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Postural change

Ugo Ballenghein, Thierry Baccino
The present study utilized a new experimental set-up synchronizing eye movements and head motion for investigating referential change occurring in a reading task. We examined the effects of a change in narrative perspective during reading on eye movements and head motion. Forty-four participants read texts on a digital tablet, and both participants' eye movements and head movements were recorded using eye tracker and motion capture. The results showed longer eye fixation duration, longer reading time and decreasing head motions when perspective changed...
December 10, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Norimichi Kamikawa, Hironobu Hamada, Kiyokazu Sekikawa, Hikaru Yamamoto, Yoshiya Fujika, Teruki Kajiwara, Fumiya Aizawa, Ippo Otoyama
Dysphagia is the major pathophysiologic mechanism leading to aspiration pneumonia in the elderly. Elderly people with dysphagia who show low levels of the cough peak flow (CPF) are at greater risk for aspiration pneumonia. It has been reported that CPF values were significantly lower in the "soft" versus "hard" mode of a pressure-relieving air mattress in healthy volunteers in a supine position. Parameters such as spinal curvature, however, were not evaluated in detail. In this study, we clarified whether the changes in posture associated with two different firmness levels of a pressure-relieving air mattress were associated with cough production and related factors in the elderly with dysphagia...
2018: PloS One
Geneviève N Olivier, Serene S Paul, Keith R Lohse, Christopher S Walter, Sydney Y Schaefer, Leland E Dibble
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Skill acquisition (ie, performance changes during practice) occurs in a nonlinear fashion. Despite this, motor learning is typically measured by comparing discrete timepoints. Thus, typical measures of motor learning do not detect skill acquisition characteristics that may be clinically meaningful. Reliable prediction of motor skill learning in people with Parkinson disease (PD) would allow therapists to more effectively individualize practice doses to fit specific patients' needs...
January 2019: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Reinhard Blickhan, Emanuel Andrada, Eishi Hirasaki, Naomichi Ogihara
Macaques trained to perform bipedally use grounded running, skipping and aerial running, but avoid walking. The preference for grounded running across a wide range of speeds is substantially different from the locomotion habits observed in humans, which may be the result of differences in leg compliance. In the present study, based on kinematic and dynamic observations of three individuals crossing an experimental track, we investigated global leg properties such as leg stiffness and viscous damping during grounded and aerial running...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Mandy Hintz, Valentina Krenz, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage
INTRODUCTION: Frontal lobe epilepsy is the second most frequent origin of focal epilepsy. Various studies have discussed localizing aspects of ictal signs in frontal lobe epilepsy; the effect of age on semiological manifestations has, however, not been analyzed so far. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed video-documented semiological signs in a cohort of 122 consecutive patients aged 0-70 years (mean age: 24.9 years) with EEG/MR evidence for frontal lobe epilepsy undergoing video-EEG telemetry assessment between 1999 und 2016...
October 23, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Frank Meyer, John Humm, Yuvaraj Purushothaman, Rémy Willinger, Frank A Pintar, Narayan Yoganandan
Experiments have been conducted using isolated tissues of the spine such as ligaments, functional units, and subaxial cervical spine columns. Forces and or moments under external loading can be obtained at the ends of these isolated/segmented preparations; however, these models require fixations at the end(s). To understand the response of the entire cervical spine without the artificial boundary/end conditions, it is necessary to use the whole body human cadaver in the experimental model. This model can be used to obtain the overall kinematics of the head and neck...
October 2, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Alessia Longo, Thomas Haid, Ruud Meulenbroek, Peter Federolf
Human movements, recorded through kinematic data, can be described by means of principal component analysis (PCA) through a small set of variables representing correlated segment movements. The PC-eigenvectors then form a basis in the associated vector space of postural changes. Similar to 3D movements, the kinematics in this posture space can be quantified through 'principal' positions (PPs), velocities (PVs) and accelerations (PAs). The PAs represent a novel set of variables characterizing neuro-muscular control...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Jacquie Baker, Justin R Paturel, Kurt Kimpinski
OBJECTIVE: Compare activation patterns within the cortical autonomic network in patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (NOH) versus healthy age-matched controls during an orthostatic challenge. METHODS: Fifteen health controls and 15 NOH patients performed 3 Valsalva maneuvers, and 5-min of lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) during a functional brain MRI. RESULTS: Compared to controls, NOH patients had significantly less activation within the cerebellum during both LBNP and VM...
September 6, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Yi-Ju Tsai, Chieh-Chie Chia, Pei-Yun Lee, Li-Chuan Lin, Yi-Liang Kuo
CONTEXT: Core control and strength are important for reducing the risk of lower extremity injury. Current evidence on the effect of core training in male adolescent athletes is limited, and other investigations into the effects of core training often emphasized core strength only. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether core training emphasizing both control and strength of the trunk and hip would improve joint kinematics during landing, sports performance, and lower extremity muscle strength in adolescent male volleyball athletes...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Maeva Le Goic, Danping Wang, Elodie Chiarovano, Jennyfer Lecompte, Sebastien Laporte, Jacques Duysens, Pierre-Paul Vidal
In the present experiments, multiple balance perturbations were provided by unpredictable support-surface translations in various directions and velocities. The aim of this study was to distinguish the passive and the active phases during the pre-impact period of a fall. It was hypothesized that it should be feasible if one uses a specific quantitative kinematic analysis to evaluate the dispersion of the body segments trajectories across trials. Moreover, a multi-joint kinematical model was created for each subject, based on a new 3-D minimally invasive stereoradiographic X-ray images to assess subject-specific geometry and inertial parameters...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Aiden M Payne, Greg Hajcak, Lena H Ting
The role of cortical activity in standing balance is unclear. Here we tested whether perturbation-evoked cortical responses share sensory input with simultaneous balance-correcting muscle responses. We hypothesized that the acceleration-dependent somatosensory signals that drive the initial burst of the muscle automatic postural response also drive the simultaneous perturbation-evoked cortical N1 response. We measured in healthy young adults (N=16) the initial burst of the muscle automatic postural response (100-200ms), startle-related muscle responses (100-200ms), and the perturbation-evoked cortical N1 potential, i...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Arnold Y L Wong, Dino Samartzis, Prudence W H Cheung, Jason Pui Yin Cheung
BACKGROUND: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common spine deformity in adolescent patients. Although structural deformity may affect spinal biomechanics of patients with AIS, little is known regarding various period prevalence proportions of back pain and chronic back pain and factors associated with back pain in such patients. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What are the period prevalence rates of back pain among teenagers with AIS? (2) Is back pain in patients with AIS associated with curve severity? METHODS: A total of 987 patients with AIS who were treated without surgery were recruited from a single center's scoliosis clinic...
November 13, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Zhihao Qi, Zhen Huang, Feng Xie, Linxi Chen
Mitochondria play a key role in the maintenance of neuronal function by continuously providing energy. Here, we will give a detailed review about the recent developments in regards to dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) induced unbalanced mitochondrial dynamics, excessive mitochondrial division, and neuronal injury in neural system dysfunctions and neurodegenerative diseases, including the Drp1 knockout induced mice embryonic death, the dysfunction of the Drp1-dependent mitochondrial division induced neuronal cell apoptosis and impaired neuronal axonal transportation, the abnormal interaction between Drp1 and amyloid β (Aβ) in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the mutant Huntingtin (Htt) in Huntington's disease (HD), and the Drp1-associated pathogenesis of other neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
David Shulman, Abbigale Spencer, Lori Ann Vallis
With the socioeconomic burden associated with falls expected to rise as the average age of the Canadian population increases, research is needed to elucidate the nature of postural responses generated by older adults (OA) following a posture-destabilizing event. This knowledge is even more imperative for novel and difficult tasks, such as gait initiation (GI), a task known to pose a postural threat to stability for OA. A common technique to regain stability following an unexpected perturbation is reactive stepping...
December 1, 2018: Human Movement Science
Martina A Maggioni, Paolo Castiglioni, Giampiero Merati, Katharina Brauns, Hanns-Christian Gunga, Stefan Mendt, Oliver S Opatz, Lea C Rundfeldt, Mathias Steinach, Anika Werner, Alexander C Stahn
Head-down-tilt bed rest (HDT) mimics the changes in hemodynamics and autonomic cardiovascular control induced by weightlessness. However, the time course and reciprocal interplay of these adaptations, and the effective exercise protocol as a countermeasure need further clarification. The overarching aim of this work (as part of a European Space Agency sponsored long-term bed rest study) was therefore to evaluate the time course of cardiovascular hemodynamics and autonomic control during prolonged HDT and to assess whether high-intensity, short-duration exercise could mitigate these effects...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
A V Quintero Salvago, J D Leal Del Ojo Del Ojo, L Barrios Rodríguez, J J Fedriani de Matos, I Morgado Muñoz
McArdle disease or type V glycogenosis is a rare metabolic myopathy consisting of muscle loss and weakness. These patients have risks associated with anaesthesia. They can present with hypoglycaemia, rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure, and electrolyte changes. It has also been associated with a higher incidence of malignant hyperthermia during the anaesthetic procedure. Intermittent compression due to the measurement of non-invasive pressure, postures on the operating table that may cause muscle contractures, or tremor caused by hypothermia or anaesthesia itself, may trigger rhabdomyolysis in these patients...
November 30, 2018: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
Clara Gallego Cerveró, Julio Martín Ruiz, Laura Ruiz Sanchis, Concepción Ros Ros
BACKGROUND: Wind musicians suffer injuries resulting from muscle overuse and poor postural habits, often due to the lack of required physical fitness. For this reason, it is important to study and analyze the characteristics of their activity in order to select appropriate preventive exercises. METHODS: 10 clarinetists, who were experiencing joint pain due to instrumental practice, followed a specific program of physical activity, 3 times a week for 2 months. To assess postural changes after its implementation, the Langlade test and muscle pain scale were used at the beginning and the end of the program...
December 2018: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
Jagoba Zarandona, Itziar Hoyos Cillero, Marta Arrue
BACKGROUND: Considering the prevalence and complexity of a stroke, it is necessary to think about how undergraduate nursing students are developing knowledge for stroke care. AIM: To obtain a vision of nursing students' learning, exploring difficulties concerning understanding stroke care delivery. DESIGN: A phenomenographic research approach. LOCATIONS AND PARTICIPANTS: This research is based on written exam papers (n = 126) from third-year nursing students enrolled in the 2015-16 academic year in two Nursing Schools in Spain...
November 24, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Yasuo Murai, Shun Sato, Kanako Yui, Daijiro Morimoto, Tomohiro Ozeki, Masahiro Yamaguchi, Kojiro Tateyama, Toshiki Nozaki, Shigeyuki Tahara, Fumio Yamaguchi, Akio Morita
BACKGROUND: The exoscope has been reported as a novel neurosurgical instrumentation in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possibility that ORBEYE (OE), a novel instrument that excludes eyepiece lenses and allows for microsurgery by observation of the 4K3D monitor, could replace microscopes. METHODS: We report 22 clinical cases by 5 experienced neurosurgeons and the comparative results of training 10 residents. An observation study with questionnaire survey was conducted on usability...
December 3, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Richard G Ellis, Jeffery W Rankin, John R Hutchinson
Standing up from a prone position is a critical daily activity for animals: failing to do so effectively may cause an injurious fall or increase predation susceptibility. This sit-to-stand behaviour (StS) is biomechanically interesting because it necessitates transitioning through near-maximal joint motion ranges from a crouched (i.e., poor mechanical advantage) to a more upright posture. Such large joint excursions should require large length changes of muscle-tendon units. Here we integrate experimental and musculoskeletal simulation methods to quantify the joint motions, limb forces, and muscle fibre forces, activations and length changes during StS in an extreme athlete-the greyhound-which has large hindlimb muscles bearing short-fibred distal muscles and long tendons...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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