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cell biology, cell signaling

Lin Yang, Cui Ma, Lixin Zhang, Min Zhang, Fei Li, Chen Zhang, Xiufeng Yu, Xiaoying Wang, Siyu He, Daling Zhu, Yinli Song
15-Lipoxygenase-2 (15-LOX-2) and 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE) have been considered as latent mediators of diverse biological processes including cancer. However, their functions in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) are unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine whether 15-LOX-2/15(S)-HETE is involved in the proliferation and migration of A549 cells and to identify the signaling pathways that participate in this process. We used immunohistochemistry to identify the expression levels of 15-LOX-2 in lung cancer tissue samples...
August 12, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Sreekumar Balan, Catharina Arnold-Schrauf, Abdenour Abbas, Norbert Couespel, Juliette Savoret, Francesco Imperatore, Alexandra-Chloé Villani, Thien-Phong Vu Manh, Nina Bhardwaj, Marc Dalod
The ability to generate large numbers of distinct types of human dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro is critical for accelerating our understanding of DC biology and harnessing them clinically. We developed a DC differentiation method from human CD34+ precursors leading to high yields of plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and both types of conventional DCs (cDC1s and cDC2s). The identity of the cells generated in vitro and their strong homology to their blood counterparts were demonstrated by phenotypic, functional, and single-cell RNA-sequencing analyses...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
C Schirmer, J Posseckardt, A Kick, K Rebatschek, W Fichtner, K Ostermann, A Schuller, G Rödel, M Mertig
Recently it has been proposed to use sensors based on genetically engineered reporter cells to perform continuous online water monitoring. Here we describe the design, assembly and performance of a novel flow-through device with immobilized genetically modified yeast cells that produce a fluorescent protein upon stimulation with diclofenac whose intensity is then detected by fluorescence microscopy. Although other devices employing immobilized cells for the detection of various analytes have already been described before, as novelty our system allows safe enclosure of the sensor cells, and thus, to obtain fluorescent signals that are not falsified by a loss of cells...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Christina Schoenherr, Margaret C Frame, Adam Byron
Cell adhesion to macromolecules in the microenvironment is essential for the development and maintenance of tissues, and its dysregulation can lead to a range of disease states, including inflammation, fibrosis, and cancer. The biomechanical and biochemical mechanisms that mediate cell adhesion rely on signaling by a range of effector proteins, including kinases and associated scaffolding proteins. The intracellular trafficking of these must be tightly controlled in space and time to enable effective cell adhesion and microenvironmental sensing and to integrate cell adhesion with, and compartmentalize it from, other cellular processes, such as gene transcription, protein degradation, and cell division...
August 15, 2018: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Eugene Oh, David Akopian, Michael Rape
Ubiquitylation is an essential posttranslational modification that controls cell division, differentiation, and survival in all eukaryotes. By combining multiple E3 ligases (writers), ubiquitin-binding effectors (readers), and deubiquitylases (erasers) with functionally distinct ubiquitylation tags, the ubiquitin system constitutes a powerful signaling network that is employed in similar ways from yeast to humans. Here, we discuss conserved principles of ubiquitin-dependent signaling that illustrate how this posttranslational modification shapes intracellular signaling networks to establish robust development and homeostasis throughout the eukaryotic kingdom...
August 15, 2018: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Dominic Skinner, Brett S Marro, Thomas E Lane
Chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) are involved in a wide variety of biological processes. Following microbial infection, there is often robust chemokine signaling elicited from infected cells, which contributes to both innate and adaptive immune responses that control growth of the invading pathogen. Infection of the central nervous system (CNS) by the neuroadapted John Howard Mueller (JHM) strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) provides an excellent example of how chemokines aid in host defense as well as contribute to disease...
August 15, 2018: Viral Immunology
Guangmang Liu, Wei Cao, Gang Jia, Hua Zhao, Xiaoling Chen, Jing Wang
The animal gut effectively prevents the entry of hazardous substances and microbes while permitting the transfer of nutrients, such as water, electrolytes, vitamins, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, minerals and microbial metabolites, which are intimately associated with intestinal homoeostasis. The gut maintains biological functions through its nutrient-sensing receptors, including the Ca-sensing receptor (CaSR), which activates a variety of signalling pathways, depending on cellular context. CaSR coordinates food digestion and nutrient absorption, promotes cell proliferation and differentiation, regulates energy metabolism and immune response, stimulates hormone secretion, mitigates secretory diarrhoea and enhances intestinal barrier function...
August 15, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Chaoxu Yang, Shukui Qin
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide with poor prognosis and tends to be hypervascular. Aberrant expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor 2 (VEGFR-2) has been implicated in the progression of HCC and represents a valid target for anticancer therapy. Apatinib, a small molecule inhibitor of VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase, shows strong antitumor activity in various tumors. This study is designed to evaluate the activity of apatinib on both human umbilical vein vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and HCC cell lines (in vitro and in vivo), and also to investigate the characteristics and possible mechanisms underlying these effects by molecular biology methods...
August 14, 2018: Cancer Medicine
F M Rezende, G O Dietsch, F Peñagaricano
The service sire has been recognized as an important factor affecting herd fertility in dairy cattle. Recent studies suggest that genetic factors explain part of the difference in fertility among Holstein sires. The main objective of this study was to dissect the genetic architecture of sire fertility in US Jersey cattle. The dataset included 1.5 K Jersey bulls with sire conception rate (SCR) records and 96 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers spanning the whole genome. The analysis included whole-genome scans for both additive and non-additive effects and subsequent functional enrichment analyses using KEGG Pathway, Gene Ontology (GO) and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) databases...
August 14, 2018: Animal Genetics
Haniyeh Hemmatian, Rozita Jalali, Cornelis M Semeins, Jolanda M A Hogervorst, G Harry van Lenthe, Jenneke Klein-Nulend, Astrid D Bakker
Hormonal changes during lactation are associated with profound changes in bone cell biology, such as osteocytic osteolysis, resulting in larger lacunae. Larger lacuna shape theoretically enhances the transmission of mechanical signals to osteocytes. We aimed to provide experimental evidence supporting this theory by comparing the mechanoresponse of osteocytes in the bone of lactating mice, which have enlarged lacunae due to osteocytic osteolysis, with the response of osteocytes in bone from age-matched virgin mice...
August 14, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Thomas Schlüter, Carsten Schelmbauer, Khalad Karram, Ilgiz A Mufazalov
The pleiotropic cytokine IL-1 mediates its biological functions via association with the signaling receptor IL-1R1. Despite an apparent simplicity in IL-1 signaling activation, multiple negative regulators have been identified. The decoy receptor IL-1R2 (also known as CD121b) can suppress IL-1 maturation, sequester its active forms or hinder the signaling complex assembly. IL-1R2 is differentially expressed among numerous cell types and displays cis- and trans- modes of action. In this review, we link different forms of IL-1R2 (membrane-bound (mIL-1R2), secreted (sIL-1R2), shedded (shIL-1R2), cytoplasmic, and intracellular domain (IL-1R2ICD ) restricted) with their ability to interfere with IL-1, thereby regulating immune responses...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Emira Bousoik, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi
Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK) family of proteins have been identified as crucial proteins in signal transduction initiated by a wide range of membrane receptors. Among the proteins in this family JAK2 has been associated with important downstream proteins, including signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs), which in turn regulate the expression of a variety of proteins involved in induction or prevention of apoptosis. Therefore, the JAK/STAT signaling axis plays a major role in the proliferation and survival of different cancer cells, and may even be involved in resistance mechanisms against molecularly targeted drugs...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Hui Lyu, Amy Han, Erik Polsdofer, Shuang Liu, Bolin Liu
HER3 belongs to the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family which also includes HER1/EGFR/erbB1, HER2/erbB2, and HER4/erbB4. As a unique member of the HER family, HER3 lacks or has little intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. It frequently co-expresses and forms heterodimers with other receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in cancer cells to activate oncogenic signaling, especially the PI-3K/Akt pathway and Src kinase. Elevated expression of HER3 has been observed in a wide variety of human cancers and associates with a worse survival in cancer patients with solid tumors...
July 2018: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Wuji Sun, Shubiao Fang, Hong Yan
Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) plays a crucial role in tumor angiogenesis, and inhibition of the VEGFR-2 signaling pathway has emerged as an attractive target for cancer therapy. In our effort, a novel series of picolinamide-based derivatives were designed and synthesized as potent and effective VEGFR-2 inhibitors. All the newly prepared compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antiproliferative activity against A549 and HepG2 cell lines. Among the new compounds, 8j and 8l exhibited better activity against both A549 and HepG2 cell lines...
June 1, 2018: MedChemComm
Hao Zhang, Tihomir Tomašič, Jie Shi, Matjaž Weiss, Rob Ruijtenbeek, Marko Anderluh, Roland J Pieters
O -GlcNAc transferase (OGT) attaches a GlcNAc moiety on specific substrate proteins using UDP-GlcNAc as the sugar donor. This modification can alter protein function by regulating cellular signaling and transcription pathways in response to altered nutrient availability and stress. Specific inhibitors of OGT would be valuable tools for biological studies and lead structures for therapeutics. The existing OGT inhibitors are mainly derived from the sugar donor substrate, but poor cell permeability and off-target effects limit their use...
May 1, 2018: MedChemComm
Haiyang Chen, Peiran Song, Yanyan Diao, Yongjia Hao, Dou Dou, Wanqi Wang, Xiaoyu Fang, Yanling Wang, Zhenjiang Zhao, Jian Ding, Honglin Li, Hua Xie, Yufang Xu
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) plays a critical role in B cell receptor (BCR)-mediated signaling pathways responsible for the development and function of B cells, which makes it an attractive target for the treatment of many types of B-cell malignancies. Herein, a series of N5-substituted 6,7-dioxo-6,7-dihydropteridine-based, irreversible BTK inhibitors were reported with IC50 values ranging from 1.9 to 236.6 nM in the enzymatic inhibition assay. Compounds 6 and 7 significantly inhibited the proliferation of Ramos cells which overexpress the BTK enzyme, as well as the autophosphorylation of BTK at Tyr223 and the activation of its downstream signaling molecule PLCγ2...
April 1, 2018: MedChemComm
C I Wells, N R Kapadia, R M Couñago, D H Drewry
Potent, selective, and cell active small molecule kinase inhibitors are useful tools to help unravel the complexities of kinase signaling. As the biological functions of individual kinases become better understood, they can become targets of drug discovery efforts. The small molecules used to shed light on function can also then serve as chemical starting points in these drug discovery efforts. The Nek family of kinases has received very little attention, as judged by number of citations in PubMed, yet they appear to play many key roles and have been implicated in disease...
January 1, 2018: MedChemComm
Somanath Kundu, Sandhya Bansal, Kalai Mangai Muthukumarasamy, Chetana Sachidanandan, Rajender K Motiani, Avinash Bajaj
Bile acids have emerged as strong signaling molecules capable of influencing various biological processes like inflammation, apoptosis, cancer progression and atherosclerosis depending on their chemistry. In the present study, we investigated the effect of major hydrophobic bile acids lithocholic acid (LCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) and hydrophilic bile acids cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) on angiogenesis. We employed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and zebrafish embryos as model systems for studying the role of bile acids in angiogenesis...
December 1, 2017: MedChemComm
Susan Bae, Jeffrey Brumbaugh, Benjamin Bonavida
The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a unique platform of cancer biology that considers the local cellular environment in which a tumor exists. Increasing evidence points to the TME as crucial for either promoting immune tumor rejection or protecting the tumor. The TME includes surrounding blood vessels, the extracellular matrix (ECM), a variety of immune and regulatory cells, and signaling factors. Exosomes have emerged to be molecular contributors in cancer biology, and to modulate and affect the constituents of the TME...
March 2018: Genes & Cancer
Guo-Liang Zhang, Jun-Lin Song, Chuan-Liang Ji, Yu-Long Feng, Jie Yu, Charles M Nyachoti, Gong-She Yang
Zearalenone (ZEA) is a natural contaminant existing in food and feed products that exhibits a negative effect on domestic animals' reproduction. Donkeys possess high economic value in China and are at risk of exposure to ZEA. However, few information is available on ZEA-induced toxicity and no report on toxicity in donkeys can be found in scientific literature. We investigated the biological effects of ZEA exposure on donkey granulosa cells (dGCs) by using RNA-seq analysis. ZEA at 10 and 30 μM were administered to GCs within 72 h of in vitro culture...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
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