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Alastair J S Webb
OBJECTIVES: Vasodilating antihypertensives prevent stroke and potentially cerebral small vessel disease but their effects on cerebrovascular haemodynamics beyond blood pressure lowering are unclear. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Psychinfo, Health Business Elite and Health Management Information Consortium for randomized studies of vasodilating medications, compared to no treatment or nonvasodilators, that reported effects on cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean blood flow velocity (MFV) or cerebrovascular reactivity...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Vinit Kumar Singh, Sneha Karmani, Palash Kumar Malo, H G Virupaksha, Daliboina Muralidhar, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Kesavan Muralidharan
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is reportedly associated with high mortality from mostly cardiovascular causes in patients with severe mental disorders (SMD). Lifestyle interventions augment effective management of MS in patients with SMD. The present meta-analysis aims at updating the recent evidence on the effectiveness of lifestyle intervention for MS in patients with SMD. METHOD: A literature search for English Language publications of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from 2001 to 2016 comparing lifestyle modification (LM) with treatment as usual (TAU) in the management of MS were identified...
December 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Nan Xiao, Hao Chen, Shi-Yong He, Chong-Xiang Xue, Hua Sui, Jing Chen, Jia-Lin Qu, Li-Na Liang, Lin Zhang
Objective. In China, the method of clearing heat and removing dampness medicine of Chinese traditional medicine has been widely used on gout. However, the clinical effects are various and not summarized systematically. Methods. In this study, a large number of randomized controlled clinical trials were reviewed and analyzed and the clinical efficacy and adverse reactions of traditional Chinese medicine with clearing heat and removing dampness effects for the treatment of gout were systematically evaluated. A comprehensive search of databases including pubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database, Wanfang Data, and SinoMed was performed...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Ewout B Smit, Hylco Bouwstra, Cees Mpm Hertogh, Elizabeth M Wattel, Johannes C van der Wouden
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of goal-setting on physical functioning, quality of life and duration of rehabilitation in geriatric rehabilitation compared to care as usual. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library were searched from initiation to October 2018. METHODS: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled before-after studies and studies using historic controls of older patients (mean age ⩾55 years) receiving rehabilitation for acquired disabilities...
December 12, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
Aethele Khunda, Carol McCormick, Paul Ballard
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Sexual function is being increasingly recognized as an important patient-reported outcome. Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) is a treatment with an expanding list of indications. The effect of sacral neuromodulation on sexual function has been examined in a number of studies with variable results. In this review, we aim to systematically review the literature and pool the data if appropriate. METHODS: The literature search was conducted primarily on the Healthcare Databases Advanced Search (HDAS) platform using the Medline, EMBASE and CINHAL search engines...
December 7, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
Lei Zhang, Wei-Qiang Tan, Qing-Qing Fang, Wan-Yi Zhao, Qi-Ming Zhao, Jie Gao, Xiao-Wei Wang
Objective: Melasma is a highly prevalent, chronic, and pigmentary disorder. This systematic review aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TA) for the treatment of adults with melasma. Methods: We independently searched 3 databases from beginning to 26 April, 2018. The study included 21 eligible trials. Two writers extracted data at the same time independently. Study outcomes were calculated by standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
2018: BioMed Research International
Lei Cheng, Keyan Zhang, Zhenyong Zhang
Objective: Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease and a major public health problem worldwide. Thiazides are widely used as antihypertensive agents with good tolerability and efficacy. Furthermore, thiazides have long been regarded as candidates for the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss. However, there is insufficient evidence that thiazides have a sustained beneficial effect on preserving bone mass and preventing osteoporosis to date. Materials and methods: We searched the PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Embase in June 2018 for randomized controlled trials on the use of thiazides to treat osteoporosis...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Rumei Yang, Eunjin Lee Tracy, Haocen Wang
OBJECTIVES: We examined between- and within-person associations between depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning among Chinese older adults (aged 60+) over time. Furthermore, we also investigated whether subjective memory decline (SMD) is uniquely associated with cognitive functioning above and beyond depressive symptoms for both between-person and within-person associations. METHODS: About 7385 older adults from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study reported their demographic and health status, and completed self-report measures of depressive symptoms and SMD, as well as a battery of cognitive tests, every two years at three times between 2011 and 2015...
December 3, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Kane Langdon, James Phie, Chetan B Thapa, Erik Biros, Alex Loukas, Nagaraja Haleagrahara
OBJECTIVE: Proteins from parasitic worms have been posed as novel therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other auto-inflammatory diseases. However, with so many potential therapeutics, it is important that drug discovery be based on the specific phyla or species which show the most promising effects. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the reported effects of helminthic secretory proteins and derivative therapy on RA in an animal model. METHODS: Medline, Scopus and Web of Science were searched to identify studies evaluating helminthic therapy in the collagen-induced arthritis model of RA...
December 4, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Aki Rintala, Ville Päivärinne, Sanna Hakala, Jaana Paltamaa, Ari Heinonen, Juha Karvanen, Tuulikki Sjögren
OBJECTIVE: To study the effectiveness of technology-based distance physical rehabilitation interventions on physical functioning in stroke. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search was conducted in six databases from January 2000 to May 2018. STUDY SELECTION: Inclusion criteria applied PICOS (Patient, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Study design) framework as follows: (P) stroke; (I) technology-based distance physical rehabilitation interventions; (C) any comparison without the use of technology; (O) physical functioning; (S) randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
December 6, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Gracia Fellmeth, Kelly Rose-Clarke, Chenyue Zhao, Laura K Busert, Yunting Zheng, Alessandro Massazza, Hacer Sonmez, Ben Eder, Alice Blewitt, Wachiraya Lertgrai, Miriam Orcutt, Katharina Ricci, Olaa Mohamed-Ahmed, Rachel Burns, Duleeka Knipe, Sally Hargreaves, Therese Hesketh, Charles Opondo, Delan Devakumar
BACKGROUND: Globally, a growing number of children and adolescents are left behind when parents migrate. We investigated the effect of parental migration on the health of left behind-children and adolescents in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis we searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, PsychINFO, Global Index Medicus, Scopus, and Popline from inception to April 27, 2017, without language restrictions, for observational studies investigating the effects of parental migration on nutrition, mental health, unintentional injuries, infectious disease, substance use, unprotected sex, early pregnancy, and abuse in left-behind children (aged 0-19 years) in LMICs...
December 5, 2018: Lancet
Ryan L Goetz, Brian J Miller
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with an increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Patients receiving antipsychotic medications, including olanzapine, are at further risk. Ghrelin is an appetite-stimulating peptide hormone, although whether blood levels are altered by antipsychotic treatment, remains unclear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing blood ghrelin levels in patients with schizophrenia before and after treatment with olanzapine. METHOD: Two authors independently searched major electronic databases from inception until February 2018 for studies measuring blood ghrelin levels among patients with schizophrenia before and after olanzapine therapy...
December 7, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Shiyuan Yu, Shanshan Yu, Lili Zhang, Yanxia Gao, Joseph Walline, Xin Lu, Yong Ma, Huadong Zhu, Xuezhong Yu, Yi Li
OBJECTIVE: Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are still widely available in developing countries, leading to numerous accidental or suicidal poisonings every year. Lipid emulsion treatments are commonly used in resuscitating OP poisoning patients but few studies regarding their use have been reported. Our meta-analysis aimed to analyze the efficacy and outcomes of lipid resuscitation on OP poisoning patients. METHODS: A systematic search for associated studies was conducted in Pubmed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure...
November 17, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Si Qin, Lifan Huang, Jiaojiao Gong, Shasha Shen, Juan Huang, Yao Tang, Hong Ren, Huaidong Hu
Oxidative stress (OS) is associated with aging and multiple diseases, yet the effects of curcumin in humans are not definite. We undertook a meta-analysis of the effects of curcumin on OS biomarkers. In January 2018, we searched PubMed, Books@Ovid, Journals@Ovid, EMBASE, MEDLINE(R), and Web of Science to identify randomized controlled trials conducted ≥4 weeks and investigating the effects of curcumin on OS biomarkers, including glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity in red blood cells (RBC), serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity...
December 2018: Nutrition Research
Totan Mondal, Sayan Dutta, Sriman De, Debasis Koley
The detailed mechanism of the intermolecular Pd-catalyzed carbonylative coupling reaction between aryl bromides and polyfluoroarenes relying on C(sp2)-H activation was investigated using state-of-the-art computational methods (SMD-B3LYP-D3(BJ)/BS2//B3LYP-D3/BS1). The mechanism unveils the necessary and important roles of slight excess carbon monoxide: acting as a ligand in active catalyst state, participation as a reactant in carbonylation process and accelerating the final reductive elimination event. Importantly, the desired carbonylative coupling route follows the rate limiting C-H activation process via the CMD pathway which is slightly more feasible than the decarboxylative route leading to the by-product formation by 1...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Yan Zhang, Yongsheng Yang, Junxia Yang, Lian Yang, Ying Xue
Amide bonds have gained much attention from numerous scientists and acyl transfer is a good way to form amide bonds. The acylation mechanism of polyamines and their high selectivity in dichloromethane were investigated by the use of the density functional theory (DFT), M06-2X/6-311+G (d, p)//M06-2X/6-31G (d, p) method combined with the solvation SMD model. The calculated results suggest that the reaction process involved two steps: an acylation step and a proton-transfer step, with the former being the rate-limiting step...
December 7, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Yong Wei, Peng Chen, Quanbing Chen, Hongru Zhu
Suboptimal levels of serum vitamin D levels have been implied to be associated with cardiovascular diseases and endothelial dysfunction, conditions closely associated with erectile dysfunction (ED). The present systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the vitamin D levels in subjects with ED compared to controls and the 5-item version of the international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) score in subjects with vitamin D deficiency compared to those without vitamin D deficiency in order to elucidate the role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of ED...
December 6, 2018: Andrologia
Chun-De Liao, Jau-Yih Tsauo, Shih-Wei Huang, Hung-Chou Chen, Yen-Shuo Chiu, Tsan-Hon Liou
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the clinical efficacy of continuous passive motion (CPM) following knee arthroplasty and determined the predictors of effect sizes of range of motion (ROM) and functional outcomes in patients with knee arthritis. METHODS: A comprehensive electronic database search was performed for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), without publication year or language restrictions. The included RCTs were analyzed through meta-analysis and risk of bias assessment...
December 7, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Mrinal Kanti Si, Sumit Kumar Pramanik, Bishwajit Ganguly
Search for inhibitors to stabilize the telomeric G-quadruplex in order to deter telomerase activity is an active area of research. Inhibitors play an important role to initiate the tumor cell mortalization process. This work reports for the first time of acridine derivative with four membered ammonium rings at the side chain to surpass the binding ability against BRACO-19 with G-quadruplex-DNA. It is known in the literature that acridine based molecule BRACO-19 can effectively bind with G-quadruplex-DNA. The computational study performed in this study revealed that the binding ability of acridine based molecule can be augmented with subtle variation in the molecular structure of the drug like candidates...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jan Klimas, Christopher Fairgrieve, Helen Tobin, Catherine-Anne Field, Clodagh Sm O'Gorman, Liam G Glynn, Eamon Keenan, Jean Saunders, Gerard Bury, Colum Dunne, Walter Cullen
BACKGROUND: Problem alcohol use is common among people who use illicit drugs (PWID) and is associated with adverse health outcomes. It is also an important factor contributing to a poor prognosis among drug users with hepatitis C virus (HCV) as it impacts on progression to hepatic cirrhosis or opioid overdose in PWID. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in PWID (users of opioids and stimulants). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group trials register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO, from inception up to August 2017, and the reference lists of eligible articles...
December 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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