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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927823/t-cell-therapies-for-human-polyomavirus-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Sarah I Davies, Pawel Muranski
Rapid restoration of virus-specific T immunity via adoptive transfer of ex vivo generated T cells has been proven as a powerful therapy for patients with advanced cancers and refractory viral infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). BK virus (BKV), John Cunningham virus (JCV), and Merkel cell carcinoma virus (MCV) are the members of the rapidly growing human polyomavirus (hPyV) family that commonly infects most healthy humans. These viruses have a clearly established potential for causing severe end-organ damage or malignant transformation, especially in individuals with weakened immunity who are unable to mount or regain endogenous T-cell responses as a result of underlying leukemia or iatrogenic immunosuppression in autoimmunity, bone marrow and solid organ transplant settings...
September 15, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923623/mycophenolate-mofetil-withdrawal-with-conversion-to-everolimus-to-treat-bk-virus-infection-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#2
D Wojciechowski, S Chandran, A Webber, R Hirose, F Vincenti
BACKGROUND: BK virus (BKV) is a significant post-transplant infection. Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORis) reduce BKV large T antigen expression in vitro and are associated with lower rates of BKV infection when used as de novo immunosuppression in clinical studies. METHODS: We performed a prospective, single-center, randomized, open label pilot trial to evaluate the impact of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) withdrawal with conversion to the mTORi everolimus versus a 50% reduction of the MMF dose for the treatment of BKV infection after kidney transplantation...
October 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915452/bk-virus-replication-in-renal-transplant-recipients-analysis-of-potential-risk-factors-may-contribute-in-reactivation
#3
Mohammad Shenagari, Ali Monfared, Hadise Eghtedari, Aydin Pourkazemi, Tolou Hasandokht, Masoud Khosravi, Babak Asharfkhani
BACKGROUND: Considering the increasing problem of BK virus infection during post renal transplant surveillance, it is necessary to distinguish the main risk factors leading to reactivation of latent BK virus. Up to now, some probable risk factors have been investigated in some studies, but the results have been confusing and contradictory. OBJECTIVES: The goal of the present study was to determine the frequency and potential risk factors that may play a role in BK polyomavirus reactivation and nephropathy...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904428/collapsing-glomerulopathy-a-troublemaker-for-the-renal-allograft-lessons-learnt
#4
K V Kanodia, A V Vanikar, L K Nigam, R D Patel, K S Suthar, H V Patel, H L Trivedi
Collapsing glomerulopathy (CG) is a well-recognized distinct morphological pattern of proliferative parenchymal injury leading to rapid graft failure. We conducted a single-center retrospective study to evaluate the prevalence, clinicopathological features, and prognosis of CG in renal transplant recepient. We analyzed 2518 renal allograft biopsies performed from 2007 to 2015 and correlated their clinicopathological features. The prevalence of CG was 0.83% (21 out of 2518) of allograft biopsies with a higher prevalence of 1...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815213/identification-of-rab18-as-an-essential-host-factor-for-bk-polyomavirus-infection-using-a-whole-genome-rna-interference-screen
#5
Linbo Zhao, Michael J Imperiale
BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is a human pathogen first isolated in 1971. BKPyV infection is ubiquitous in the human population, with over 80% of adults worldwide being seropositive for BKPyV. BKPyV infection is usually asymptomatic; however, BKPyV reactivation in immunosuppressed transplant patients causes two diseases, polyomavirus-associated nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis. To establish a successful infection in host cells, BKPyV must travel in retrograde transport vesicles to reach the nucleus. To make this happen, BKPyV requires the cooperation of host cell proteins...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801294/-early-intervention-of-bk-virus-replication-promotes-stabilization-of-renal-graft-function
#6
Wei-Ming Deng, Yan-Na Liu, Li-Xin Yu, Wen-Feng Deng, Shao-Jie Fu, Jian Xu, Chuan-Fu DU, Yi-Bin Wang, Ru-Min Liu, Gui-Rong Ye, Gang Huang, Yun Miao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the optimal time window for intervention of BK virus (BKV) replication and its effect on the outcomes of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the clinical data and treatment regimens was conducted among KTRs whose urine BKV load was ≥1.0×10(4) copies/mL following the operation between April, 2000 and April, 2015. KTRs with urine BKV load <1.0×10(4) copies/mL matched for transplantation time served as the control group...
August 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783452/off-the-shelf-virus-specific-t-cells-to-treat-bk-virus-human-herpesvirus-6-cytomegalovirus-epstein-barr-virus-and-adenovirus-infections-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#7
Ifigeneia Tzannou, Anastasia Papadopoulou, Swati Naik, Kathryn Leung, Caridad A Martinez, Carlos A Ramos, George Carrum, Ghadir Sasa, Premal Lulla, Ayumi Watanabe, Manik Kuvalekar, Adrian P Gee, Meng-Fen Wu, Hao Liu, Bambi J Grilley, Robert A Krance, Stephen Gottschalk, Malcolm K Brenner, Cliona M Rooney, Helen E Heslop, Ann M Leen, Bilal Omer
Purpose Improvement of cure rates for patients treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) will require efforts to decrease treatment-related mortality from severe viral infections. Adoptively transferred virus-specific T cells (VSTs) generated from eligible, third-party donors could provide broad antiviral protection to recipients of HSCT as an immediately available off-the-shelf product. Patient and Methods We generated a bank of VSTs that recognized five common viral pathogens: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), adenovirus (AdV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), BK virus (BKV), and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6)...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757888/rhodiolae-kirliowii-radix-et-rhizoma-and-crataegus-pinnatifida-fructus-extracts-effectively-inhibit-bk-virus-and-jc-virus-infection-of-host-cells
#8
San-Yuan Chen, Ru-Hsiou Teng, Meilin Wang, Pei-Lain Chen, Mien-Chun Lin, Cheng-Huang Shen, Chun-Nun Chao, Ming-Ko Chiang, Chiung-Yao Fang, Deching Chang
The human polyomaviruses BK (BKPyV) and JC (JCPyV) are ubiquitous pathogens long associated with severe disease in immunocompromised individuals. BKPyV causes polyomavirus-associated nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis, whereas JCPyV is the causative agent of the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. No effective therapies targeting these viruses are currently available. The goal of this study was to identify Chinese medicinal herbs with antiviral activity against BKPyV and JCPyV...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751760/il28b-rs12979860-genotype-as-a-predictor-marker-of-progression-to-bkvirus-associated-nephropathy-after-kidney-transplantation
#9
Roee Dvir, Vera Paloschi, Filippo Canducci, Giacomo Dell'Antonio, Sara Racca, Rossana Caldara, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Massimo Clementi, Antonio Secchi
BK virus (BKV) associated nephropathy (BKVAN) is still an important cause of allograft dysfunction after kidney transplantation (KT). Recent data have shown that the new interferon (IFN)-λ family has been ascribed antiviral properties similar to IFNα, and that the response to IFNλ in kidney is restricted to epithelial cells, suggesting that the IFNλ system evolves as specific protection of the epithelia. We aimed to test the hypothesis of correlation between a single nucleotide polymorphism (C/T dimorphism rs12979860) in the genomic region of IL28B and BKVAN, in patients after KT...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735997/feasibility-of-bk-virus-real-time-pcr-testing-in-renal-graft-biopsies-with-negative-sv40-staining
#10
R Morace, T Kumar, E Tantisattamo, J Gibson, S Britton, W Li, H D Kanaan, S R Cohn, D Samarapungavan, P L Zhang, B L Boyanton
BACKGROUND: BK virus (BKV)-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) is often associated with renal graft dysfunction. When renal transplant recipients present with high clinical suspicion for BKVAN (high serum and urine BKV titer with graft dysfunction) but their graft biopsies stain negatively for BKV, non-correlated situations between the two tests often lead to a dilemma about how to treat them. METHODS: This retrospective investigation was conducted to determine how real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for BKV, routinely applied to serum and urine, could be helpful in identifying the existing BKV in biopsy tissue stained negatively for BKV...
July 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722139/structure-based-release-analysis-of-the-jc-virus-agnoprotein-regions-a-role-for-the-hydrophilic-surface-of-the-major-alpha-helix-domain-in-release
#11
A Sami Saribas, Martyn K White, Mahmut Safak
Agnoprotein (Agno) is an important regulatory protein of JC virus (JCV), BK virus (BKV) and simian virus 40 (SV40) and these viruses are unable to replicate efficiently in the absence of this protein. Recent 3D-NMR structural data revealed that Agno contains two alpha-helices (a minor and a major) while the rest of the protein adopts an unstructured conformation (Coric et al., 2017, J Cell Biochem). Previously, release of the JCV Agno from the Agno-positive cells was reported. Here, we have further mapped the regions of Agno responsible for its release by a structure-based systematic mutagenesis approach...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702160/bk-virus-associated-hemorrhagic-cystitis-in-patients-with-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-report-of-three-cases
#12
Duygu Mert, Hikmetullah Batgi, Alparslan Merdin, Sabahat Çeken, Mehmet Sinan Dal, Emre Tekgündüz, Fevzi Altuntaş, Mustafa Ertek
BK viras is a human polyoma viras. It is acquired in early childhood and remains life-long latent in the genitourinary system. BK virus replication is more common in receiving immunosuppressive therapy receiving patients and transplant patients. BK virus could cause hemorrhagic cystitis in patients with allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Hemorrhagic cystitis is a serious complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Hemorrhagic cystitis could cause morbidity and long stay in the hospital. Diagnosis is more frequently determined by the presence of BK virus DNA detected with quantitative or real-time PCR testing in serum or plasma and less often in urine...
June 1, 2017: Hematology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674583/-scrotal-fistulas-revealing-mucinous-adenocarcinoma-of-the-scrotum-about-a-case
#13
Abdelilah El Alaoui, Hicham El Boté, Oussama Ziouani, Oussman Dembele, Hachem El Sayegh, Ali Iken, Lounis Benslimane, Yassine Nouini
Scrotales fistulas are rare and often represent secondary lesions of tuberculosis. Mucinous adenocarcinomas are tumors containing at least 50% of extracellular mucus. They occur most commonly in the rectosigmoid; scrotal location is rare. We report the case of a 54-year old patient, with no particular past medical history, with secondary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the scrotum revealed by scrotal fistulas. The patient had suffered from recurrent scrotal fistulas for two years, with no other associated signs...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670579/assessment-of-circulating-protein-signatures-for-kidney-transplantation-in-pediatric-recipients
#14
Tara K Sigdel, Minnie M Sarwal
Identification and use of non-invasive biomarkers for kidney transplantation monitoring is an unmet need. A total of 121 biobanked sera collected from 111 unique kidney transplant (KT) patients (children and adolescent) and 10 age-matched healthy normal controls were used to profile serum proteins using semi-quantitative proteomics. The proteomics data were analyzed to identify panels of serum proteins that were specific to various transplant injuries, which included acute rejection (AR), BK virus nephropathy (BKVN), and chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN)...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665480/simultaneous-pancreas-kidney-transplant-recipients-are-predisposed-to-tissue-invasive-cytomegalovirus-disease-and-concomitant-infectious-complications
#15
Thomas Schachtner, Marina Zaks, Natalie M Otto, Andreas Kahl, Petra Reinke
BACKGROUND: Infections have increased in simultaneous pancreas/kidney transplant recipients (SPKTRs) with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection being the most important viral infection with adverse impact on patient and allograft outcomes. METHODS: We studied all primary SPKTRs and deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) between 2008 and 2015 for the development of CMV infection. A total of 21/62 SPKTRs (33.9%) and 90/335 KTRs (26.9%) were diagnosed with CMV infection...
June 30, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655392/outcome-of-polyomavirus-nephropathy-in-renal-transplant-patients-a-single-center-experience
#16
Nika Kojc, Andreja Aleš Rigler, Gregor Mlinšek, Damjan Kovač, Dušan Ferluga, Miha Arnol
BACKGROUND: Reduction of immunosuppression is a common therapeutic strategy in patients with polyomavirus nephropathy (PVN) but may be associated with acute rejection. This study aimed to evaluate the morphology of PVN in renal biopsies after reduction of immunosuppression. METHODS: Eight of 241 patients who received a kidney transplant between January 2012 and December 2015 presented with BK viremia and biopsy-proven PVN. Morphological evaluation according to Banff criteria and correlation with viremia and kidney function after immunosuppression reduction was performed...
June 28, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647211/tubuloreticular-inclusions-in-peritubular-capillaries-of-renal-allografts
#17
Jee Youn Lee, Seung Hwan Song, Yu Seun Kim, Beom Jin Lim, Soon Il Kim, Myoung Soo Kim, Hyeon Joo Jeong
BACKGROUND: Tubuloreticular inclusions (TRIs) are anastomosing networks of microtubules that are frequently found in autoimmune diseases and viral infections. In renal allografts, TRIs have been reported in glomerular endothelial cells in association with viral infections and donor specific antibodies (DSAs), but their presence in peritubular capillaries has not been explored. METHODS: We collected seven cases with TRIs out of 148 consecutive renal allograft biopsies taken from Dec...
June 6, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637388/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-endemic-viruses-and-lethal-brain-disease
#18
Sheila A Haley, Walter J Atwood
In 1971, the first human polyomavirus was isolated from the brain of a patient who died from a rapidly progressing demyelinating disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The virus was named JC virus after the initials of the patient. In that same year a second human polyomavirus was discovered in the urine of a kidney transplant patient and named BK virus. In the intervening years it became clear that both viruses were widespread in the human population but only rarely caused disease. The past decade has witnessed the discovery of eleven new human polyomaviruses, two of which cause unusual and rare cancers...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634106/biology-evolution-and-medical-importance-of-polyomaviruses-an-update
#19
REVIEW
Ugo Moens, Andi Krumbholz, Bernhard Ehlers, Roland Zell, Reimar Johne, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Chris Lauber
The family Polyomaviridae encompasses non-enveloped viruses with a circular dsDNA genome that is typically approximately 5000bp in length. Originally isolated from mammals, polyomavirus sequences have now been detected in invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles and birds, although it remains to be determined whether all these animals are genuine hosts. The genomes of all polyomaviruses encode at least two regulatory proteins (large and small tumour antigen) and two structural proteins (capsid proteins VP1 and VP2) whose functions have been defined...
June 17, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621755/biophysical-mode-of-action-and-selectivity-analysis-of-allosteric-inhibitors-of-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-polymerase
#20
Eldar Abdurakhmanov, Sara Øie Solbak, U Helena Danielson
Allosteric inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural protein 5B (NS5B) polymerase are effective for treatment of genotype 1, although their mode of action and potential to inhibit other isolates and genotypes are not well established. We have used biophysical techniques and a novel biosensor-based real-time polymerase assay to investigate the mode-of-action and selectivity of four inhibitors against enzyme from genotypes 1b (BK and Con1) and 3a. Two thumb inhibitors (lomibuvir and filibuvir) interacted with all three NS5B variants, although the affinities for the 3a enzyme were low...
June 16, 2017: Viruses
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