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Biplab Giri, Sananda Dey, Tanaya Das, Mrinmoy Sarkar, Jhimli Banerjee, Sandeep Kumar Dash
Chronic exposure of glucose rich environment creates several physiological and pathophysiological changes. There are several pathways by which hyperglycemia exacerbate its toxic effect on cells, tissues and organ systems. Hyperglycemia can induce oxidative stress, upsurge polyol pathway, activate protein kinase C (PKC), enhance hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP), promote the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and finally alters gene expressions. Prolonged hyperglycemic condition leads to severe diabetic condition by damaging the pancreatic β-cell and inducing insulin resistance...
August 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ahmed Elkamhawy, Jung-Eun Park, Ahmed H E Hassan, Ae Nim Pae, Jiyoun Lee, Sora Paik, Beoung-Geon Park, Eun Joo Roh
Herein, we report synthesis and evaluation of new twenty-eight pyrazinyl ureas against β amyloid (Aβ)-induced opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) using JC-1 assay which measures the change of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). The neuroprotective effect of seventeen compounds against Aβ-induced mPTP opening was superior to that of the standard Cyclosporin A (CsA). Among them, 1-(3-(benzyloxy)pyrazin-2-yl)-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea (5) effectively maintained mitochondrial function and cell viabilities on ATP assay and MTT assay...
July 31, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Sherwin Ting, Alan Lam, Gerine Tong, Allen Chen, Heming Wei, JianJun Wu, Yue Ning Lam, Shaul Reuveny, Steve Oh
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can be a renewable source for generating cardiomyocyte (CM) for treating myocardial infraction. In our previous publication, we described an integrated microcarrier-based wave reactor process for the expansion and differentiation of hPSCs to CMs on a rocker based platform. However, this platform is limited in terms of linear scalability and CMs purity. The present study describes ways to overcome these limitations by the use of a stirred scalable platform and incorporation of an additional lactate based purification step which increases CM purity...
August 1, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Matthew J Lawrence, Gareth Davies, Michael Nyberg, Janet Whitley, Vanessa Evans, Rhodri Williams, Ylva Hellsten, Phillip A Evans
BACKGROUND: The long term benefits of exercise on the cardiovascular status of a patient have been proven, however, their benefit/risk relationship with exercise intensity is unclear. Furthermore, many thromboembolic diseases such as myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke are associated with profound catecholamine release. In this study we explore the relationship between catecholamine release and hemodynamic changes and their effect on coagulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve healthy recreationally active males were recruited...
July 27, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Lizza Parts, Malin Holzmann, Mikael Norman, Pelle G Lindqvist
OBJECTIVE: Admission CTG is a short fetal heart rate (FHR) tracing recorded immediately at hospital admission to avoid unnecessary delay in action among pregnancies complicated by pre-existent fetal distress. There are different opinions regarding the value of the admission CTG, especially in low risk pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective validation study from Karolinska University Hospital, Jan 2011 to June 2015 (total number of deliveries = 40,061). All women who underwent emergency cesarean section within one hour of admittance due to suspected fetal distress were identified...
July 30, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Anne Tournadre, Gaelle Vial, Frédéric Capel, Martin Soubrier, Yves Boirie
Sarcopenia is defined as a combination of low muscle mass with low muscle function. The term was first used to designate the loss of muscle mass and performance associated with aging. Now, recognized causes of sarcopenia also include chronic disease, a physically inactive lifestyle, loss of mobility, and malnutrition. Sarcopenia should be differentiated from cachexia, which is characterized not only by low muscle mass but also by weight loss and anorexia. Sarcopenia results from complex and interdependent pathophysiological mechanisms that include aging, physical inactivity, neuromuscular compromise, resistance to postprandial anabolism, insulin resistance, lipotoxicity, endocrine factors, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation...
August 8, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Márcia H Borges, Filipe Andrich, Pedro H Lemos, Thiago G Soares, Thiago N Menezes, Fabiana V Campos, Leandro X Neves, William Castro-Borges, Suely G Figueiredo
The biological activities observed upon envenomation by Scorpaena plumieri could be linked to both the venom and the skin mucus. Through a proteomic/functional approach we analyzed protein composition and biological activities of the venom and skin mucus. We identified 885 proteins: 722 in the Venomous Apparatus extracts (Sp-VAe) and 391 in the Skin Mucus extract (Sp-SMe), with 494 found exclusively in Sp-VAe, being named S. plumieri Venom Proteins (Sp-VP), while 228 were found in both extracts. The majority of the many proteins identified were not directly related to the biological activities reported here...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Liana Shvachiy, Vera Geraldes, Ângela Amaro-Leal, Isabel Rocha
BACKGROUND: Exposures to lead (Pb) during developmental phases can alter the normal course of development, with lifelong health consequences. Permanent Pb exposure leads to behavioral changes, cognitive impairment, sympathoexcitation, tachycardia, hypertension and autonomic dysfunction. However, the effects of an intermittent lead exposure are not yet studied. This pattern of exposure has been recently increasing due to migrations, implementation of school exchange programs and/or residential changes...
August 8, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Zhenzhong Zheng, Fan Zhang, Dengpeng Gao, Yujing Wu, Hao Wu
BACKGROUND: Cardiac microvascular endothelial cells is one of the key factors in the process of diabetic cardiomyopathy, a common chronic complication of diabetes. Fibrinogen-like protein 2 (FGL2) is linked to apoptosis, angiogenesis, and inflammatory response, all of which also occur in diabetes. Thus, we investigate the role of FGL 2 and other genes in the pathology of diabetic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: In the present study, we used high-throughput microarray to profile gene expression in rat myocardial microvascular endothelial cells (MMEC) with or without silencing the fgl2 gene and in different glucose environments...
August 11, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Sho-Ichi Yamagishi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Theilen Lh
An association between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and maternal cardiovascular disease has been demonstrated in population-based studies. A higher magnitude of risk has been reported among women who have had preeclampsia in more than one pregnancy (recurrent preeclampsia); however, the majority of studies on this subject have used women with no history of preeclampsia as the referent unexposed group. In one of his reports on a prospectively observed cohort of eclampsia survivors, Leon Chesley noted that women who had eclampsia with their first pregnancy but not with their subsequent pregnancies had the lowest risk for developing chronic hypertension when compared to women who had subsequent pregnancies complicated by recurrent disease and compared to women who did not have subsequent pregnancies (Chesley LC et al...
August 11, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Xiaoyan Zhang, Zhan-Qiu Liu, Dara Singh, David K Powell, Charles S Chung, Kenneth S Campbell, Jonathan F Wenk
The present study assessed the acute effects of isoproterenol on left ventricular (LV) mechanics in healthy rats with the hypothesis that ß-adrenergic stimulation influences the mechanics of different myocardial regions of the LV wall in different ways. To accomplish this, magnetic resonance images were obtained in the LV of healthy rats with or without isoproterenol infusion. The LV contours were divided into basal, mid-ventricular, and apical regions. Additionally, the mid-ventricular myocardium was divided into three transmural layers with each layer partitioned into four segments (i...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Xiaoye Li, Zi Wang, Qibing Wang, Qing Xu, Qianzhou Lv
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has become a vital disease with high mortality worldwide. A combined anti-platelet therapy (aspirin and a P2Y12 antagonist) is commonly used to prevent re-infarction in ACS patients who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Clopidogrel, a P2Y12 antagonist, plays an important role in the inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA). However, it is a pro-drug requiring bio-transformation by cytochrome P450 (CYP450). The aim of this study is to unravel the effect of clopidogrel-associated genetic variants on inhibition of platelet activity and clinical outcomes in ACS patients...
August 11, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Jamshid Tabeshpour, Mahmoud Hashemzaei, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Curcumin, the main ingredient of Curcuma longa L., has been used as a spice and as a herbal medicine with different therapeutic characteristics for centuries in Asian countries. This phytochemical has been shown to possess beneficial antiplatelet activity that has introduced it as a promising candidate for the treatment of thromboembolism, atherothrombosis, and inflammatory diseases. Platelet dysfunction under different circumstances may lead to cardiovascular disease, and curcumin has been shown to have beneficial effects on platelet dysfunction in several studies...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
T Kotwica, J Relewicz, A Rojek, M Tupikowska-Marzec, M Kabaj, B Karolko, J Maj, G Bednarek-Tupikowska, W Kosmala, J C Szepietowski, M Przewlocka-Kosmala
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis has been shown to increase cardiovascular risk, and a contributor to this might be enhanced myocardial fibrosis promoted by the disease-associated proinflammatory milieu. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the relationship of galectin-3 (Gal-3) - a recognized mediator of fibrosis with inflammatory activation and left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function in patients with psoriasis. METHODS: We enrolled 102 psoriatic patients (mean age: 52...
August 11, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Hilary R Davies-Kershaw, Ruth A Hackett, Dorina Cadar, Annie Herbert, Martin Orrell, Andrew Steptoe
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether vision impairment is independently associated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with dementia. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 50 and older MEASUREMENTS: Cross-sectional association between self-rated vision (poor or blind, moderate, normal) and dementia was analyzed, adjusting for potential confounders (sex, wealth, education, cardiovascular risk factors) using multivariable logistic regression...
August 11, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Yoshiaki Kubota, Takeshi Yamamoto, Shuhei Tara, Yukichi Tokita, Kenji Yodogawa, Yuki Iwasaki, Hitoshi Takano, Yayoi Tsukada, Kuniya Asai, Masaaki Miyamoto, Yasushi Miyauchi, Eitaro Kodani, Naoki Sato, Jun Tanabe, Wataru Shimizu
INTRODUCTION: Protection from lethal ventricular arrhythmias leading to sudden cardiac death is one of the most important problems after myocardial infarction. Cardiac sympathetic hyperactivity is related to poor prognosis and fatal arrhythmias and can be non-invasively assessed with heart rate variability, heart rate turbulence, T-wave alternans, late potentials, and 123 I-meta-iodobenzylguanide (123 I-MIBG) scintigraphy. Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors potentially reduce sympathetic nervous system activity that is augmented in part due to the stimulatory effect of hyperglycemia...
August 10, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Chloe E Bird, Marc N Elliott, John L Adams, Eric C Schneider, David J Klein, Jacob W Dembosky, Sarah Gaillot, Allen M Fremont, Amelia M Haviland
BACKGROUND: Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) quality measures have long been used to compare care across health plans and to study racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities among Medicare Advantage (MA) beneficiaries. However, possible gender differences in seniors' quality of care have received less attention. OBJECTIVE: To test for the presence and nature of any gender differences in quality of care across MA Plans, overall and by domain; to identify those most at risk of poor care...
August 10, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Jing-Xin Liu, Lin Zhu, Pei-Jun Li, Ning Li, Yan-Bing Xu
AIMS: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to quantify the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on glycemic control and cardiorespiratory fitness compared with moderate-intensity training (MICT) and no training at all in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: Relevant articles were sourced from PubMed, Embase, the Web of Science, EBSCO, and the Cochrane Library. Randomized-controlled trials were included based upon the following criteria: participants were clinically diagnosed with T2D, outcomes that included glycemic control (e...
July 30, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Khwaja Salahuddin Siddiqi, Azamal Husen, Sayed Sartaj Sohrab, Mensur Osman Yassin
Nanomaterials (NMs) are receiving remarkable attention due to their unique properties and structure. They vary from atoms and molecules along with those of bulk materials. They can be engineered to act as drug delivery vehicles to cross blood-brain barriers (BBBs) and utilized with better efficacy and safety to deliver specific molecules into targeted cells as compared to conventional system for neurological disorders. Depending on their properties, various metal chelators, gold nanoparticles (NPs), micelles, quantum dots, polymeric NPs, liposomes, solid lipid NPs, microparticles, carbon nanotubes, and fullerenes have been utilized for various purposes including the improvement of drug delivery system, treatment response assessment, diagnosis at early stage, and management of neurological disorder by using neuro-engineering...
August 10, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
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