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Cerebellar OR cerebellum OR posterior OR Vertigo

Joe Iwanaga, Emily Simonds, Marc Vetter, Mayank Patel, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
The inferior gluteal nerve has been traditionally described as a solely motor branch innervating the gluteus maximus. However, during routine dissection of the gluteal region, a cutaneous branch of the inferior gluteal nerve was identified. As the gluteal region is vulnerable to the development of pressure ulcers and iatrogenic injury with for example, surgical approaches and injection therapies, a comprehensive understanding of its cutaneous innervation is important. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the anatomy of this cutaneous branch of the inferior gluteal nerve in a series of cadavers...
October 18, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Paola Malerba, Lauren N Whitehurst, Stephen B Simons, Sara C Mednick
Electrophysiological sleep rhythms have been shown to impact human waking cognition, but their spatio-temporal dynamics are not understood. We investigated how slow oscillations (SOs, 0.5-4 Hz) are organized during a night of polysomnographically-recorded sleep, focusing on the scalp electrode manifold. We detected troughs of SOs at all electrodes independently and analyzed the concurrent SO troughs found in every other electrode within ±400ms. We used a k-clustering algorithm to categorize the spatial patterns of SO trough co-occurrence into three types (Global, Local or Frontal) depending on their footprint on the electrode manifold during the considered time window...
October 17, 2018: Sleep
Chunming Wang, Riqiang Liu, Feifei Huang, Haiming Wei, Lei Yu
RATIONALE: Malignant mixed Müllerian tumor (MMMT) of extragenital organs is rare, especially in male. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of primary MMMT at the mediastinum in male. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 54-year-old male was admitted to the hospital due to repeated stimulating dry cough for 2 years. His systemic examination was unremarkable. Laboratory workup revealed that all blood indicators were within normal limits. But subsequent computerized tomography (CT) scans of chest showed an abnormal soft tissue density in the area of its left, measuring approximately 4 cm in anterior-posterior dimension and 7 cm in maximum transverse dimension...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Gönül Vural, Şadiye Gümüsyayla
The monocyte-to-high density lipoprotein ratio (MHR) has recently been implemented as an indicator of inflammation and oxidative stress. The present study characterized MHR in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN), in which oxidative stress and microvascular damage play a role in pathogenesis, relative to patients with non-DPN, diabetic patients without polyneuropathy, and healthy individuals. We further aimed to evaluate the association between MHR and the decreased compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude of patients with diabetic axonal polyneuropathy...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ling-Xiao Huang, Ren-Liang Li, Li-Xiao Sha, Xiao-Hua Lin
This study aims to search for a new, economic, convenient, and low recurrence rate operation for the surgical management of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). The clinical value of the operation for treating POP was determined through retrospective case series. The new operation was called, pelvic autologous tissue reconstruction.Women with symptomatic uterine prolapse, who required surgery, were recruited. A total of 97 women [stage III to IV, according to POP quantification (POP-Q) staging] were collected from January 2010 to December 2016...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Alfonso Vasquez-Perez, Nicholas Brennan, Tariq Ayoub, Bruce Allan, Daniel F P Larkin, Lyndon da Cruz
PURPOSE: To present our experience of Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) graft luxation into the vitreous cavity in 2 cases. METHODS: DMEK was performed in 2 patients with aphakic bullous keratopathy. The indications for keratoplasty were endothelial failure caused by chronic intermediate uveitis and glaucoma in 1 case and decompensated previous penetrating keratoplasty in the other. Both cases had enlarged pupils and had previously undergone pars plana vitrectomy...
October 16, 2018: Cornea
Eduardo Martin-Sanz, Joaquin Yanes Diaz, Jonathan Esteban-Sanchez, Ricardo Sanz-Fernández, Nicolas Perez-Fernandez
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the changes in the VOR gain after intratympanic gentamicin therapy and to correlate them with the mid-term effects on the control of vertigo, in a population of Menière's disease patients. STUDY DESIGN: The study design was a prospective "Outcomes research." SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: This study included 20 patients with unilateral Menière's disease refractory to medical therapy for at least 1 year, and treated with an on demand intratympanic gentamicin protocol...
October 16, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Kai Dallas, Christopher S Elliott, Raveen Syan, Ericka Sohlberg, Ekene Enemchukwu, Lisa Rogo-Gupta
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of hysterectomy at the time of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair with the risk of undergoing subsequent POP surgery in a large population-based cohort. METHODS: Data from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development were used in this retrospective cohort study to identify all women who underwent an anterior, apical, posterior or multiple compartment POP repair at nonfederal hospitals between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, using Current Procedural Terminology and International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision procedure codes...
October 15, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Matthew W Colman, Lon M Baronne, Darrel S Brodke, Ashley M Woodbury, Prokopis Annis, Brandon D Lawrence
STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective analysis. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical, radiographic, and perioperative complication profiles of performing an interbody and posterior arthrodesis (CAGE) versus posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) alone in patients undergoing surgery for degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: DS is a common disorder that, failing nonoperative treatment, may be managed with surgical decompression and concomitant posterior arthrodesis...
October 16, 2018: Clinical Spine Surgery
Risheng Liu, Long Ma, Yiyang Wang, Lei Zhang
Enhancing visual qualities of images plays very important roles in various vision and learning applications. In the past few years, both knowledge-driven maximum a posterior (MAP) with prior modelings and fully data-dependent convolutional neural network (CNN) techniques have been investigated to address specific enhancement tasks. In this paper, by exploiting the advantages of these two types of mechanisms within a complementary propagation perspective, we propose a unified framework, named deep prior ensemble (DPE), for solving various image enhancement tasks...
October 15, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Cristina Roldán-Jiménez, Antonio I Cuesta-Vargas, Paul Bennett
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to measure trunk flexo-extension during different Sit-To-Stand (STS) tasks and to analyse differences in those variables when STS repetitions are increased, by using an inertial sensor. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study trunk flexo-extension was obtained through inertial measurements using an inertial sensor placed on the flat part of the sternum with the Y transversally oriented and attached using double-sided adhesive tape...
October 18, 2018: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Karri Seppä, Håvard Rue, Timo Hakulinen, Esa Läärä, Mikko J Sillanpää, Janne Pitkäniemi
Models of excess mortality with random effects were used to estimate regional variation in relative or net survival of cancer patients. Statistical inference for these models based on the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods is computationally intensive and, therefore, not feasible for routine analyses of cancer register data. This study assessed the performance of the integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA) in monitoring regional variation in cancer survival. Poisson regression model of excess mortality including both spatially correlated and unstructured random effects was fitted to the data of patients diagnosed with ovarian and breast cancer in Finland during 1955-2014 with follow up from 1960 through 2014 by using the period approach with five-year calendar time windows...
October 17, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
Anna Sadnicka, Joseph M Galea, Jui-Cheng Chen, Thomas T Warner, Kailash P Bhatia, John C Rothwell, Mark J Edwards
BACKGROUND: Recent research has highlighted the role of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of myoclonus-dystonia syndrome as a result of mutations in the ɛ-sarcoglycan gene (DYT11). Specifically, a cerebellar-dependent saccadic adaptation task is dramatically impaired in this patient group. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate whether saccadic deficits coexist with impairments of limb adaptation to provide a potential mechanism linking cerebellar dysfunction to the movement disorder within symptomatic body regions...
October 17, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Marta Garcia-Miralles, Nur Amirah Binte Mohammad Yusof, Jing Ying Tan, Carola I Radulescu, Harwin Sidik, Liang Juin Tan, Haim Belinson, Neta Zach, Michael R Hayden, Mahmoud A Pouladi
Laquinimod, an immunomodulatory agent under clinical development for Huntington disease (HD), has recently been shown to confer behavioural improvements that are coupled with prevention of atrophy of the white matter (WM)-rich corpus callosum (CC) in the YAC128 HD mice. However, the nature of the WM improvements is not known yet. Here we investigated the effects of laquinimod on HD-related myelination deficits at the cellular, molecular and ultrastructural levels. We showed that laquinimod treatment improves motor learning and motor function deficits in YAC128 HD mice, and confirmed its antidepressant effect even at the lowest dose used...
October 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Mohsen Alhashemi, Julio F Fiore, Nadia Safa, Mohammed Al Mahroos, Juan Mata, Nicolò Pecorelli, Gabriele Baldini, Nandini Dendukuri, Barry L Stein, A Sender Liberman, Patrick Charlebois, Franco Carli, Liane S Feldman
BACKGROUND: Prolonged postoperative ileus (PPOI) is common after colorectal surgery but has not been widely studied in the context of enhanced recovery pathways (ERPs) that include interventions aimed to accelerate gastrointestinal recovery. The aim of this study is to estimate the incidence and predictors of PPOI in the context of an ERP for colorectal surgery. METHODS: We analyzed data from an institutional colorectal surgery ERP registry. Incidence of PPOI was estimated according to a definition adapted from Vather (intolerance of solid food and absence of flatus or bowel movement for ≥ 4 days) and compared to other definitions in the literature...
October 17, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Roxana Maria Tudor, Christopher J Thompson
Neurohypophysial dysfunction is common in the first days following traumatic brain injury (TBI), manifesting as dysnatremia in approximately 1 in 4 patients. Both hyponatremia and hypernatremia can impair recovery from TBI and in the case of hypernatremia, there is a significant association with excess mortality. Hyponatremia secondary to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIAD) is the commonest electrolyte disturbance following TBI. Acute adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)/cortisol deficiency occurs in 10-15% of TBI patients and can present with a biochemical picture identical to SIAD...
October 17, 2018: Pituitary
Ivan E Rodriguez, Becky B Trinh, Frederic W-B Deleyiannis
Objective: The present report describes an alternative technique of using a flow- through, double-paddle, fibular, osteocutaneous free flap based on one perforator from the peroneal system and one perforator from the anterior tibial system for a through-and-through mandibular defect. Methods: The patient was a 65-year-old man who underwent a composite resection of the floor of the mouth, mandible, and chin pad due to recurrent oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. The fibula was harvested with one posterior-lateral septal perforator from the peroneal system and with a second skin perforator from the anterior tibial system to perfuse a 15 × 14 cm skin island...
2018: Eplasty
Jeyeon Lee, Hoseok Choi, Kyeongran Min, Seho Lee, Kyung-Ha Ahn, Hang Joon Jo, In Young Kim, Dong Pyo Jang, Kyoung-Min Lee
A fronto-parietal network, comprised of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) has been proposed to be involved in planning and guiding movement. However, the issue of how the network is expressed across the bilateral cortical area according to the effector's side remains unclear. In this study, we tested these questions using electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings in non-human primates and using a simple visual guided reaching task that induced a left or right hand response based on relevant cues provided for the task...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Rosella Abeti, Alexander F Brown, Marta Maiolino, Sandip Patel, Paola Giunti
Friedreich's Ataxia (FRDA) is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by degeneration of dorsal root ganglia, cerebellum and cardiomyopathy. Heart failure is one of the most common causes of death for FRDA patients. Deficiency of frataxin, a small mitochondrial protein, is responsible for all clinical and morphological manifestations of FRDA. The focus of our study was to investigate the unexplored Ca2+ homeostasis in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) and in cardiomyocytes of FRDA cellular models to understand the pathogenesis of degeneration...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Inmaculada C Rodríguez-Rojo, Pablo Cuesta, María Eugenia López, Jaisalmer de Frutos-Lucas, Ricardo Bruña, Ernesto Pereda, Ana Barabash, Pedro Montejo, Mercedes Montenegro-Peña, Alberto Marcos, Ramón López-Higes, Alberto Fernández, Fernando Maestú
The pathophysiological processes undermining brain functioning decades before the onset of the clinical symptoms associated with dementia are still not well understood. Several heritability studies have reported that the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor ( BDNF ) Val66Met genetic polymorphism could contribute to the acceleration of cognitive decline in aging. This mutation may affect brain functional connectivity (FC), especially in those who are carriers of the BDNF Met allele. The aim of this work was to explore the influence of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in whole brain eyes-closed, resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG) FC in a sample of 36 cognitively intact (CI) older females...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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