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meningitis pathophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264686/compartmental-models-for-seasonal-hyperendemic-bacterial-meningitis-in-the-african-meningitis-belt
#1
T Koutangni, P Crépey, M Woringer, S Porgho, B W Bicaba, H Tall, J E Mueller
The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the seasonal dynamic and epidemic occurrence of bacterial meningitis in the African meningitis belt remain unknown. Regular seasonality (seasonal hyperendemicity) is observed for both meningococcal and pneumococcal meningitis and understanding this is critical for better prevention and modelling. The two principal hypotheses for hyperendemicity during the dry season imply (1) an increased risk of invasive disease given asymptomatic carriage of meningococci and pneumococci; or (2) an increased transmission of these bacteria from carriers and ill individuals...
September 28, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30237298/engorgement-of-deep-medullary-veins-in-neurosarcoidosis-a-common-yet-underrecognized-cerebrovascular-finding-on-swi
#2
C Zamora, S-C Hung, C Tomingas, C Atkinson, M Castillo
We describe the prevalence and potential significance of deep medullary vein engorgement on SWI in patients with neurosarcoidosis, a finding that has not been described previously. Engorgement was evaluated for possible associations with meningeal or perivascular disease, intracranial hemorrhage, and venous thrombosis, as well as with modified Rankin Scale scores at the time of MR imaging and at follow-up. Deep medullary vein engorgement was seen in 7 of 21 patients and was more common in men. Patients with venous engorgement had a significantly increased incidence of microhemorrhages, perivascular disease, and hydrocephalus...
September 20, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30192999/deep-cervical-lymph-node-ligation-aggravates-ad-like-pathology-of-app-ps1-mice
#3
Linmei Wang, Yanli Zhang, Ying Zhao, Charles Marshall, Ting Wu, Ming Xiao
The imbalance between production and clearance of amyloid-beta (Aβ) is a key step in the onset and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, reducing Aβ accumulation in the brain is a promising therapeutic strategy for AD. The recently discovered glymphatic system and meningeal lymphatic vasculature have been shown to be critical for the elimination of interstitial waste products, especially Aβ, from the brain. In the present study, ligation of deep cervical lymph nodes was performed to block drainage of this system and explore the consequences on Aβ-related pathophysiology...
September 7, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30192160/atmospheric-dust-early-cases-and-localized-meningitis-epidemics-in-the-african-meningitis-belt-an-analysis-using-high-spatial-resolution-data
#4
Maxime Woringer, Nadège Martiny, Souleymane Porgho, Brice W Bicaba, Avner Bar-Hen, Judith E Mueller
BACKGROUND: Bacterial meningitis causes a high burden of disease in the African meningitis belt, with regular seasonal hyperendemicity and sporadic short, but intense, localized epidemics during the late dry season occurring at a small spatial scale [i.e., below the district level, in individual health centers (HCs)]. In addition, epidemic waves with larger geographic extent occur every 7-10 y. Although atmospheric dust load is thought to be an essential factor for hyperendemicity, its role for localized epidemics remains hypothetic...
September 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30166816/a-simple-approach-to-pneumococcal-vaccination-in-adults
#5
REVIEW
Calvin Green, Christine Ann Moore, Akhilesh Mahajan, Kailash Bajaj
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a bacterium responsible for a spectrum of diseases including lobar pneumonia, meningitis, otitis media, and sinusitis. Invasive pneumococcal disease is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality across the world. Concerted efforts led to the development of two vaccinations, Pneumova × 23 and Prevnar 13, for the prevention of pneumococcal disease. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides vaccination schedules for predisposed adults, but the proposed schedules remain a challenge to health-care providers...
July 2018: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30131074/combined-effect-of-non-bacteriolytic-antibiotic-and-inhibition-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-prevents-brain-injury-and-preserves-learning-memory-and-hearing-function-in-experimental-paediatric-pneumococcal-meningitis
#6
Lukas Muri, Denis Grandgirard, Michelle Buri, Michael Perny, Stephen L Leib
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal meningitis is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. Up to 50% of survivors show neurologic sequelae including hearing loss, cognitive impairments and learning disabilities, being particularly detrimental in affected infants and children where adjuvant therapy with dexamethasone has no proven beneficial effect. We evaluated the effect of concomitantly targeting specific pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for brain damage-i.e. matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and the exacerbated cerebral inflammation provoked through antibiotic-induced bacterial lysis...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095075/probable-dysimmune-epilepsia-partialis-continua-manifesting-as-epileptic-moving-toes-syndrome-electroclinical-features-of-a-challenging-case
#7
Francesco Brigo, Alberto Vogrig, Arianna Bratti, Veronica Tavernelli, Raffaele Nardone, Eugen Trinka
Epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) is a rare form of focal status epilepticus. We describe a 22-year-old woman with EPC manifesting with isolated toe movements, prevalent over the left side and initially misdiagnosed as psychogenic, clinically almost indistinguishable from those observed in "painful legs and moving toes syndrome". The continuous involuntary movements with EMG correlates of twitches lasting <100 ms, the sharp waves over fronto-central regions on EEG, and the marked asymmetry in somatosensory evoked potentials with higher cortical amplitude over the right side following peripheral stimulation over the left foot confirmed the epileptic nature of the symptoms, leading to the diagnosis of EPC...
August 1, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087335/a-mouse-model-reproducing-the-pathophysiology-of-neonatal-group-b-streptococcal-infection
#8
Elva Bonifácio Andrade, Ana Magalhães, Ana Puga, Madalena Costa, Joana Bravo, Camila Cabral Portugal, Adília Ribeiro, Margarida Correia-Neves, Augusto Faustino, Arnaud Firon, Patrick Trieu-Cuot, Teresa Summavielle, Paula Ferreira
Group B streptococcal (GBS) meningitis remains a devastating disease. The absence of an animal model reproducing the natural infectious process has limited our understanding of the disease and, consequently, delayed the development of effective treatments. We describe here a mouse model in which bacteria are transmitted to the offspring from vaginally colonised pregnant females, the natural route of infection. We show that GBS strain BM110, belonging to the CC17 clonal complex, is more virulent in this vertical transmission model than the isogenic mutant BM110∆cylE, which is deprived of hemolysin/cytolysin...
August 7, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077545/infection-and-metabolism-streptococcus-pneumoniae-metabolism-facing-the-host-environment
#9
A Leonard, M Lalk
Streptococcus pneumoniae, a Gram-positive bacterium, can cause a broad range of severe diseases including pneumonia, septicemia and meningitis. The pneumococcal pathophysiology is highly dependent on host nutrients such as purines, pyrimidines, amino acids and carbon sources. The study of S. pneumoniae metabolism is essential for understanding the adaption strategies that are required to deal with the host environment during infection and to identify possible new drug targets. By using a combination of high analytical techniques, such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), liquid chromatography (LC) and/or gas chromatography (GC) coupled with mass spectroscopy (MS) the metabolism of S...
August 1, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30056824/jc-virus-granule-cell-neuronopathy-as-aids-presenting-illness
#10
Simon Grandjean Lapierre, Xin Dang, Danielle Gilbert, Sylvie Lauzier, Igor J Koralnik, Louiselle LeBlanc
JC virus is the etiological agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a white matter demyelinating disease that mostly affects immunocompromised patients. JC virus can also infect neurons and meningeal cells and cause encephalitis, meningitis and granule cell neuronopathy. We report a patient with JC virus granule cell neuronopathy, without concomitant progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, presenting as inaugural acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related illness. This patient's human immunodeficiency virus infection remained undiagnosed for several months after neurological symptoms onset...
July 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29966614/acute-hepatitis-e-in-french-patients-and-neurological-manifestations
#11
Florence Abravanel, Julie Pique, Elisabeth Couturier, Florence Nicot, Chloé Dimeglio, Sébastien Lhomme, Julie Chiabrando, Karine Saune, Jean-Marie Péron, Nassim Kamar, Solène Evrard, Henriette de Valk, Pascal Cintas, Jacques Izopet
OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. However, our understanding of the source of contamination is incomplete and the frequency of neurological manifestations in still unknown. METHODS: 200 eligible cases reported to the French National Reference Center from January 2015 to December 2015 were prospectively included in this case-control study (1 case: 1 control, matched for sex, age and area of living) to investigate the risk of infection...
September 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29946039/endogenous-protection-from-ischemic-brain-injury-by-preconditioned-monocytes
#12
Lidia Garcia-Bonilla, David Brea, Corinne Benakis, Diane A Lane, Michelle Murphy, Jamie Moore, Gianfranco Racchumi, Xinran Jiang, Costantino Iadecola, Josef Anrather
Exposure to low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) before cerebral ischemia is neuroprotective in stroke models, a phenomenon termed preconditioning (PC). Although it is well established that LPS-PC induces central and peripheral immune responses, the cellular mechanisms modulating ischemic injury remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of immune cells in the brain protection afforded by PC and tested whether monocytes may be reprogrammed by ex vivo LPS exposure, thus modulating inflammatory injury after cerebral ischemia in male mice...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922952/sarcoidosis-of-the-central-nervous-system-clinical-features-imaging-and-csf-results
#13
Desmond P Kidd
OBJECTIVE: Neurological complications of systemic sarcoidosis are uncommon and the natural history and optimal treatments under-researched. With the advent of modern biological therapies, it is important to define the clinical characteristics and immunopathology of the disease. METHODS: Patients referred to and treated within the Centre for Neurosarcoidosis over a 15 year period who had biopsy-proven "highly probable" disease of the central nervous system were studied prospectively...
August 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898081/histopathologic-aspects-of-experimental-cysticercosis-and-in-situ-cytokines-profile-in-c57bl-6-mice
#14
Anália Cirqueira Milhomem, Amanda Juliana Soaris de Souza, Hidelberto Matos Silva, Marina Clare Vinaud, Milton Adriano Pelli de Oliveira, Juliana Reis Machado, Ruy de Souza Lino Júnior
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the parasitic infections that most affects the central nervous system. The knowledge regarding its immunopathogenesis and pathophysiology needs broadening. Taenia crassiceps cysticerci are used as the NCC experimental model. The aim of this work was to describe the general pathological processes and the in situ cytokine profile in C57BL/6 mice inoculated intracranially with viable T. crassiceps cysticerci. The histopathology analysis showed cysticerci in the extraparenchymal and intraventricular region, mononuclear inflammatory infiltration surrounding the parasite, microgliosis and meningitis...
May 2018: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860887/-autoinflammatory-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Bernadett Mosdósi, Beáta Tóth
Autoinflammatory diseases are disorders of the innate immune system characterized by recurrent systematic inflammation and serious complications. Dysregulation of inflammasome and overproduction of interleukin-1 play a major role in the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory diseases. The diagnosis of these rare conditions rely on recognising the pattern of presentation and differential diagnosis. Manifestations may include fever, rash, serositis (pleuritis and peritonitis), arthritis, meningitis and uveitis. Secondary amyloidosis may complicate longstanding disease...
June 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848111/protease-activated-receptor-2-par2-activation-causes-migraine-like-pain-behaviors-in-mice
#16
Shayne N Hassler, Fatima B Ahmad, Carolina C Burgos-Vega, Scott Boitano, Josef Vagner, Theodore J Price, Gregory Dussor
Background Pain is the most debilitating symptom of migraine. The cause of migraine pain likely requires activation of meningeal nociceptors. Mast cell degranulation, with subsequent meningeal nociceptor activation, has been implicated in migraine pathophysiology. Degranulating mast cells release serine proteases that can cleave and activate protease activated receptors. The purpose of these studies was to investigate whether protease activated receptor 2 is a potential generator of nociceptive input from the meninges by using selective pharmacological agents and knockout mice...
January 1, 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802484/characterization-of-the-trigeminovascular-actions-of-several-adenosine-a-2a-receptor-antagonists-in-an-in-vivo-rat-model-of-migraine
#17
Kristian A Haanes, Alejandro Labastida-Ramírez, Kayi Y Chan, René de Vries, Brian Shook, Paul Jackson, Jimmy Zhang, Christopher M Flores, Alexander H J Danser, Carlos M Villalón, Antoinette MaassenVanDenBrink
BACKGROUND: Migraine is considered a neurovascular disorder, but its pathophysiological mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Adenosine has been shown to increase in plasma during migraine attacks and to induce vasodilation in several blood vessels; however, it remains unknown whether adenosine can interact with the trigeminovascular system. Moreover, caffeine, a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist, is included in many over the counter anti-headache/migraine treatments. METHODS: This study used the rat closed cranial window method to investigate in vivo the effects of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonists with varying selectivity over A1 receptors; JNJ-39928122, JNJ-40529749, JNJ-41942914, JNJ-40064440 or JNJ-41501798 (0...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719647/common-orbital-infections-state-of-the-art-part-i
#18
REVIEW
Shirin Hamed-Azzam, Islam AlHashash, Daniel Briscoe, Geoffrey E Rose, David H Verity
Infections of the orbit and periorbita are relatively frequent, and can cause significant local and systemic morbidity. Loss of vision occurs in more than 10% of patients, and systemic sequelae can include meningitis, intracranial abscess, and death. Numerous organisms infect the orbit, but the most common are bacteria. There are many methods through which orbital infections occur, with infection from the neighboring ethmoid sinuses the most likely cause for all age groups. Prompt management is essential in suspected orbital cellulitis, and involves urgent intravenous antibiotics, rehydration, and treatment of any co-existent underlying systemic disease, e...
April 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680179/progress-in-understanding-the-pathophysiology-of-multiple-sclerosis
#19
REVIEW
H Zéphir
Multiple sclerosis (MS) arises in people who have a genetic susceptibility to environmental factors and events, which ultimately trigger the disease. It is thought that peripheral immune cells are mobilized and enter the CNS through the impaired blood-brain barrier in the subarachnoid space, as acute lesions show large numbers of macrophages and CD8+ T cells and, to a lesser extent, CD4+ T cells, B cells and plasma cells. Demyelination is mostly localized to focal lesions in early relapsing-remitting (RR) MS, whereas other areas of white matter appear normal...
June 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678699/acute-communicating-hydrocephalus-as-spinal-cord-surgery-complication-in-patient-with-lumbar-lipomyelocele
#20
Alessandro Prior, Mariasavina Severino, Andrea Rossi, Marco Pavanello, Gianluca Piatelli, Alessandro Consales
BACKGROUND: A lumbar lipomyelocele is a closed spinal dysraphism that can cause tethered cord syndrome. Between 5% and 15% of spinal dysraphism surgery cases are burdened with complications, the most common being wound infections or dehiscence and cerebrospinal fluid leak. Acute communicating hydrocephalus has never been described as a complication of this type of surgery. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 6-year-old girl who had undergone several surgeries in another institution for lumbar lipomyeloschisis came to our attention for a second opinion about the management of her spinal dysraphism...
July 2018: World Neurosurgery
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