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Bk virus

Rosa M Michel Ortega, Daynna J Wolff, Cynthia A Schandl, Harry A Drabkin
BACKGROUND: Malignancy after transplantation is an uncommon multifactorial occurrence. Immunosuppression to prevent graft rejection is described as a major risk factor in malignancy development in the post-transplant state. Donor-derived malignancy is a rare reported complication. Herein, we review our patient history and discuss diagnostic strategies and the implications of immunosuppression for donor-derived malignancy. CASE PRESENTATION: This is a 69-year-old man with post-renal-transplant urothelial carcinoma determined to be of donor origin...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Jennifer Trofe-Clark, Deirdre Sawinski
For more than 40 years, polyomaviruses (BK virus and JC virus) have been known to cause disease in human beings. Recently, 11 new polyomaviruses were discovered. However, the majority of these viruses are rare in renal transplant recipients and BK and JC viruses remain the most important polyomaviruses to impact this population. BK virus presents as BK virus nephropathy and has, in rare instances, been associated with hemorrhagic cystitis or ureteral strictures. JC virus can cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy or nephropathy in this population as well, but is uncommon...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
Ashraf Kariminik, Ramin Yaghobi, Shahriar Dabiri
OBJECTIVES: It has been hypothesized that BK polyomavirus infection leads to nephropathy in kidney transplant patients via various plausible mechanisms, such as stimulation of chemokines. The CXCL11 gene may also play a role in BK polyomavirus-associated nephropathy. Our aim was to compare expression levels of CXCL11 in BK polyomavirus-infected versus noninfected kidney transplant patients with nephropathy and healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 58 kidney transplant patients with the risk of BK polyomavirus infection; these patients were subgrouped as BK polyomavirus-infected (23 patients) and noninfected (35 patients)...
October 14, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Hanneke de Kort, Kirstin M Heutinck, Jurjen M Ruben, Alessa E Valverde da Silva, Katja C Wolthers, Jörg Hamann, Ineke J M Ten Berge
BACKGROUND: BK polyomavirus (BKV)-associated nephropathy is a threat to kidney allograft survival affecting up to 15% of renal transplant patients. Previous studies revealed that tubular epithelial cells (TEC) show a limited response towards BKV infection. Here we investigated the interplay between BKV and TEC in more detail. In particular, we questioned whether BKV suppresses and/or evades antiviral responses. METHODS: Human primary tubular epithelial cells (TEC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were infected with BKV Dunlop strain or other viruses...
October 17, 2016: Transplantation
A L F Gouvêa, R I J Cosendey, F R Carvalho, R B Varella, C F de Souza, P F Lopes, A A Silva, M C Rochael, H P de Moraes, J R Lugon, J R Almeida
BACKGROUND: Urine monitoring programs represent an important strategy for early diagnosis of reactivation of BK polyomavirus (BKV) in kidney transplant recipients. This study analyzes a BKV urine screening model in kidney transplant patients. METHODS: Urinary screening for BKV reactivation was performed by urinary decoy cell and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests in samples from 32 consecutive kidney transplant patients, collected in a 6-month follow-up period...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Gabriel Godinho Pinto, Jose Antonio T Poloni, Liane N Rotta, Raymund R Razonable, Alessandro C Pasqualotto
Urine cytology and qPCR in blood and urine are commonly used to screen renal transplant recipients for polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN). Few studies, however, have directly compared these two diagnostic tests, in terms of their performance to predict PVAN. This was a systematic review in which adult (≥ 18 years old) renal transplant recipients were studied. A structured Pubmed search was used to identify studies comparing urine cytology and/or qPCR in urine and plasma samples for detecting PVAN with renal biopsy as the gold standard for diagnosis...
July 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
Camila Hitomi Nihei, Ligia Camera Pierrotti, Elias David-Neto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
Linda Cook
Over the last 10 years, the number of identified polyomaviruses has grown to more than 35 subtypes, including 13 in humans. The polyomaviruses have similar genetic makeup, including genes that encode viral capsid proteins VP1, 2, and 3 and large and small T region proteins. The T proteins play a role in viral replication and have been implicated in viral chromosomal integration and possible dysregulation of growth factor genes. In humans, the Merkel cell polyomavirus has been shown to be highly associated with integration and the development of Merkel cell cancers...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Ashraf Kariminik
It has been demonstrated that IL-2 plays a dual role in induction/suppression of immune responses via activation of conventional and regulatory T lymphocytes, respectively. IL-2 contacts complete IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) which contains CD25 (α chain) on the antigen specific activated T helper and cytotoxic lymphocytes and also T regulatory cells. Additionally, previous investigations revealed that polyoma BK virus (PBK) reactivation and induction of PBK associated nephropathy (PBKAN) is a main complication following renal transplantation...
October 5, 2016: Cytokine
Aurore Barthélemy, Nicolas Bouvier, Renaud Verdon, Valérie Chatelet, Bruno Hurault de Ligny
We report the case of a human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patient whose initial kidney transplant failed because of BK polyomavirus-induced nephropathy, and who underwent a second transplantation 3 years later. BK viruria was detected 1 day after transplantation. After 1 month, BK viremia developed along with a donor-specific antibody. After decreasing tacrolimus and mycophenolic acid and 2 courses of intravenous immunoglobulins, BK viremia and donor-specific antibody permanently disappeared, with stable renal function...
September 26, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Jiju Mani, Lei Wang, Angela G Hückelhoven, Anita Schmitt, Alma Gedvilaite, Nan Jin, Christian Kleist, Anthony D Ho, Michael Schmitt
Human JC and BK polyomaviruses (JCV/BKV) can establish a latent infection without any clinical symptoms in healthy individuals. In immunocompromised hosts infection or reactivation of JCV and BKV can cause lethal progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and hemorrhagic cystitis, respectively. Vaccination with JCV/BKV derived antigen epitope peptides or adoptive transfer of virus-specific T cells would constitute an elegant approach to clear virus-infected cells. Furthermore, donor leukocyte infusion (DLI) is another therapeutic approach which could be helpful for patients with JCV/BKV infections...
October 1, 2016: Oncotarget
Georges Mourad, Jean-Emmanuel Serre, Cyrielle Alméras, Olivia Basel, Valérie Garrigue, Vincent Pernin, Moglie Le Quintrec
Infections and malignancies are the expected complications of immunosuppressive therapy, which non-specifically impairs cellular and humoral immune responses in renal transplant recipients. Infections were usually frequent and severe during the early post-transplant period (first year). Recent diagnostic methods (molecular biology) and availability of new antivirals, antifungal and antibiotic drugs made rapid diagnosis and systematic preventive strategies much easier and this resulted in a significant reduction of infections and infectious death in this population...
September 24, 2016: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
J Comerlato, F Souza-Campos, T Souza-Arantes, M I Roos-Kulmann, M Trindade-Oliveira, F Rosado-Spilki, A P Guedes-Frazzon, P M Roehe, A C Franco
The human polyomaviruses JC and BK (JCPyV and BKPyV) are ubiquitous, species-specific viruses that belong to the family Polyomaviridae. These viruses are known to be excreted in human urine, and they are potential indicators of human wastewater contamination. In order to assess the distribution of both JCPyV and BKPyV in urban water samples collected from a sewage treatment plant (STP) and from a canalized water stream of Porto Alegre, Brazil, two nested-PCR assays were optimized and applied to the samples collected...
September 26, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Darlene Vigil, Nikifor K Konstantinov, Marc Barry, Antonia M Harford, Karen S Servilla, Young Ho Kim, Yijuan Sun, Kavitha Ganta, Antonios H Tzamaloukas
Nephropathy secondary to BK virus, a member of the Papoviridae family of viruses, has been recognized for some time as an important cause of allograft dysfunction in renal transplant recipients. In recent times, BK nephropathy (BKN) of the native kidneys has being increasingly recognized as a cause of chronic kidney disease in patients with solid organ transplants, bone marrow transplants and in patients with other clinical entities associated with immunosuppression. In such patients renal dysfunction is often attributed to other factors including nephrotoxicity of medications used to prevent rejection of the transplanted organs...
September 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
W James Chon, Nidhi Aggarwal, Masha Kocherginsky, Brenna Kane, Jozefa Sutor, Michelle A Josephson
BACKGROUND: Although early monitoring of BK virus infection in renal transplant patients has led to improved outcomes over the past decade, it remains unclear whether monitoring for viremia is the best screening tool for BK virus nephropathy (BKVN). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of the medical records of 368 renal transplant recipients who had a minimum of 18 months of posttransplantation follow-up. The relationship between the presence of BK viruria and a composite end point of BK viremia/BKVN was established, and the predictive value of high-grade BK viruria for development of viremia/BKVN was determined...
September 2016: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
Yon Su Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
S Kuppachi, D Holanda, M Eberlein, B Alexiev, A J Tyler, M C Wissel, S B Kleiboeker, C P Thomas
We report a lung transplant recipient who developed BK polyoma virus (BKPyV) DNAemia and BKPyV nephropathy. With careful management of his immunosuppression he achieved significant reduction in BKPyV DNAemia and stabilization of his kidney function. He later developed a high-grade bladder cancer and shortly thereafter he experienced a major upsurge in the level of BKPyV DNAemia that coincided with the discovery of hepatic metastasis. Retrospectively, the bladder cancer and the hepatic secondary tumor stained uniformly for SV40 large T antigen, and the BKPyV DNA sequences identified in plasma corresponded to BKPyV DNA within hepatic tissue, indicating that the spike in BKPyV load was likely derived from the circulating tumor cells or cell-free tumor DNA following metastases of a BKV-associated cancer...
September 20, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
J Radtke, N Dietze, L Fischer, E-G Achilles, J Li, S Scheidat, F Thaiss, B Nashan, M Koch
BACKGROUND: BK polyomavirus (BKV) infection and BKV nephropathy (BKVN) are risk factors for allograft function and survival. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed BK viremia and BKVN in 348 patients who received a kidney transplantation donated after brain death (n = 232) or living donation (n = 116) between 2008 and 2013. 266 patients were treated with standard immunosuppression consisting of basiliximab induction, calcineurin inhibitor (CNI), and mycophenolate (MPA, n = 219) or everolimus (n = 47)...
September 17, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Asha Rani, Ravi Ranjan, Halvor S McGee, Ahmed Metwally, Zahraa Hajjiri, Daniel C Brennan, Patricia W Finn, David L Perkins
Recent studies have established that the human urine contains a complex microbiome, including a virome about which little is known. Following immunosuppression in kidney transplant patients, BK polyomavirus (BKV) has been shown to induce nephropathy (BKVN), decreasing graft survival. In this study we investigated the urine virome profile of BKV+ and BKV- kidney transplant recipients. Virus-like particles were stained to confirm the presence of VLP in the urine samples. Metagenomic DNA was purified, and the virome profile was analyzed using metagenomic shotgun sequencing...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jyoti Malhotra, Tim Waterboer, Michael Pawlita, Angelika Michel, Qiuyin Cai, Wei Zheng, Yu-Tang Gao, Qing Lan, Nathaniel Rothman, Hilde Langseth, Tom K Grimsrud, Jian-Min Yuan, Woon-Puay Koh, Renwei Wang, Alan A Arslan, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Paolo Boffetta
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer in never smokers is a significant contributor of cancer mortality worldwide. In this analysis, we explored the role of nine human polyomaviruses, including JC virus (JCV), BK virus (BKV) and Merkel cell virus (MCV), in lung cancer development in never smokers as there are data to support that polyomaviruses are potentially carcinogenic in the human lung. METHODS: We used multiplex serology to detect serum antibodies to polyomaviruses in a nested case-control design combining lung cancer cases and controls from four cohort studies - NYU Women's Health Study (NYU-WHS), Janus Serum Bank, Shanghai Women's Health Study and Singapore Chinese Health Study (SCHS)...
September 15, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
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