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Evidence generating medicine

Luca Roncati, Antonietta Morena Gatti, Monica Roncati, Antonio Manenti
The impact of nanopathology in medicine necessarily involves also the anatomo-pathological diagnostics, because of the current large spread of nanoparticles in the environment and the wide spectrum of correlated human diseases. The main entrance gates of nanoparticles into the body are respiratory inhalation, gastro-intestinal absorption and injection of polluted drugs. In all these cases, their penetration in the lymphatic or blood streams are possible, with subsequent systemic translocation. Different diseases can be generated by nanoparticles exposure, from a direct contact irritation to the onset of granulomatous diseases...
October 5, 2018: Forensic Science International
Dennis Ruder, Vassiliki Papadimitrakopoulou, Kazuhiko Shien, Carmen Behrens, Neda Kalhor, Huiqin Chen, Li Shen, J Jack Lee, Waun Ki Hong, Ximing Tang, Luc Girard, John D Minna, Lixia Diao, Jing Wang, Barbara Mino, Pamela Villalobos, Jaime Rodriguez-Canales, Nana E Hanson, James Sun, Vincent Miller, Joel Greenbowe, Garrett Frampton, Roy S Herbst, Veera Baladandayuthapani, Ignacio I Wistuba, Julie G Izzo
Despite a therapeutic paradigm shift into targeted-driven medicinal approaches, resistance to therapy remains a hallmark of lung cancer, driven by biological and molecular diversity. Using genomic and expression data from advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients enrolled in the BATTLE-2 clinical trial, we identified RICTOR alterations in a subset of lung adenocarcinomas and found RICTOR expression to carry worse overall survival. RICTOR-altered cohort was significantly enriched in KRAS/MAPK axis mutations, suggesting a co-oncogenic driver role in these molecular settings...
September 21, 2018: Oncotarget
Shingo Suzuki, Swati Ranade, Ken Osaki, Sayaka Ito, Atsuko Shigenari, Yuko Ohnuki, Akira Oka, Anri Masuya, John Harting, Primo Baybayan, Miwako Kitazume, Junichi Sunaga, Satoko Morishima, Yasuo Morishima, Hidetoshi Inoko, Jerzy K Kulski, Takashi Shiina
Although NGS technologies fuel advances in high-throughput HLA genotyping methods for identification and classification of HLA genes to assist with precision medicine efforts in disease and transplantation, the efficiency of these methods are impeded by the absence of adequately-characterized high-frequency HLA allele reference sequence databases for the highly polymorphic HLA gene system. Here, we report on producing a comprehensive collection of full-length HLA allele sequences for eight classical HLA loci found in the Japanese population...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Habib Hasan Farooqui, Sakthivel Selvaraj, Aashna Mehta, David L Heymann
India was the largest consumer of antibiotics in 2010 in the world. Evidence suggests that countries with high per-capita antibiotic consumption have higher rates of antibiotic resistance. To control antibiotic resistance, not only reduction in antibiotic consumption is required, socio-economic factors like access to clean water and sanitation, regulation of private healthcare sector and better governance are equally important. The key objective of this research was to investigate the five year trends in consumption of major antibiotic classes in India and compare them with European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption Network (ESAC-Net) countries...
2018: PloS One
Laura A Levit, Harpreet Singh, Heidi D Klepin, Arti Hurria
As part of the ongoing efforts to address the lack of clinical research on older adults with cancer, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and the US Food and Drug Administration cosponsored a public workshop on geriatric oncology in November 2017. The goals were to review progress, build collaborations across stakeholders, and generate new action items for increasing the evidence base for treating older adults with cancer. It built on previous work of the Institute of Medicine, ASCO, and the U13 Conferences convened by the Cancer and Aging Research Group, the National Cancer Institute, and the National Institute of Aging between 2010 and 2015...
October 17, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Wei-Shao Lin, Steven E Eckert
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to determine the clinical performance of dental implants that are intentionally tilted when compared with implants that are placed following the long axis of the residual alveolar ridge. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the scientific literature using a predefined research question (PICO) and search strategy was undertaken. This search included five electronic databases. Two independent reviewers examined electronic databases and performed a manual review following search strategy to accomplish the item generation and reduction...
October 2018: Clinical Oral Implants Research
Aofei Yang, Chaochao Yu, Fang You, Chengjian He, Zhanghua Li
The current treatment strategies for osteoporosis (OP) involve promoting osteogenic differentiation and inhibiting adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). According to a theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the kidneys contain an "essence" that regulate bone metabolism and generate marrow. Kidney disorders are therefore considered to be a major cause of OP as per the principles of TCM, which recommends kidney-tonifying treatments for OP. The Zuogui pill (ZGP) is a classic kidney-tonifying medication that effectively improves OP symptoms...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Jennifer K Brueckner-Collins, Terry D Stratton, Rosemarie L Conigliaro
There is growing evidence in the medical education literature for the aggressive need to recruit and retain the next generation of academic physicians. In 2008, the University of Kentucky College of Medicine (UK COM) developed an academic health careers (AHCs) program for preclinical medical students as an introduction into the practice of academic medicine. The goals of this elective experience included (1) highly customized training and mentorship experiences in research, teaching, and other aspects of academic medicine; (2) information and perspectives to assist students in making informed career choices, including options for academic careers; (3) access to academic career mentors and role models related to individual faculty research interests and teaching responsibilities; and (4) opportunities to network with UK COM administrators...
December 2018: Medical Education Online
Helen Tilbrook, Laura Clark, Liz Cook, Martin Bland, Hannah Buckley, Ian Chetter, Jo Dumville, Chris Fenner, Rachael Forsythe, Rhian Gabe, Keith Harding, Alison Layton, Ellie Lindsay, Catriona McDaid, Christine Moffatt, Debbie Rolfe, Illary Sbizzera, Gerard Stansby, David Torgerson, Peter Vowden, Laurie Williams, Robert Hinchliffe
BACKGROUND: Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) are the most common cause of leg ulceration, affecting 1 in 100 adults. VLUs may take many months to heal (25% fail to heal). Estimated prevalence is between 1% and 3% of the elderly population. Compression is the mainstay of treatment and few additional therapies exist to improve healing. Two previous trials have indicated that low-dose aspirin, as an adjunct to standard care, may improve healing time, but these trials were insufficiently robust. Aspirin is an inexpensive, widely used medication but its safety and efficacy in the treatment of VLUs remains to be established...
October 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Upashi Goswami, Raghuram Kandimalla, Sanjeeb Kalita, Arun Chattopadhyay, Siddhartha Sankar Ghosh
Combination drug therapy has become an effective clinical practice for cancer treatment because of low cytotoxicity by the synergistic effect of each medicine. Luminescent Au nanoclusters (Au NCs) were formulated into spherical polyethylene glycol (PEG)-Au NC-encapsulated drug-sodium butyrate (NaB) composite nanoparticles (PEG-Au NC-NaB-NPs) in the presence of PEG and NaB. Their effect on cancer cells was investigated using bio imaging, unravelling the mechanism of the endocytosis pathway and combination therapeutic interventions with a plant-based antimalarial drug artesunate (ART)...
September 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Chikara Hirase
Medical research is conducted by doctors as medical professionals with inspirational ideas and high ethical standards to gain knowledge for the future of medicine. Therefore, doctors must properly understand the three principles of ethics, i.e., respect for persons, beneficence, and justice, and appropriately practice them in the clinical research field. The Japan Clinical Research Act was established to restore the public confidence in clinical research that has been lost due to repeated research misconduct...
2018: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Sang Mi Yu, Seung-Hyun Jung, Yeun-Jun Chung
Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models are useful tools for tumor biology research and testing the efficacy of candidate anticancer drugs targeting the druggable mutations identified in tumor tissue. However, it is still unknown how much of the genetic alterations identified in primary tumors are consistently detected in tumor tissues in the PDX model. In this study, we analyzed the genetic alterations of three primary colorectal cancers (CRCs) and matched xenograft tissues in PDX models using a next-generation sequencing cancer panel...
June 2018: Genomics & Informatics
Chih-Hsu Lin, Daniel M Konecki, Meng Liu, Stephen J Wilson, Huda Nassar, Angela D Wilkins, David F Gleich, Olivier Lichtarge
Motivation: Precision medicine is an emerging field with hopes to improve patient treatment and reduce morbidity and mortality. To these ends, computational approaches have predicted associations among genes, chemicals and diseases. Such efforts, however, were often limited to using just some available association types. This lowers prediction coverage and, since prior evidence shows that integrating heterogeneous data is likely beneficial, it may limit accuracy. Therefore, we systematically tested whether using more association types improves prediction...
October 9, 2018: Bioinformatics
P Rachitha, K Krupashree, G V Jayashree, Hemanth Kumar Kandikattu, Narayanappa Amruta, Natarajan Gopalan, M K Rao, Farhath Khanum
Herbal medicines are known to mitigate radical induced cell damage. Hence identification and scientific validation of herbal medicines contribute to better use in Ayurvedic/Unani research. In the present study, we investigated antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties of Convolvulus pluricaulis ( C. pluricaulis ). C. pluricaulis exhibited antioxidant potential evident by free radical scavenging activities. C. pluricaulis pretreatment inhibited H2 O2 induced macromolecule damage such as plasmid DNA damage and AAPH induced oxidation of bovine serum albumin and lipid peroxidation of rat hepatic tissues...
October 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Soumya Sundar Kumar, Krishnendu Manna, Asima Das
Tender coconut water (TCW), a well-known plant beverage, has been used as a stress-relieving traditional medicine since ancient times. It is also used to treat various ailments of disease, including hepatic disorders, renal disorders, gastric disorders and reproductive disorders. However, the reasons for its effectiveness as a natural antioxidant as well as its testicular protective effects against whole body heat stress (HS)-induced oxidative imbalance remain to be revealed. The present study aimed to elucidate the protective efficacy of TCW on HS-induced testicular damage in a murine system and to explore the possible mechanism of action...
October 17, 2018: Food & Function
Vibhu Paudyal, Scott Cunningham, Kathrine Gibson Smith, Katie MacLure, Cristin Ryan, Maria Cordina
BACKGROUND: The accessibility of services within community pharmacies provides an ideal opportunity to manage minor ailments, yet over £1.1 billion is spent by the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom (UK) in managing minor ailments in high cost settings. There is a need to review the evidence base around clinical effectiveness of pharmacy-based management of minor ailments since the absence of such may lead to under-utilisation of pharmacy services and non-implementation of available pharmacy service models...
2018: PloS One
Mireille Hassoun, Paul G Royall, Mark Parry, Richard D Harvey, Ben Forbes
Biorelevant fluids are required to enable meaningful in vitro experimental determinations of the biopharmaceutical properties of inhaled medicines, e.g. drug solubility, particle dissolution, cellular uptake. Our aim was to develop a biorelevant simulated lung fluid (SLF) with a well-defined composition and evidence-based directions for use. The SLF contained dipalmitoylphosphotidylcholine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol, cholesterol, albumin, IgG, transferrin and antioxidants. Freshly made SLF had pH 7.2, viscosity 1...
October 2018: Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology
Zhiqiang Fan, Iuri Viotti Perisse, Calvin U Cotton, Misha Regouski, Qinggang Meng, Chaim Domb, Arnaud J Van Wettere, Zhongde Wang, Ann Harris, Kenneth L White, Irina A Polejaeva
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. The major cause of limited life span in CF patients is progressive lung disease. CF models have been generated in 4 species (mice, rats, ferrets, and pigs) to enhance our understanding of the CF pathogenesis. Sheep may be a particularly relevant animal to model CF in humans due to the similarities in lung anatomy and development in the two species. Here, we describe the generation of a sheep model for CF using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) techniques...
October 4, 2018: JCI Insight
Michael Bibens, Matt Vassar, Cole Wayant
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2018: BMJ evidence-based medicine
Matthew Neal, Jason R Richardson
The annual cost for neurological disorders in the United States was $789 billion in 2014, and with an aging population these numbers are expected to significantly increase in the next 50 years [1]. Neurodegenerative diseases make up a significant portion of these costs. Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the loss of neuronal populations in specific regions of the brain. Although the cause is still unknown for most of these diseases, both genetic and environmental factors are thought to play important roles...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Toxicology
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