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Fear in psychology

Yuan Yang, Hengwen Sun, Ting Liu, Jingying Zhang, Hongmei Wang, Weijiang Liang, Yu Chen, Bin Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Fear of progression (FoP) is a widespread problem among cancer patients and is considered to be one of the most distressing psychological consequences of cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological variables to FoP in Chinese cancer patients. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, six hundred and thirty-six cancer patients were recruited. All participants were asked to complete a personal information sheet, the Chinese version of Fear of Progression Questionnaire-Short Form (FoP-Q-SF), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and General Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD-7)...
November 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Catherine E Amiot, Guy El Hajj Boutros, Ksenia Sukhanova, Antony D Karelis
Both epidemiological studies and randomised controlled trials have shown that meat-eating can be harmful to human health. Meat-eating is also considered to be a moral issue, impacting negatively on the environment and the welfare of animals. To date, very little scientific research has aimed to reduce this dietary behavior. Therefore, the current research tests the effectiveness of a 4-week multicomponent intervention designed to reduce meat-eating. Using a randomised controlled trial procedure, thirty-two young men (mean age: 23...
2018: PloS One
Sigrun Vehling, David W Kissane
A severe life threatening illness can challenge fundamental expectations about security, interrelatedness with others, justness, controllability, certainty, and hope for a long and fruitful life. That distress and suffering but also growth and mastery may arise from confrontation with an existentially threatening stressor is a long-standing idea. But only recently have researchers studied existential distress more rigorously and begun to identify its distinct impact on health care outcomes. Operationalizations of existential distress have included fear of cancer recurrence, death anxiety, demoralization, hopelessness, dignity-related distress, and the desire for hastened death...
October 11, 2018: Psycho-oncology
Lauren C Heathcote, Daniel S Goldberg, Christopher Eccleston, Sheri L Spunt, Laura E Simons, Louise Sharpe, Brian D Earp
Wellbeing after successful cancer treatment depends on more than merely reducing the risk of disease recurrence. Cancer survival can be characterised by uncertainty, fear, and the interpretation of bodily sensations as potentially symptomatic of cancer recurrence. This fear can lead to over-vigilance about bodily sensations and precautionary visits to the doctor, both of which can increase the chance of early detection but can also increase anxiety and decrease quality of life. In this Personal View, we consider the medical, psychological, and ethical issues related to the practice of self-directed symptom monitoring after completion of cancer treatment, focusing on the role of doctor-patient communication...
October 2018: Lancet Oncology
Lucy Maxwell, Jason Skues, Lisa Wise, Stephen Theiler, Jeffery Pfeifer
The purpose of this study was to determine the situational and individual factors that influence vulnerability to public stranger violence (PSV) from the perspective of young adults and industry professionals. In total, 25 young adults aged between 18 and 29 years formed one sample and participated in one of four focus groups. The second sample consisted of 10 industry professionals with backgrounds in policing, corrections, and forensic psychology. Each professional participated in an individual semistructured interview...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Florian Bublatzky, Pedro Guerra, Georg W Alpers
Psychological research has long acknowledged that facial expressions can implicitly trigger affective psychophysiological responses. However, whether verbal information can alter the meaning of facial emotions and corresponding response patterns has not been tested. This study examined emotional facial expressions as cues for instructed threat-of-shock or safety, with a focus on defensive responding. In addition, reversal instructions were introduced to test the impact of explicit safety instructions on fear extinction...
October 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Julia Schüler, Nicola Baumann, Athanasios Chasiotis, Michael Bender, Ingrid Baum
The present article starts with discussing similarities and differences between conceptualizations of human needs in self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan [1985], Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior; Deci & Ryan [2000], Nebraska symposium on motivation: Perspectives on motivation) and motive disposition theory (MDT; McClelland, Human motivation, 1985). The second section focuses on the two-process model of psychological needs (Sheldon [2011], Psychological Review, 118: 552), which aims to integrate the two approaches, whereas the third section highlights some aspects of both theories that are still decoupled or even contradictory, but nevertheless still have a high potential to be linked...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Personality
Allan L Adkin, Mark G Carpenter
It has been just over 20 years since the effects of height-induced threat on human postural control were first investigated. Raising the height of the support surface on which individuals stood increased the perceived consequences of instability and generated postural control changes. Since this initial work, converging evidence has accumulated supporting the efficacy of using height-induced threat to study the effects of emotions on postural control and confirming a direct influence of threat-related changes in arousal, anxiety, and fear of falling on all aspects of postural control, including standing, anticipatory, and reactive balance...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Indrajit Ghosh, Pankaj Kumar Tiwari, Sudip Samanta, Ibrahim M Elmojtaba, Nasser Al-Salti, Joydev Chattopadhyay
Infectious diseases can have a large impact on society, as they cause morbidity, mortality, unemployment, inequality and other adverse effects. Mathematical models are invaluable tools in understanding and describing disease dynamics with preventive measures for controlling the disease. The roles of media coverage and behavioral changes due to externally imposed factors on the disease dynamics are well studied. However, the effect of self-imposed psychological fear on the disease transmission has not been considered in extant research, and this gap is addressed in the present investigation...
October 3, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Carissa Nadia Kuswanto, Lesley Stafford, Jessica Sharp, Penelope Schofield
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review findings of the impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment on mothers' psychological wellbeing, roles and identity; and to explore the psychosocial factors that contribute to mothers' psychological wellbeing. METHODS: Six databases were searched for research articles and theses exploring the association between the impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment on mothers' psychological wellbeing, identity and role; and the psychosocial factors contributing to mothers' psychological distress regardless of their cancer type and stage...
October 5, 2018: Psycho-oncology
Jacqueline A Richmond, Jeanne Ellard, Jack Wallace, Rachel Thorpe, Peter Higgs, Margaret Hellard, Alexander Thompson
Background: Universal access to the hepatitis C direct acting antiviral (DAAs) regimens presents a unique opportunity to eliminate hepatitis C in Australia. Large numbers of Australians have already been cured using these treatments, however, the numbers presenting for treatment have begun to plateau. This study explored how people experienced and understood being cured of hepatitis C, with the aim of informing interventions to increase uptake of DAA treatment among people with hepatitis C...
2018: Hepatology, Medicine and Policy
Deborah Raphael, Rosemary Frey, Merryn Gott
Many people with haematological cancers will not meet the diagnostic criteria for a psychological disorder, but will still suffer distress during treatment and beyond. The current study aimed to explore the nature and timing of psychosocial distress experienced by haematological cancer survivors. Twenty-three post-treatment haematological cancer survivors participated in a semi-structured interview. Data were analysed using thematic analysis which involved identifying, analysing and reporting themes. Four themes were identified: Apprehension about leaving the safety of the health care system comprises the struggles encountered when transitioning from patient to survivor, Uncertainty and life transitions in the post-treatment period encompasses the changes survivors face when attempting to re-enter their "normal" lives, Distress associated with ongoing physical problems or impairment describes issues associated with the ongoing physical sequelae, and Fear of recurrence encapsulates how the continuing threat of cancer recurrence impacted survivors...
October 4, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Care
Md Serajul Islam
Haematological malignancies can have devastating effects on the patients' physical, emotional, psycho-sexual, educational and economic health. With the improvement of therapies patients with these malignancies are living longer, however significant proportion these patient show poor quality of life (QoL) due to various physical and psychological consequences of the disease and the treatments. Health-related QoL (HRQoL) is multi-dimensional and temporal, relating to a state of functional, physical, psychological and social/family well-being...
July 4, 2018: Oncology Reviews
Fahim Ul Hassan, Gaurav Singh, Kasi Sekar
Background: The flood disaster of 9th -10th September 2014 wreaked havoc in the Jammu and Kashmir region of India. Incessant rains and deluge claimed 283 lives and damaged 2.53 lakh houses. This article presents the findings of the psychosocial care team from the National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bengaluru, India, during the early phase of disaster. Materials and Methods: The team assessed posttraumatic stress symptoms of 64 child survivors from six villages of two districts struck by floods using Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES)-8 and qualitative narrations...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Lindsey Rosman, Elena Salmoirago-Blotcher, John Cahill, Samuel F Sears
BACKGROUND: Psychological distress can adversely affect heart failure prognosis, yet the immediate and ongoing challenges faced by women diagnosed with peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) are not well studied. OBJECTIVE: We examined psychological distress and quality of life in a large, national sample of patients with PPCM and evaluated whether these characteristics differ among newly diagnosed (0-1 year), short-term (2-4 years), and long-term (5-10 years) survivors...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
Marius van Dijke, Gijs van Houwelingen, David De Cremer, Leander De Schutter
People morally evaluate norm violations that occur at various distances from the self (e.g., a corrupt politician vs. a cheating spouse). Yet, distance is rarely studied as a moderator of moral judgment processes. We focus on the influence of disgust on moral judgments, as evidence here has remained inconclusive. Based on feelings as information theory and the notion that disgust evolved as a pathogen avoidance mechanism, we argue that disgust influences moral judgment of psychologically distant (vs. near) norm violations...
August 2018: Social Psychological and Personality Science
David C Houghton, Samuel L Howard, Thomas W Uhde, Caitlin Paquet, Rodney J Schlosser, Bernadette M Cortese
OBJECTIVE: Enhanced odor sensitivity, particularly toward threat-related cues, may be adaptive during periods of danger. Research also suggests that chronic psychological distress may lead to functional changes in the olfactory system that cause heightened sensitivity to odors. Yet, the association between self-reported odor sensitivity, objective odor detection, and affective psychopathology is currently unclear, and research suggests that persons with affective problems may only be sensitive to specific, threat-related odors...
September 27, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Noémie Tardif, Charles-Étienne Therrien, Stéphane Bouchard
The proposed study aims at expanding results from a previous study on mechanisms of change after exposure in virtual reality (VR) and documenting the impact of adding tactile and haptic feedback. It was predicted that change in the severity of spider phobia according to the Fear of Spiders Questionnaire (FSQ) would be significantly predicted by change in dysfunctional beliefs toward spiders and self-efficacy, over and above the variance explained by a physiological measure of fear during exposure (heart rate) and presence during the immersion...
September 25, 2018: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Donald I Abrams
OBJECTIVES: The mostly indolent natural history and long overall survival associated with a diagnosis of prostate cancer provides a unique opportunity for men to explore diet and lifestyle interventions to alter the trajectory of their disease. As many patients may be appropriate for postponing conventional therapy, the effects of various integrative interventions can be investigated. In addition, treatment of prostate cancer with surgery, radiation, or androgen deprivation therapy, all may produce physical or psychological side effects that could be amenable to complementary therapies...
September 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Kent C Berridge
This review takes a historical perspective on concepts in the psychology of motivation and emotion, and surveys recent developments, debates and applications. Old debates over emotion have recently risen again. For example, are emotions necessarily subjective feelings? Do animals have emotions? I review evidence that emotions exist as core psychological processes, which have objectively detectable features, and which can occur either with subjective feelings or without them. Evidence is offered also that studies of emotion in animals can give new insights into human emotions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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