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Postural change

Cassim Ladha, Christy L Hoffman
The ability to objectively measure episodes of rest has clear application for assessing health and well-being. Accelerometers afford a sensitive platform for doing so and have demonstrated their use in many human-based trials and interventions. Current state of the art methods for predicting sleep from accelerometer signals are either based on posture or low movement. While both have proven to be sensitive in humans, the methods do not directly transfer well to dogs, possibly because dogs are commonly alert but physically inactive when recumbent...
August 13, 2018: Sensors
S Goumon, I Leszkowova, M Šimecková, G Illmann
Farrowing pens with temporary crating have been developed as a compromise between conventional farrowing crates and pens to better accommodate the welfare of both sow and piglets during lactation. However, not much is known about the behavioral and physiological consequences of early removal of confinement on the sow and piglets during lactation. The aim of this study was to assess the effects on sow and piglet performance of temporary crating until 3 days post-partum at two times points; immediately after confinement removal and 25 days into lactation...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Arun Prasad Balasundaram, Dipankar Choudhury
BACKGROUND: It has been established that Hyper-pronation of the foot may lead to postural changes in the lower limbs, with a resultant pelvic ante-version, and a subsequent risk of development of low back pain. However, the association between the presence of a hyper-pronated foot and the severity of disability in low back pain is currently not known. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine whether the presence of a hyper-pronated foot has any impact on the degree of severity of disability (functional status) in patients with non-specific low back pain...
July 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
Amir Massoud Arab, Sanaz Shanbehzadeh, Omid Rasouli, Mohsen Amiri, Fatemeh Ehsani
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess muscle thickness changes in the deep and superficial abdominal muscles, during sitting on stable and unstable surfaces in subjects with and without chronic low back pain (CLBP). METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 40 participants (20 CLBP and 20 healthy). Ultrasound imaging was used to assess changes in the thickness of the Transversus abdominis (TrA), Internal Oblique (IO), Rectus abdominis (RA) and External oblique (EO) muscles...
July 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
Yolandi Brink, Quinette Louw, Karen Grimmer
BACKGROUND: Improved techniques of measuring sitting posture have not led to a more comprehensive understanding of poor posture, nor its association with pain. There is also an evidence gap regarding critical thresholds of sitting postural change over time related to pain production. This paper describes postural angle changes over a 12-month period, and describes the process of placing defensible cut-points in the angle change data, to better understand associations between posture change over time, and onset of upper quadrant musculoskeletal pain (UQMP)...
July 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
Patrik Kutílek, Slávka Vítečková, Ana Carolina D'Angeles, Eva Kutílková, Miroslav Janura, Lucia Bizovská, Zdenek Svoboda, Marketa Hamrikova
Measurements of the center of pressure (CoP) acquired with a person positioned on a force plate is one of the most commonly used tool to investigate a balance. Several studies show a significant degradation of the body stability after the age of 60 years, however, these conclusions were based on a limited number of indicators. Also, these studies don't take into consideration the change in stability in very old age groups and sex of subjects.In our study, not all parameters lead to the same conclusions. The vast majority of the results didn't show any statistically significant difference when considering the age groups...
July 26, 2018: Gait & Posture
Fumin Pan, Ali Firouzabadi, Sandra Reitmaier, Thomas Zander, Hendrik Schmidt
A comprehensive knowledge of the thoracic shape and kinematics is essential for effective risk prevention, diagnose and proper management of thoracic disorders and assessment of treatment or rehabilitation strategies as well as for in silico and in vitro models for realistic applications of boundary conditions. After an extensive search of the existing literature, this study summarizes 45 studies on in vivo thoracic kyphosis and kinematics and creates a systematic and detailed database. The thoracic kyphosis over T1-12 determined using non-radiological devices (34°) was relatively less than measured using radiological devices (40°) during standing...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Dipayan Das, Awadhesh Kumar, Monica Sharma
Purpose Gemstone polishing is a highly repetitive and strenuous job which may lead to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among workers. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MSDs and their contributing factors among gemstone polishers in Jaipur, India. Materials and methods A self-reported questionnaire study was conducted among 388 male gemstone polishers. Current working postures of the participants were evaluated using rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) method. Results were considered significant at p ≤ 0...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Stephanie A Martinez, Nhuquynh D Nguyen, Eric Bailey, Denis Doyle-Green, Henry A Hauser, John P Handrakis, Steven Knezevic, Casey Marett, Jennifer Weinman, Angelica F Romero, Tiffany M Santiago, Ajax H Yang, Lok Yung, Pierre K Asselin, Joseph P Weir, Stephen D Kornfeld, William A Bauman, Ann M Spungen, Noam Y Harel
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Spared fibers after spinal cord injury (SCI) tend to consist predominantly of subcortical circuits that are not under volitional (cortical) control. We aim to improve function after SCI by using targeted physical exercises designed to simultaneously stimulate cortical and spared subcortical neural circuits. METHODS: Participants with chronic motor-incomplete SCI enrolled in a single-center, prospective interventional crossover study. Participants underwent 48 sessions each of weight-supported robotic-assisted treadmill training and a novel combination of balance and fine hand exercises, in randomized order, with a 6-week washout period...
2018: PloS One
Saurabh S Thosar, Alec M Berman, Maya X Herzig, Sally A Roberts, Michael R Lasarev, Steven A Shea
INTRODUCTION: Adverse cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death occur more frequently in the morning. Prior studies have shown that vascular endothelial function (VEF), a marker of cardiovascular disease, is attenuated during physical inactivity, and declines across the night. We sought to determine whether a morning attenuation in VEF is a result of prior sleep or the inactivity that inevitably accompanies sleep. METHODS: After one week of rigorously controlled sleep-wake schedule and behaviors, 10 healthy participants completed a randomized cross-over protocol in dim-light and constant conditions, incorporating a night of 6-h sleep opportunity and a night of immobility while supine and awake...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Rino Scuccato
The falls frequently occurring as a result of impaired postural reflexes, due to degenerative changes that accompany the aging process, have a great impact on quality of life in the elderly. Falls and the fear of falling can trigger restraints and limits to freedom, ultimately leading to definitive care from professional or other. In nursing homes, security regulations often predominate over any other consideration and become a source of suffering and oppression. Pharmacological or "medical" management of this condition is effective in only a small proportion of elderly individuals...
July 2018: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Michal Mestanik, Andrea Mestanikova, Peter Langer, Marian Grendar, Alexander Jurko, Nikola Sekaninova, Nadezda Visnovcova, Ingrid Tonhajzerova
Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is an index of cardiovagal regulation, emotional and cognitive processing. RSA is quantified using heart rate variability (HRV) spectral analysis at respiratory-linked high-frequency band (HF-HRV) using Fast Fourier transformation (FFT) or autoregressive (AR) method, both requiring resampling of recordings - a potential source of error. We hypothesized that rarely used HRV time-frequency analysis with Lomb-Scargle periodogram (LSP) without resampling could be more sensitive to detect neurocardiac response to posture change than FFT and AR...
August 4, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Kenju Miki, Misa Yoshimoto
Exercise modulates arterial pressure (AP) regulation over various time spans. AP increases at the onset of exercise and this increase is then sustained during exercise. Once exercise is stopped, AP is suppressed for up to an hour afterwards. Prolonged endurance training is associated with dysfunction of the sympathetic regulation of AP in response to posture changes (orthostatic intolerance). Baroreflex control of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) has been extensively studied to understand the mechanisms underlying exercise-induced changes in AP...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jeffrey R Boris, Thomas Bernadzikowski
BACKGROUND: Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome encompasses multiple disabling symptoms that interfere with daily activities. Non-pharmacologic approaches can be insufficient and can require adjunctive medications to manage symptoms. Minimal data exist in the literature on medication outcomes in these patients. We reviewed our database for medication management outcomes.Materials and MethodsPatients aged 18 years and younger at initial diagnosis met the inclusion criteria. All prescribed patient medications were extracted from the electronic health record, excluding medications for unrelated symptoms or comorbid diseases...
August 6, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Bruno Clair, Barbara Ghislain, Jonathan Prunier, Romain Lehnebach, Jacques Beauchêne, Tancrède Alméras
To grow straight, plants need a motor system that controls posture by generating forces to offset gravity. This motor function in trees was long thought to be only controlled by internal forces induced in wood. Here we provide evidence that bark is involved in the generation of mechanical stresses in several tree species. Saplings of nine tropical species were grown tilted and staked in a shadehouse and the change in curvature of the stem was measured after releasing from the pole and after removing the bark...
August 4, 2018: New Phytologist
Elizabeth A Rapp van Roden, Drew A Petersen, Jamie Pigman, Benjamin C Conner, R Tyler Richardson, Jeremy R Crenshaw
Three mechanisms of maintaining standing stability include M1 - moving the COP within the base of support, M2 - segment counter-rotation, and M3 - applying an external force. To date, the contributions of these mechanisms have not been quantified for the response to an external postural disturbance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the construct validity of measures that quantify the M2 contribution to anteroposterior fall recovery. We evaluated the whole-body rotation contribution, as well as a measure specific to arm motion (MARMS )...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Melike Kahya, Tyler A Wood, Jacob J Sosnoff, Hannes Devos
Introduction: Balance tasks require cognitive resources to ensure postural stability. Pupillometry has been used to quantify cognitive workload of various cognitive tasks, but has not been studied in postural control. The current investigation utilized pupillometry to quantify the cognitive workload of postural control in healthy young adults. We hypothesized that cognitive workload, indexed by pupil size, will increase with challenging postural control conditions including visual occlusion and cognitive dual tasking...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Esther M J Bekkers, Sam Van Rossom, Elke Heremans, Kim Dockx, Surendar Devan, Sabine M P Verschueren, Alice Nieuwboer
Introduction: Freezing of gait (FOG) is a powerful determinant of falls in Parkinson's disease (PD). Automatic postural reactions serve as a protective strategy to prevent falling after perturbations. However, differences in automatic postural reactions between patients with and without FOG in response to perturbation are at present unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare the response patterns and neuromuscular control between PD patients with and without FOG and healthy controls (HCs) after postural perturbations...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Diana Bzdúšková, Peter Valkovič, Zuzana Hirjaková, Jana Kimijanová, František Hlavačka
BACKGROUND: Impairments of postural stability occur with increasing age and in neurodegenerative diseases like the Parkinson's disease (PD). While changes in balance have been described in many studies under steady-state conditions, less is known about the dynamic changes in balance following sudden transition to different sensory inputs. RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim was to clarify different effects of age and Parkinson's disease on dynamic postural responses immediately after lower leg muscle stimulation offset...
July 19, 2018: Gait & Posture
Nathan J Pettit, Ronald C Auvenshine
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate change in hyoid bone position for patients suffering from myofascial pain and to evaluate the modified hyoid triangle as a three-dimensional cephalometric modality for measuring hyoid position. METHODS: Pre- and post-treatment CBCT scans for 30 female patients resolved of myofascial pain were reviewed by a blinded investigator using the modified hyoid triangle. Changes in dimensions of the hyoid triangle were analyzed with the t-test for paired comparisons...
July 31, 2018: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
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