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Fear in psychology

Elisabeth Mangrio, Slobodan Zdravkovic, Elisabeth Carlson
OBJECTIVE: Research shows that, depending on the route of travel during the escape, the journey presents the refugees with different health risks. Traumatic events during flight may have long-lasting physical and psychological effects on the refugee children. Therefore, it is important to illuminate the experiences that refugee families arriving in Sweden have endured during their flight. A qualitative study was conducted through interviews with fifteen recently arrived Syrian refugee families...
August 17, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Prima Agustia Nova
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of patients with chronic heart failure regarding palliative care needs. METHOD: The study used a qualitative design. Five patients with chronic heart failure (New York Heart Association functional classes III or IV) were interviewed in inpatient unit at the main referral government hospital in Indonesia. Data was analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: Patients reported dyspnea and fatigue as the most common signs and symptoms of chronic heart failure...
February 2018: Enfermería Clínica
Birudu Raju, N Krishna Reddy
Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is a terminal illness and associated with poor prognosis. Brain cancer creates significant traumatic effects including death and dying fears not only on patients but also in Asia's tightly knitted families. Very few studies made attempt to elicit the death and dying issues among brain cancer patients. Therefore, the study aimed to explore the patient's perspectives on death and dying among GBM patients during hospitalization. Methodology: The study used qualitative approach...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
Su-Lan Lin, Dan Wang, Ya-Jing Xian, Jing Yang, Ping-Ping Wu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current status of social anxiety and depression among the fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students in Urumqi, China, and to provide data support for mental health education for primary school students in the future. METHODS: Stratified cluster random sampling was performed to select 919 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students from four primary schools for the Han and minority ethnic groups in Urumqi as research subjects. Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Children's Depression Inventory were used to evaluate the current status of social anxiety and depression...
August 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Ana Cláudia Mesquita Garcia, Talita Prado Simão-Miranda, Ana Maria Pimenta Carvalho, Paula Condé Lamparelli Elias, Maria da Graça Pereira, Emilia Campos de Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of therapeutic listening on state anxiety and surgical fears in preoperative colorectal cancer patients. METHOD: A randomized controlled trial with 50 patients randomly allocated in the intervention group (therapeutic listening) (n = 25) or in the control group (n = 25). The study evaluated the changes in the variables state anxiety, surgical fears and physiological variables (salivary alpha-amylase, salivary cortisol, heart rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure)...
August 9, 2018: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
Ajay S Padaki, Manish S Noticewala, William N Levine, Christopher S Ahmad, Michael K Popkin, Charles A Popkin
Background: The risk of depression and the fear of reinjury were documented in recent investigations of patients after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures. The extent of psychological trauma accompanying these injuries among young athletes, however, has never been assessed. Hypothesis: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after ACL injury are present among young athletes with high athletic identities. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4...
July 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Robert Blakey, Adrian Dahl Askelund, Matilde Boccanera, Johanna Immonen, Nejc Plohl, Cassandra Popham, Clarissa Sorger, Julia Stuhlreyer
Research in neurocriminology has explored the link between neural functions and structures and the psychopathic disposition. This online experiment aimed to assess the effect of communicating the neuroscience of psychopathy on the degree to which lay people exhibited attitudes characteristic of psychopathy in particular in terms of moral behavior. If psychopathy is blamed on the brain, people may feel less morally responsible for their own psychopathic tendencies. In the study, participants read false feedback about their own psychopathic traits supposedly inferred from their Facebook likes, described either in neurobiological or cognitive terms...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Allison C Kelly, Sydney V Waring
OBJECTIVE: Most individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) do not seek treatment and shame is a common barrier. This study sought to determine whether a brief intervention designed to foster self-compassion would reduce shame and increase treatment motivation among nontreatment seeking individuals with AN. METHOD: Forty nontreatment seeking females with AN (75%) and atypical AN were randomly assigned to 2 weeks of a daily self-compassionate letter-writing intervention or a waitlist control condition...
August 13, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Jennifer M Putney, Sara Keary, Nicholas Hebert, Lisa Krinsky, Rebekah Halmo
OBJECTIVES: Older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults are a vulnerable yet resilient population who face unique stressors as they foresee health decline. This paper presents the results of a study about community-dwelling LGBT older adults' anticipated needs and fears related to nursing homes and assisted living. METHODS: This qualitative study collected data through seven focus groups. The sample (N = 50) consisted of LGBT-identified adults age 55 and over...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
Stephen Ross
Cancer is highly prevalent and one of the leading causes of global morbidity and mortality. Psychological and existential suffering is common in cancer patients, associated with poor psychiatric and medical outcomes. Promising early-phase clinical research (1960s to early 1970s) suggested a therapeutic signal for serotoninergic psychedelics (e.g. psilocybin, LSD) in treating cancer-related psychiatric distress. After several decades of quiescence, research on psychedelic-assisted therapy to treat psychiatric disorders in cancer patients has resumed within the last 2 decades in the US and Europe...
August 13, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Jodie L Nixon, Amanda E Pigott, Bena Cartmill, Jane Turner, Jennifer Fleming, Sandro V Porceddu
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the course and nature of distress and quality of life (QoL) during and after head and neck lymphoedema (HNL) treatment in people who developed HNL following treatment for head and neck cancer (HNC). METHODS: This study (n = 10) used a mixed method explanatory design to explore distress associated with HNL. Component 1 used a prospective repeated measures design to examine distress during a 22-week HNL program. Component 2 used a qualitative interview approach to understand the patient experience of distress after completion of HNL treatment...
August 2018: Oral Oncology
Marissa G Hall, Jennifer R Mendel, Seth M Noar, Noel T Brewer
BACKGROUND: Message avoidance (e.g., trying not to look at the message) may be motivated by reactance, a maladaptive rejection of the message. An alternative view is that avoidance indicates that a message is eliciting fear and other negative affect, thereby increasing the likelihood of behavioral change. We sought to identify which psychological mechanism-reactance or fear and other negative affect-explains message avoidance. We also examined whether avoidance was associated with more forgoing or butting out of cigarettes...
July 31, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Lindsay Lief, David A Berlin, Renee C Maciejewski, Li Westman, Amanda Su, Zara R Cooper, Daniel J Ouyang, Geraldine Epping, Heather Derry, David Russell, Eliza Gentzler, Paul K Maciejewski, Holly G Prigerson
RATIONALE: Caring for patients at the end of life is emotionally taxing and may contribute to burnout. Nevertheless, little is known about the factors associated with emotional distress in ICU nurses. OBJECTIVE: To identify patient and family factors associated with nurses' emotional distress in caring for dying patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: One hundred nurses who cared for 200 deceased ICU patients at two large, academic medical centers in the Northeast United States were interviewed about patients' psychological and physical symptoms, their reactions to those patient experiences (e...
August 10, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Nelly Goutaudier, Charlene Bertoli, Natalène Séjourné, Henri Chabrol
BACKGROUND: Recent research has suggested that pretraumatic stress related to a forthcoming predictable traumatic event might exist and that such stress reactions would be a key, 'but largely ignored', aspect of the etiology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). While it is now acknowledged that childbirth may lead to PTSD, less is known regarding pretraumatic reactions in pregnancy. This study aims to (a) explore the frequency of PTSD, Fear of Childbirth and tokophobia associated with the forthcoming delivery and (b) highlight associated features of pre-traumatic stress symptoms...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Eric D Zaizar, F Gonzalez-Lima, Michael J Telch
This RCT will test whether transcranial infrared laser stimulation (TILS) administered immediately following standard exposure therapy enhances the retention of fear extinction for naturally acquired pathological fear. A second aim is to investigate the efficacy of TILS as a stand-alone intervention for reducing pathological fear. Participants with elevated fear in any one of the following four domains: (a) fear of enclosed spaces, (b) fear of contamination, (c) fear of public speaking, or (d) fear of anxiety (i...
August 6, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Maurice Theunissen, Soraya Jonker, Jan Schepers, Nancy A Nicolson, Rudy Nuijts, Hans-Fritz Gramke, Marco A E Marcus, Madelon L Peters
OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of the study was to assess the convergent validity of the Surgical Fear Questionnaire (SFQ) with other self-report instruments and biological indices of stress. Secondary aims were the examination of predictors of the level and time course of fear and preferences for fear treatment. METHODS: In a prospective observational cohort study SFQ short-term (SFQ-s) and long-term (SFQ-l) scores were assessed one week, one day, and the morning before cataract surgery, together with salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) levels, and numeric rating scale (NRS) fear score...
2018: PloS One
Michael Moutoussis, Nitzan Shahar, Tobias U Hauser, Raymond J Dolan
Learning-based therapies, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, are used worldwide, and their efficacy is endorsed by health and research funding agencies. However, the mechanisms behind both their strengths and their weaknesses are inadequately understood. Here we describe how advances in computational modeling may help formalize and test hypotheses regarding how patients make inferences, which are core postulates of these therapies. Specifically, we highlight the relevance of computations with regard to the development, maintenance, and therapeutic change in psychiatric disorders...
February 2018: Computational psychiatry
Serdar Ozates, Melike Ezerbolat Ozates, Cigdem Ulku Can, Sibel Polat, Hakan Halit Yasar, Busra Taskale, Ali Kemal Gogus
AIMS: To assess the psychological effects of preoperative primary eye position and surgical correction of strabismus in adolescent patients. METHODS: Eighty-three adolescent patients with exotropia were included in this observational and prospective study. Patients with preoperative manifest exotropia formed the manifest exotropia group. Patients with intermittent exotropia that had orthophoria with overcorrecting minus lenses and recently increased frequency of manifest phase were indicated for surgery and formed the latent deviation group...
August 6, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Somenath Sarkar, Tanusree Sarkar, Arnab Sarkar, Swagata Das
Background: Vitiligo is an idiopathic acquired progressive de/hypopigmentary disorder of skin and mucosae. In Indian skin depigmentaion is very much obvious and can cause psychological distress, low self esteem and social stigmatization. Aims: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the psychiatric morbidity in vitiligo patients and secondary objective was to assess the morbidity in all eight dimensions of psychosocial and physical aspects, i.e. cognitive, social, discomfort, limitations, depression, fear, embarrassment and anger...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Dermatology
Aaron M Bloch, Ezra Gabbay, Samantha F Knowlton, Joseph J Fins
Several socio-cultural factors complicate mental health care in the ultra-Orthodox Jewish population. These include societal stigma, fear of the influence of secular ideas, the need for rabbinic approval of the method and provider, and the notion that excessive concern with the self is counter-productive to religious growth. Little is known about how the religious beliefs of this population might be employed in therapeutic contexts. One potential point of convergence is the Jewish philosophical tradition of introspection as a means toward personal, interpersonal, and spiritual growth...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
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