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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335214/glucose-responsiveness-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-like-grp-%C3%AE-l-cells-generated-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#1
Bahareh Rajaei, Mohammad Massumi, Michael Wheeler
The International Diabetic Federation estimated that 415 million adults currently have diabetes and 318 million adults had impaired glucose tolerance, putting them at high risk of developing diabetes in the future. In Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), the β cells are lost because of autoimmune reactions. Although islet transplantation has been a promising therapy for T1D, it is greatly limited by pancreatic donors. Here, we describe a protocol to generate glucose- responsive pancreatic β-like (GRPβ-L) cells from human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells...
October 18, 2018: Current Protocols in Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334913/distraction-sugosteogenesis-its-biologic-bases-and-therapeutic-principles
#2
Jaime Castro-Núñez
PURPOSE: Recently, the terms sugosteogenesis and distraction sugosteogenesis have been introduced to the scientific literature. While the former describes a biologic phenomenon, the latter refers to the clinical technique which relies on the accelerated normal bone healing process that takes place at the osseous walls surrounding a cystic cavity when active negative pressure is applied. The purpose of this study is to provide the biologic bases and the therapeutic principles of this emerging technique...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334817/downregulation-of-mir-205-contributes-to-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-invasion-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-by-targeting-hmgb1-rage-signaling-pathway
#3
Ling Wang, Fu-Biao Kang, Juan Wang, Chao Yang, Dong-Wei He
Our aim was to study the regulatory molecule networks involved in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and thus promoting the early onset of metastasis in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Forty pairs of human TNBC and their adjacent normal breast tissues were analyzed by real-time PCR and immunochemistry to demonstrate the correlation between the miR-205 expression and clinicopathological characteristics. In vitro, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay, cell migration, and invasion assay were used to detect the cell growth and invasive ability of TNBC cells after upregulation or downregulation of miR-205 expression...
October 16, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334641/functional-detection-of-the-original-generation-of-hippocampal-cells-planted-onto-the-micro-fluidic-chip-with-artificial-neuronal-network-using-the-patch-clamp-recording-technique-a-preliminary-study
#4
Xianmin Kong, Shanshan Tian, Tao Chen, Yinghui Huang
The design of pattern that limit the hippocampal cells growth is an important explore for realizing a simplified artificial neuronal network in vitro. In this study, we examined the pattern in micro-fluidic chip to stipulate the hippocampal cells adhesion, growth and the formation of a functional neuronal network in vitro. Patch clamp recording technique was used to detect the growth situation and biological function of the haippocampal cells on the micro-fluidic chip which could simulate environment in vivo...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334629/vascular-biology-of-superoxide-generating-nadph-oxidase-5-nox5-implications-in-hypertension-and-cardiovascular-disease
#5
Rhian M Touyz, Aikaterini Anagnostopoulou, Livia Camargo, Francisco Rios, Augusto Montezano
SIGNIFICANCE:  NADPH oxidases (Nox) of which there are 7 isoforms (Nox1-5, Duox1/Duox2) are professional oxidases functioning as ROS-generating enzymes. ROS are signaling molecules important in physiological processes. Increased ROS production and altered redox signaling in the vascular system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, and have been attributed, in part, to increased Nox activity. RECENT ADVANCES:  Nox1,2,4,5 are expressed and functionally active in human vascular cells...
October 18, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334448/adam-protein-family-role-in-tumorigenesis-mechanisms-of-chemoresistance-and-potential-as-a-diagnostic-and-prognostic-factors
#6
L Zadka, M Jerzy Kulus, K Piatek
ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinases) is a family of transmembrane proteins described for the first time in the 1990s. Their earliest known role was involvement in gametes fusion. Their adhesion properties in intercellular interactions suggested also the possibility of involvement in the tumor biology. The research conducted further at that time emphasized the importance of ADAM proteins in the regulation of neoplastic processes due to their influence on adhesion, cell migration, proteolysis and cell signaling...
September 4, 2018: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334368/stat1-facilitates-oestrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-transcription-and-stimulates-breast-cancer-cell-proliferation
#7
Yingxiang Hou, Xin Li, Qianhua Li, Juntao Xu, Huijie Yang, Min Xue, Gang Niu, Shu Zhuo, Kun Mu, Gaosong Wu, Xiumin Li, Hui Wang, Jian Zhu, Ting Zhuang
Oestrogen receptor α (ERα) is overexpressed in two-thirds of all breast cancer cases and is involved in breast cancer development and progression. Although ERα -positive breast cancer can be effectively treated by endocrine therapy, endocrine resistance is an urgent clinical problem. Thus, further understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in ERα signalling is critical in dealing with endocrine resistance in patients with breast cancer. In the present study, unbiased RNA sequence analysis was conducted between the MCF-7 and MCF-7 tamoxifen-resistant (LCC2) cell lines in order to identify differentially expressed genes...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334226/using-systems-biology-and-mathematical-modeling-approaches-in-the-discovery-of-therapeutic-targets-for-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#8
Matthew E R Butchbach
Systems biology uses a combination of experimental and mathematical approaches to investigate the complex and dynamic interactions with a given system or biological process. Systems biology integrates genetics, signal transduction, biochemistry and cell biology with mathematical modeling. It can be used to identify novel pathways implicated in diseases as well as to understand the mechanisms by which a specific gene is regulated. This review describes the development of mathematical models for the regulation of an endogenous modifier gene, SMN2, in spinal muscular atrophy-an early-onset motor neuron disease that is a leading genetic cause of infant mortality worldwide-by cAMP signaling...
2018: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333983/cardiomyocytes-and-macrophages-discourse-on-the-method-to-govern-cardiac-repair
#9
REVIEW
Ingrid Gomez, Vincent Duval, Jean-Sébastien Silvestre
In response to pathophysiological stress, the cardiac tissue undergoes profound remodeling process that incorporates the elimination of dying resident cells, compensatory hypertrophy of functional cardiomyocytes, growth and remodeling of the vascular compartment and formation of a fibrotic scar. Accumulating evidences indicate that cardiac remodeling is, at least in part, controlled by a complex crosstalk between cardiomyocytes and macrophages. The strategic location of abundant macrophages to the proximity of cardiomyocytes suggest that they could regulate the fate of cardiomyocytes in the injured heart...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333887/long-non-coding-rna-chrf-predicts-poor-prognosis-of-lung-adenocarcinoma-and-promotes-cell-proliferation-and-migration
#10
Xiaowei Xie, Wei Zhao, Jinglin Pang, Xiaomiao Xiong, Haiyan Wang, Lingyun Ma
Research has demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are crucial factors in carcinogenesis. LncRNA, cardiac hypertrophy-related factor (CHRF), has been demonstrated to act as an oncogene in a variety of types of tumor. However, its biological function in lung adenocarcinoma remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to examine the level of CHRF expression in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and cell lines, and to analyze the association between CHRF and clinicopathological characteristics, as well prognosis of patients with lung adenocarcinoma...
November 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333879/long-non-coding-rna-sumo1p3-may-promote-cell-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-of-pancreatic-cancer-via-emt-signaling-pathway
#11
Chuang Tian, Yong Jin, Songshan Shi
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been suggested to serve important roles in the development of a number of human cancer types. An increasing amount of data has indicated that the lncRNA small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 (SUMO1) pseudogene 3 (SUMO1P3) has been involved in various types of human cancer. However, the function SUMO1P3 in the development of pancreatic cancer remains unclear. Firstly, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the expression of SUMO1P3 in pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines...
November 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333799/comparative-time-scale-gene-expression-analysis-highlights-the-infection-processes-of-two-amoebophrya-strains
#12
Sarah Farhat, Isabelle Florent, Benjamin Noel, Ehsan Kayal, Corinne Da Silva, Estelle Bigeard, Adriana Alberti, Karine Labadie, Erwan Corre, Jean-Marc Aury, Stephane Rombauts, Patrick Wincker, Laure Guillou, Betina M Porcel
Understanding factors that generate, maintain, and constrain host-parasite associations is of major interest to biologists. Although little studied, many extremely virulent micro-eukaryotic parasites infecting microalgae have been reported in the marine plankton. This is the case for Amoebophrya , a diverse and highly widespread group of Syndiniales infecting and potentially controlling dinoflagellate populations. Here, we analyzed the time-scale gene expression of a complete infection cycle of two Amoebophrya strains infecting the same host (the dinoflagellate Scrippsiella acuminata ), but diverging by their host range (one infecting a single host, the other infecting more than one species)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333500/the-cancer-testes-ct-antigen-hormad1-promotes-homologous-recombinational-dna-repair-and-radioresistance-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-cells
#13
Yanzhe Gao, Jordan Kardos, Yang Yang, Tigist Y Tamir, Elizabeth Mutter-Rottmayer, Bernard Weissman, Michael B Major, William Y Kim, Cyrus Vaziri
The Cancer/Testes (CT) Antigen HORMAD1 is germ cell-restricted and plays developmental roles in generation and processing of meiotic DNA Double Strand Breaks (DSB). Many tumors aberrantly overexpress HORMAD1 yet the potential impact of this CT antigen on cancer biology is unclear. We tested a potential role of HORMAD1 in genome maintenance in lung adenocarcinoma cells. We show that HORMAD1 re-distributes to nuclear foci and co-localizes with the DSB marker γH2AX in response to ionizing radiation (IR) and chemotherapeutic agents...
October 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333257/microrna-575-suppresses-angiogenesis-by-targetingrab5-mek-erk-pathway-in-endothelial-cells
#14
Xin Zhao, Yaping Yi, Chao Meng, Ningyuan Fang
Hypertension is a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is generally considered as an early marker of atherosclerosis. Recently, circulating microRNAs have been implicated both as sensitive biomarker and key regulator in development of atherosclerosis. However, the biological functions and molecular regulatory mechanisms for miR-575 on angiogenesis remain unknown. In our study, we firstly identified upregulation of circulating miR-575 in plasma of essential hypertensive patients with increased CIMT (iCIMT) compare to those patients with normal CIMT (nCIMT)...
October 17, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333151/a-temperature-sensitive-misfolded-bri1-301-receptor-requires-its-kinase-activity-to-promote-growth
#15
Xiawei Zhang, Linyao Zhou, Yukuo Qin, Yongwu Chen, Xiaolei Liu, Muyang Wang, Juan Mao, Jianjun Zhang, Zuhua He, Linchuan Liu, Jianming Li
Brassinosteroid-insensitive 1 (BRI1) is a leucine-rich-repeat receptor-like kinase functioning as the cell surface receptor for brassinosteroids (BRs). Previous studies showed that BRI1 requires its kinase activity to transduce the extracellular BR signal into the nucleus. Among the many reported mutant bri1 alleles, bri1-301 is quite unique as its glycine989-to-isoleucine mutation completely inhibits its kinase activity in vitro but only gives rise to a weak dwarf phenotype compared to strong or null bri1 alleles, raising a question whether or not kinase activity is essential for the biological function of BRI1...
October 17, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332949/circulating-endothelial-progenitor-cells-biology-and-regenerative-medicine-in-pulmonary-vascular-diseases
#16
Germano Guerra, Fabio Perrotta, Gianluca Testa
Pulmonary vascular disorders (PVDs) include primary or secondary diseases who influence the right heart function. Several researches showed that stem and progenitor cells may represent a novel approach in treating pulmonary hypertension. In particular, circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are mobilized either from the bone marrow and/or arteries to replace dysfunctional endothelial cells and restore blood perfusion to ischemic tissues. They may deliver paracrine signals to stimulate local angiogenesis or may be physically incorporated within neovessels...
October 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332879/-effect-of-equiaxial-tensile-strain-in-early-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-cartilage-cells
#17
Zi-Quan Yang, Ya-Xun Men
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of cyclic equiaxial tensile strain in the early differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BMSCs) into cartilage in mouse under conditions of two-dimensional culture, and to investigate the mechanism of cyclic equiaxial tensile strain in early chondrogenic differentiation. METHODS: Sixteen KM mouse aged 4 weeks were selected, male and female unlimited, with an average weight of 19.5 g (17 to 21 g). After extracting and isolating the BMSCs from KM mouse, then subculture the BMSCs to the 3rd generation...
September 25, 2018: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332780/canine-influenza-virus-is-mildly-restricted-by-canine-tetherin-protein
#18
Yun Zheng, Xiangqi Hao, Qingxu Zheng, Xi Lin, Xin Zhang, Weijie Zeng, Shiyue Ding, Pei Zhou, Shoujun Li
Tetherin (BST2/CD317/HM1.24) has emerged as a key host-cell ·defence molecule that acts by inhibiting the release and spread of diverse enveloped virions from infected cells. We analysed the biological features of canine tetherin and found it to be an unstable hydrophilic type I transmembrane protein with one transmembrane domain, no signal peptide, and multiple glycosylation and phosphorylation sites. Furthermore, the tissue expression profile of canine tetherin revealed that it was particularly abundant in immune organs...
October 16, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332471/generation-and-characterization-of-monoclonal-antibodies-that-recognize-human-and-murine-supervillin-protein-isoforms
#19
Tara C Smith, Richard G Saul, Elisabeth R Barton, Elizabeth J Luna
Supervillin isoforms have been implicated in cell proliferation, actin filament-based motile processes, vesicle trafficking, and signal transduction. However, an understanding of the roles of these proteins in cancer metastasis and physiological processes has been limited by the difficulty of obtaining specific antibodies against these highly conserved membrane-associated proteins. To facilitate research into the biological functions of supervillin, monoclonal antibodies were generated against the bacterially expressed human supervillin N-terminus...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332301/negative-elongation-factor-is-essential-for-endometrial-function
#20
Sylvia C Hewitt, Rong Li, Nyssa Adams, Wipawee Winuthayanon, Katherine J Hamilton, Lauren J Donoghue, Sydney L Lierz, Marleny Garcia, John P Lydon, Francesco J DeMayo, Karen Adelman, Kenneth S Korach
Pausing of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) during early transcription, mediated by the negative elongation factor (NELF) complex, allows cells to coordinate and appropriately respond to signals by modulating the rate of transcriptional pause release. Promoter proximal enrichment of Pol II occurs at uterine genes relevant to reproductive biology; thus, we hypothesized that pausing might impact endometrial response by coordinating hormonal signals involved in establishing and maintaining pregnancy. We deleted the NELF-B subunit in the mouse uterus using PgrCre (NELF-B UtcKO)...
October 17, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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