 1, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Kyoung Im Cho, Ichiro Sakuma, Il Suk Sohn, Sang-Ho Jo, Kwang Kon Koh
Although calcific aortic stenosis is a very common disease with major adverse cardiovascular events and healthcare costs, there are no effective medical interventions to delay or halt its progression. Cardiometabolic risk factors, including smoking and male sex, are linked to aortic stenosis. Emerging studies have identified important regulatory roles for immunological and inflammatory responses, including oxidized lipids, various cytokines, and biomineralization. Recent clinical and experimental studies in atherosclerosis and osteoporosis have demonstrated that oxidative stress and oxidized lipids decrease bone formation in the skeletal system while they increase bone formation in the cardiovascular system...
October 2018: Atherosclerosis
Alkippi Nitsa, Marina Toutouza, Nikolaos Machairas, Anargyros Mariolis, Anastassios Philippou, Michael Koutsilieris
Cardiovascular disease is the prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, affecting many millions of individuals every year. Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory condition that involves different cell types, several cytokines and adhesion molecules, is the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease. Vitamin D is known to control skeletal patho/physiology, regulating calcium and phosphorus and bone remodeling along with other calcium-regulating hormones. However, several active metabolites of vitamin D can exert both direct action, mainly via vitamin D3 receptor trans-activation and indirect actions on several other tissues by an endocrine, autocrine and paracrine manners...
September 2018: In Vivo
Sumit K Banchhor, Narendra D Londhe, Tadashi Araki, Luca Saba, Petia Radeva, Narendra N Khanna, Jasjit S Suri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke. Typically, atherosclerotic calcium is found during the mature stage of the atherosclerosis disease. It is therefore often a challenge to identify and quantify the calcium. This is due to the presence of multiple components of plaque buildup in the arterial walls. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines point to the importance of calcium in the coronary and carotid arteries and further recommend its quantification for the prevention of heart disease...
October 1, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
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