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Postural change

Ada J Klinkhamer, Heinrich Mallison, Stephen F Poropat, Trish Sloan, Stephen Wroe
The evolution of extraordinarily large size among Sauropoda was associated with a number of biomechanical adaptations. Changes in muscle moment arms undoubtedly accompanied these adaptations, but since muscles rarely fossilise, our ability to understand them has been restricted. Here, we use three-dimensional (3D) musculoskeletal modelling to reconstruct and quantitatively assess leverage of forelimb muscles in the transition from the narrow-gauge stance of basal sauropods to a wide-gauge stance in titanosaurs...
October 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Yihua Tan, Yuan Tai, Shengzhou Xiong
Tracking multiple pedestrians across multi-camera scenarios is an important part of intelligent video surveillance and has great potential application for public security, which has been an attractive topic in the literature in recent years. In most previous methods, artificial features such as color histograms, HOG descriptors and Haar-like feature were adopted to associate objects among different cameras. But there are still many challenges caused by low resolution, variation of illumination, complex background and posture change...
October 11, 2018: Sensors
Yi Huey Lim, Hoe C Lee, Torbjörn Falkmer, Garry T Allison, Tele Tan, Wee Lih Lee, Susan L Morris
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been associated with sensorimotor difficulties, commonly presented by poor postural control. Postural control is necessary for all motor behaviors. However, findings concerning the effect of visual motion on postural control and the age progression of postural control in individuals with ASD are inconsistent. The aims of the present study were to examine postural responses to optic flow in children and adults with and without ASD, postural responses to optic flow in the central and peripheral visual fields, and the changes in postural responses between the child and adult groups...
October 9, 2018: Neuroscience
Li Guo, Eduardo M Normando, Parth Arvind Shah, Lies De Groef, M Francesca Cordeiro
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders and the second leading cause of dementia worldwide. With an aging population, the prevalence of the disease has dramatically increased. Clinical management has advanced through recent developments in dopaminergic imaging and genetic risk profiling. However, early and accurate diagnosis of the disorder remains a challenge, largely because of the lack of noninvasive and inexpensive reliable diagnostic tests. Besides the well-studied cerebral neurodegeneration that underlies the cardinal symptoms of PD (ie, bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity, and postural instability), ocular changes have also been described in PD, including visual dysfunction, pupil abnormality, lens opacity, and retinal neuronal loss and dysfunction...
September 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Patrick J Drew, Aaron T Winder, Qingguang Zhang
Animals and humans continuously engage in small, spontaneous motor actions, such as blinking, whisking, and postural adjustments ("fidgeting"). These movements are accompanied by changes in neural activity in sensory and motor regions of the brain. The frequency of these motions varies in time, is affected by sensory stimuli, arousal levels, and pathology. These fidgeting behaviors can be entrained by sensory stimuli. Fidgeting behaviors will cause distributed, bilateral functional activation in the 0...
October 12, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Jae Hyuck Lee, Jae Yeun Lee, Jeong Hun Bae, Joon Mo Kim
PURPOSE: To compare posture-induced intraocular pressure (IOP) changes in vitrectomized eyes and normal eyes of patients who had vitrectomy in one eye. METHODS: A total of 31 patients older than 20 years of age who underwent vitrectomy were enrolled in the study. At least six months after vitrectomy, we measured IOP in both eyes using a rebound tonometer 10 minutes after the patient assumed sitting, supine, right lateral decubitus, and left lateral decubitus positions...
October 2018: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
Michael Barnett-Cowan, Marc O Ernst, Heinrich H Bülthoff
In environments where orientation is ambiguous, the visual system uses prior knowledge about lighting coming from above to recognize objects, determine which way is up, and reorient the body. Here we investigated the extent with which assumed light from above preferences are affected by body orientation and the orientation of the retina relative to gravity. We tested the ability to extract shape-from-shading with seven human male observers positioned in multiple orientations relative to gravity using a modified KUKA anthropomorphic robot arm...
October 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Levente Kovács, Fruzsina L Kézér, Mikolt Bakony, Viktor Jurkovich, Ottó Szenci
Changes in lying behaviour in response to extreme ambient temperatures have not been examined in dairy calves so far. In this study, lying time, and frequency of lying down were investigated in shaded (n = 8) and non-shaded (n = 8) Holstein bull calves during a 5-d period [temperature, average/max (°C); Day 1 (control, all calves shaded): 22.9/29.4, Day 2 (heat stress day): 28.3/38.8, Day 3: 26.2/33.5, Day 4: 23.7/28.7, and Day 5: 21.2/24.7]. The thermal environment around the calves was characterized by the temperature-humidity index (THI)...
October 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shikma Katz, Nissim Arish, Ariel Rokach, Yacov Zaltzman, Esther-Lee Marcus
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are routinely performed in the upright position due to measurement devices and patient comfort. This systematic review investigated the influence of body position on lung function in healthy persons and specific patient groups. METHODS: A search to identify English-language papers published from 1/1998-12/2017 was conducted using MEDLINE and Google Scholar with key words: body position, lung function, lung mechanics, lung volume, position change, positioning, posture, pulmonary function testing, sitting, standing, supine, ventilation, and ventilatory change...
October 11, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Mark S Redfern, April J Chambers, Patrick J Sparto, Joseph M Furman, J Richard Jennings
Changes in cognition due to age have been associated with falls and reduced standing postural control. Sensory integration is one component of postural control that may be influenced by certain aspects of cognitive functioning. This study investigated associations between measures of cognitive function and sensory integration capabilities for healthy young and older adults. Dynamic posturography was performed using the Equitest Sensory Organization Test (SOT) protocol to evaluate sensory integration during standing using sway-referencing of the platform and/or visual scene to alter somatosensory and visual inputs...
October 9, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Kyeongjin Lee
BACKGROUND Weak pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) is an important cause of stress urinary incontinence. Effective strengthening of PFMs is very helpful in improving lower urinary tract disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the activation of PFMs in accordance with movement of the pelvis and ankle. MATERIAL AND METHODS Fifty healthy adults who underwent PFM contraction in ankle posture change (dorsiflexion, neutral, and plantar flexion) while standing were simultaneously measured using electromyography and motion capture systems...
October 10, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Eugenia Hoi Chi Woo, Peter White, Christopher Wai Keung Lai
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of static hand postures during various finger and wrist positions on morphological changes of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel in intensive and nonintensive electronic device users. METHODS: Forty-eight university students, equally divided into intensive and nonintensive users (≥5 h/d and <5 h/d of electronic device usage, respectively), were randomly selected after questionnaire responses and evaluated clinically and by ultrasonography...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Hannah Horris, Barton E Anderson, R Curtis Bay, Kellie C Huxel Bliven
CONTEXT: Altered diaphragm function is linked to decreased core stabilization, postural changes, and decreased function. Two clinical tests used to assess breathing are the hi-lo and lateral rib expansion (LRE) tests. It is currently unknown how breathing classification based on these tests differ, and how their results are affected by varying test positions. OBJECTIVE: To compare results of breathing tests when conducted in varying test positions. DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Ada J Klinkhamer, Heinrich Mallison, Stephen F Poropat, George H K Sinapius, Stephen Wroe
The biomechanical constraints for life at massive size can be directly observed in the evolutionary history of sauropodomorph dinosaurs. Members of this lineage underwent a number of major postural transitions as they increased in size from relatively small bipedal dinosaurs to massive titanosaurs that include the largest terrestrial animals of all time. To better understand the impact of gigantic size on the biomechanics of sauropods, we used three-dimensional musculoskeletal modelling to investigate how hind limb musculature was affected, firstly by the development of a quadrupedal stance from a bipedal one, and later in the transition from a narrow-gauge to a wide-gauge stance...
October 9, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Severine P Parois, Francisco A Cabezón, Allan P Schinckel, Jay S Johnson, Robert M Stwalley, Jeremy N Marchant-Forde
Much U.S. swine production is in Köppen climate types classified as "hot-summer humid continental" and "humid subtropical." As a result, farrowing sows are often exposed to temperatures above their upper critical temperature. This heat stress (HS) can affect sow welfare and productivity and have a negative economic impact. The study objective was to evaluate the impact of a cooling pad on sows' behavioral and heart rate responses to acute HS. Treatments were randomly allotted to ten multiparous sows to receive a constant cool water flow of 0...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Allan L Adkin, Mark G Carpenter
It has been just over 20 years since the effects of height-induced threat on human postural control were first investigated. Raising the height of the support surface on which individuals stood increased the perceived consequences of instability and generated postural control changes. Since this initial work, converging evidence has accumulated supporting the efficacy of using height-induced threat to study the effects of emotions on postural control and confirming a direct influence of threat-related changes in arousal, anxiety, and fear of falling on all aspects of postural control, including standing, anticipatory, and reactive balance...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Iris Kyranou, Sethu Vijayakumar, Mustafa Suphi Erden
Surface Electromyography (EMG)-based pattern recognition methods have been investigated over the past years as a means of controlling upper limb prostheses. Despite the very good reported performance of myoelectric controlled prosthetic hands in lab conditions, real-time performance in everyday life conditions is not as robust and reliable, explaining the limited clinical use of pattern recognition control. The main reason behind the instability of myoelectric pattern recognition control is that EMG signals are non-stationary in real-life environments and present a lot of variability over time and across subjects, hence affecting the system's performance...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Wen-Shiuan Shih, Chueh-Hung Wu, Tyng-Guey Wang
OBJECTIVES: Among symptomatic dancers, sonographic abnormalities are common. Whether asymptomatic dancers have any abnormalities remains unknown. Some dancers became cyanosis over distal feet after ballet training. The hemodynamic changes at the feet in ballet are not clearly understood. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: In 25 dancers and 14 non-dancers, B-mode ultrasonography was used to measure cross-sectional areas (CSA) of tendons of deep posterior compartment muscles...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Jeng-Long Hsieh, I-Ming Jou, Chao-Liang Wu, Po-Ting Wu, Ai-Li Shiau, Hao-Earn Chong, Yu-Ting Lo, Po-Chuan Shen, Shih-Yao Chen
Female-dominant tendinopathies are musculoskeletal disorders caused by repetitive hand posture and motion; they are considered overuse syndromes. Both external mechanical stress and changes in hormone levels might affect disease progression. We have previously reported that estrogen receptor-β (ER)-β expression was associated with the pathogenesis of de Quervain's disease. To study the underlying mechanisms, a cyclic stretching culture system was applied to tendon tissue from ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Furthermore, a collagenase I-induced rat tendinopathy model was established to examine the association of ER-β with disease progression...
2018: PloS One
Pankaj Parag Sharma, Ranjana K Mehta, Adam Pickens, Gang Han, Mark Benden
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of a computer-based intervention designed to increase sit-stand desk usage and help reverse workplace physical inactivity. BACKGROUND: Sit-stand desks have been successful in reducing workplace sedentary behavior, but the challenge remains for an effective method to increase the usage in order to experience the health and productivity benefits. METHOD: Data collection (1-year field study with 194 workers) used a novel method of computer software that continuously recorded objective electric sit-stand desk usage, while taking into account the time a worker spends away from their desk (breaks, meetings)...
October 8, 2018: Human Factors
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