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Hugh Sherman, Anh V Nguyen, Warren Bruckard
Atomic force microscopy makes it possible to measure the interacting forces between individual colloidal particles and air bubbles, which can provide a measure of the particle hydrophobicity. To indicate the level of hydrophobicity of the particle the contact angle can be calculated, assuming that no interfacial deformation occurs with the bubble retaining a spherical profile. Our experimental results obtained using a modified sphere tensiometry apparatus to detach sub-millimeter spherical particles show that deformation of the bubble interface does occur during particle detachment...
October 25, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Hangfei Gao, Jiancao Gui, Liming Wang, Yan Xu, Yiqiu Jiang, Mingyue Xiong, Yongguang Cui
Aquaporins (AQPs) have been found to be associated with a number of diseases. However, the role of AQP‑1 in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis remains unclear. We previously found that AQP‑1 expression was upregulated in osteoarthritic cartilage and strongly correlated with caspase‑3 expression and activity. The aim of this study was to further investigate the association of AQP‑1 expression with chondrocyte apoptosis in a rat model of osteoarthritis, using RNA interference to knock down AQP‑1. For this purspose, 72 male Sprague‑Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups as follows: the control group not treated surgically (n=24), the sham‑operated group (n=24), and the osteoarthritis group (n=24)...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Jun Suganuma, Tadashi Sugiki, Yutaka Inoue
We report a case of bilateral, permanent subluxation of the lateral meniscus. To our knowledge, the present case is the first reported description of bilateral irreducible anterior dislocation of the posterior segment of the lateral meniscus. This disorder is characterized by a flipped meniscus sign of the lateral meniscus on sagittal magnetic resonance images of the knee joint, with no history of trauma or locking symptoms. A detailed examination of serial magnetic resonance images of the lateral meniscus can help differentiate this condition from malformation of the lateral meniscus, that is, a double-layered meniscus...
2016: Case Reports in Orthopedics
Jongju Lee, Alex Nikolov, Darsh Wasan
Liquid films formed from a surfactant micellar solution thin in a stepwise fashion (stratify): the film thickness decreases layer-by-layer and dark spots appear (areas of the film with one micellar layer less than their surroundings). In a recent paper [Langmuir2016, 32, 4837-4847], we presented a two-dimensional diffusion model to explain the expansion of the dark spots inside the foam film formed from a nonionic surfactant micellar solution. Here, we apply the model to explain the dark spot expansion in the foam film formed from an anionic surfactant micellar solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Ingrid Eitzen, Hege Grindem, Agnethe Nilstad, Håvard Moksnes, May Arna Risberg
BACKGROUND: Reduced quadriceps strength influences knee function and increases the risk of knee osteoarthritis. Thus, it is of significant clinical relevance to precisely quantify strength deficits in patients with knee injuries. PURPOSE: To evaluate isokinetic concentric quadriceps muscle strength torque values, assessed both from peak torque and at specific knee flexion joint angles, in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, focal cartilage lesions, and degenerative meniscus tears...
October 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Aaron J Krych, Patrick J Reardon, Nick R Johnson, Rohith Mohan, Logan Peter, Bruce A Levy, Michael J Stuart
PURPOSE: Medial meniscus posterior root tears (MMPRTs) are a significant source of pain and dysfunction, but little is known about the natural history and outcome and for non-operative management of these lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate (1) the mid-term clinical and radiographic outcomes of non-operative treatment of MMPRTs and (2) risk factors for worse outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed for patients with symptomatic, unrepaired MMPRTs and a minimum 2-year follow-up for IKDC and Tegner outcome scores...
October 19, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
A Przeworski, Z Adamiak, J Głodek
The most common cause of hindlimb lameness in dogs is cranial cruciate ligament rupture. In 48-77.3% of the population this trauma leads to secondary damage of the meniscus. Depending on the magnetic strength of the used device, different diagnostic accuracy can be achieved. The examination sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging is affected by many factors which are independent of diagnostic strength, such as correct positioning of the patient, size of the stifle joint examined, or selection of the right protocol of sequences...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Laura Mecozzi, Oriella Gennari, Romina Rega, Luigi Battista, Pietro Ferraro, Simonetta Grilli
A simple and rapid process for multiscale printing of bioinks with dot widths ranging from hundreds of microns down to 0.5 μm is presented. The process makes use of spontaneous surface charges generated pyroelectrically that are able to draw little daughter droplets directly from the free meniscus of a mother drop through jetting ("p-jet"), thus avoiding time-consuming and expensive fabrication of microstructured nozzles. Multiscale can be easily achieved by modulating the parameters of the p-jet process. Here, it is shown that the p-jet allows us to print well-defined adhesion islands where NIH-3T3 fibroblasts are constrained to live into cluster configurations ranging from 20 down to single cell level...
October 19, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Yue Zhang, Richard Potter, William Zhang, Zahra Fakhraai
Recent studies have shown that diffusion on the surface of organic glasses can be many orders of magnitude faster than bulk diffusion. Developing new probes that can readily measure surface diffusion can help study the effect of parameters such as chemical structure, intermolecular interaction, molecules' shape and size on the enhanced surface diffusion. In this study, we develop a novel probe that significantly simplifies these types of studies. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is used as probe particle to measure surface diffusion coefficient of molecular glass N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine (TPD)...
October 19, 2016: Soft Matter
Elizabeth M Meier, Bin Wu, Aamir Siddiqui, Donna G Tepper, Michael T Longaker, Mai T Lam
: Efforts have been made to engineer knee meniscus tissue for injury repair, yet most attempts have been unsuccessful. Creating a cell source that resembles the complex, heterogeneous phenotype of the meniscus cell remains difficult. Stem cell differentiation has been investigated, mainly using bone marrow mesenchymal cells and biochemical means for differentiation, resulting in no solution. Mechanical stimulation has been investigated to an extent with no conclusion. Here, we explore the potential for and effectiveness of mechanical stimulation to induce the meniscal phenotype in adipose-derived stromal cells...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Guangpu Zhu, Jun Yao, Lei Zhang, Hai Sun, Aifen Li
A large amount of residual oil, which exists as isolated oil slugs, remains trapped in reservoirs after water flooding. Numerous numerical studies are performed to investigate the fundamental flow mechanism of oil slugs to improve flooding efficiency. Dynamic contact angle models are usually introduced to simulate an accurate contact angle and meniscus displacement of oil slug under a high capillary number. Nevertheless, in the oil slug flow simulation process, it is unnecessary to introduce the dynamic contact angle model due to a negligible change of meniscus displacement after using the dynamic contact angle model when the capillary number is small...
October 18, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Liang Hu, Yao Huang, Wenyu Chen, Xin Fu, Haibo Xie
The morphology and dynamics of the pendant drops attached to the chemically patterned surfaces (pattern-pinned pendant drop) with different hydrophilic/hydrophobic contrast are investigated experimentally and numerically. During the experiments, the evolution of the contact angle and the maximum drop volume is found to be different from the traditional pendant drops whose contact line pinned on the edge of the tips (tip-pinned pendant drop), and the deviation is related both to the pattern radius and the wettability contrast...
October 18, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Fei Yu, Hui Zeng, Ming Lei, De-Ming Xiao, Wei Li, Hao Yuan, Jian-Jing Lin
This study investigated the effects of SIRT1 gene knock-out on osteoarthritis in mice, and the possible roles of SREBP2 protein and the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in the effects. Mice were randomly divided into a normal group and a SIRT1 gene knock-out group (6 mice in each group). In these groups, one side of the knee anterior cruciate ligament was traversed, and the ipsilateral medial meniscus was cut to establish an osteoarthritis model of knee joint. The countralateral synovial bursa was cut out, serving as controls...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Chul-Won Ha, Jae Won Jang, Manyoung Kim, Sang-Eun Na, Han-Jun Lee, Yong-Beom Park
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of the radiographic 'condylar cut-off sign' to detect the presence of a complete discoid lateral meniscus in children and adolescents. METHODS: The radiographs of 166 subjects younger than 17 with complete discoid lateral meniscus as well as 153 age- and sex-matched subjects with normal meniscus were reviewed. The condylar cut-off sign, judged by the prominence ratio of the medial and lateral femoral condyles in tunnel view radiographs, was assessed...
October 17, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Sung Il Wang
In symptomatic discoid medial meniscus, partial meniscectomy is the principal treatment method and can yield promising short-term results. However, unlike the nondiscoid meniscus, discoid medial meniscus is frequently associated with horizontal cleavage tears, attributable to the presence of myxoid degeneration in the intrameniscal substance, in that it may potentially occur deteriorating long-term results because of re-tearing of remaining meniscus or secondary degeneration of cartilage of the medial compartment after meniscectomy...
October 14, 2016: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
Kang Won Lee, Jung Yong Kim, Hee Seung Chin, Kyoung Yul Seo, Tae-Im Kim, Ji Won Jung
PURPOSE: We aimed to compare the tear meniscus measurements using strip meniscometry (SM) and Keratograph5M (K5M) between 3 subtypes of dry eye disease patient groups, classified according to the presence of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), and normal subjects. METHODS: We enrolled 145 eyes from 145 subjects and measured the tear meniscus using SM and K5M, tear film breakup time, ocular surface staining, and ocular surface disease index; the Schirmer test; and examined lid margins and meibomian glands...
October 5, 2016: Cornea
Bas van Bochove, Gerjon Hannink, Pieter Buma, Dirk W Grijpma
Three-armed poly(trimethylene carbonate) macromers with a relatively high molecular weight of 28.9 kg mol(-1) are prepared by ring opening polymerization and subsequent functionalization with methacrylate end groups. A resin suitable for processing by stereolithography is developed using propylene carbonate as a diluent, a photoinitiator, and a dye to control the curing characteristics. The difficulties in building designed structures with digital light processing stereolithography and the ways of optimizing the resin compositions are described in detail...
October 17, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Ravi Gupta, Gladson David Masih, Gaurav Chander, Vikas Bachhal
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in instability after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, associated intraarticular injuries remain a major cause of concern and important prognostic factor for long term results as it may lead to osteoarthritis. Delay in ACL reconstruction has been in variably linked to increase in these injuries but there is lack of consensus regarding optimal timing of reconstruction. The goal of this study was to investigate delay in surgery and other factors, associated with intraarticular injuries in ACL deficient knees...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
J Miotla Zarebska, A Chanalaris, C Driscoll, A Burleigh, R E Miller, A M Malfait, B Stott, T L Vincent
OBJECTIVE: The role of inflammation in structural and symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) remains unclear. One key mediator of inflammation is the chemokine CCL2, primarily responsible for attracting monocytes to sites of injury. We investigated the role of CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 in experimental OA. DESIGN: OA was induced in 10 week old male wild type, Ccl2(-/-) and Ccr2(-/-) mice, by destabilisation of the medial meniscus (DMM). RNA was extracted from whole joints at 6h and 7 days post surgery and examined by RT-PCR...
October 13, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Zhilong Peng, Cong Wang, Yazheng Yang, Shaohua Chen
Inspired by gecko adhesion in humid environments, a modified Kendall's model is established in order to investigate the effect of relative humidity on the interfacial peeling behavior of a thin film adhering on a rigid substrate. When the humidity is less than 90%, a monolayer of water molecules adsorbed on the substrate surface induces a strong disjoining pressure at the interface. As a result, the steady-state peel-off force between the thin film and substrate is significantly enhanced. When the humidity is greater than 90%, water molecules condense into water droplets...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
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