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Oana A Tatucu-Babet, Emma J Ridley
Outpatients who receive hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) may represent a group at significant risk of malnutrition owing to the underlying conditions that are often treated with HBOT (e.g., non-healing diabetic wounds and radiation-induced skin injury). In this issue, See and colleagues provide new, preliminary evidence of the prevalence of malnutrition in a small group of HBOT outpatients treated in an Australian hospital, reporting that approximately one-third of patients receiving HBOT were at risk of malnutrition...
December 24, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Lex Flagel, Yaniv Brandvain, Daniel R Schrider
Population-scale genomic datasets have given researchers incredible amounts of information from which to infer evolutionary histories. Concomitant with this flood of data, theoretical and methodological advances have sought to extract information from genomic sequences to infer demographic events such as population size changes and gene flow among closely related populations/species, construct recombination maps, and uncover loci underlying recent adaptation. To date most methods make use of only one or a few summaries of the input sequences and therefore ignore potentially useful information encoded in the data...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Ana Clara Camarotti, Gabriela Wald, Alejandro Capriati, Ana Lía Kornblit
This article presents a model for building a comprehensive community response to adolescent health problems. The approach is comprehensive in that it includes prevention and promotion, assistance and protection, and involves different sectors and areas of the State and the community. We describe the conceptual framework and principles of the model, developed based on debates regarding health promotion and collective health as well as the work experiences of the research team in different communities in Argentina over the last 15 years...
July 2018: Salud Colectiva
Lisset Garcia-Fernandez, Rommy Novoa, Byelca Huaman, Carlos Benites
In 2013, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) proposed, in terms of public health, to end the HIV epidemic by 2030 by achieving the so-called 90-90-90 targets by 2020. This goal will only be possible if coverage in the HIV care continuum indicators is increased. With the methodology proposed by PAHO/WHO, this paper estimates the indicators of the continuum of care in Peru for 2014, consisting of diagnostic coverage, antiretroviral treatment (ART), and viral suppression in people living with HIV (PLHIV)...
July 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Terezinha Maria Mafioletti, Aida Maris Peres, Liliana Muller Larocca, Mariana Purcote Fontoura
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the historical trajectory and the contributions of the Programa de Atenção às Mulheres em Situação de Violência (Program of Care to Women Victims of Violence) of Curitiba. METHOD: Research with documentary and local approach, inspired by the Dimension of Political History, to unveil power relations, political representations, symbols and discourses. Eighty-eight sources were used for the period 1997-2014. The data collection was performed in May 2016 and presented in the timeline modality...
November 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Joab Cabral Ramos, Mirla Lays Dantas de Almeida, Yan Carlos Gomes de Alencar, Luís Ferreira de Sousa Filho, Camila Helena Machado da Costa Figueiredo, Manuella Santos Carneiro Almeida
OBJECTIVE: to study the epidemiological data of patients suffering from buccomaxillofacial trauma treated at a referral hospital in the State of Paraíba. METHODS: we conducted a cross-sectional study of inductive approach, with a comparative statistical procedure and research technique by field direct documentation. The sample comprised hospital records obtained from January 2016 to December 2017 of patients attended by the Service of Buccomaxillofacial Surgery and Traumatology of this hospital, and consisted of 332 patients according to the study's eligibility criteria...
November 29, 2018: Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
Marcela Rosana Maia da Silveira, Ana Karina Lima Buriti, Ana Maria Martins, Daniela Gil, Marisa Frasson de Azevedo
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the audiometric evaluation and acoustic immittance measures in different types of mucopolysaccharidosis. METHOD: Fifty-three mucopolysaccharidosis patients were evaluated. The classification consisted of type I (Hurler syndrome, Hurler-Scheie and Scheie syndrome), type II (Hunter syndrome), type III (Sanfilippo syndrome), type IV (Morquio syndrome), and type VI (Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome). Immittance audiometry and play or conventional threshold tone audiometry were used to obtain auditory thresholds and were chosen according to the patient's chronological age and ability to understand/respond to the procedure...
December 3, 2018: Clinics
Roberto Abadie, Shira Goldenberg, Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Celia B Fisher
BACKGROUND: The establishment of trust between researchers and participants is critical to advance HIV and HCV prevention particularly among people who inject drugs (PWID) and other marginalized populations, yet empirical research on how to establish and maintain trust in the course of community health research is lacking. This paper documents ideas about trust between research participants and researchers amongst a sub-sample of PWID who were enrolled in a large, multi-year community health study of social networks and HIV/HCV risk that was recently conducted in rural Puerto Rico...
2018: PloS One
Darius Leskauskas, Virginija Adomaitienė, Cornelis A J De Jong, Birutė Vorevičiūtė, Rima Juknaitė
BACKGROUND: Concern is growing about the high prevalence of traditional and new forms of addictive behaviors among young people due to the health risks and a better understanding of the factors causing these behaviors is needed. AIM: To evaluate tendencies in the attitudes of Lithuanian schoolchildren toward addictive behaviors over a three year period and to ascertain the promoting and preventing factors of such behaviors. METHODS: The researchers developed a survey which was conducted twice over a three year period...
2018: PloS One
Maggie Redshaw, Jane Henderson
BACKGROUND: The death of a newborn baby is devastating. While clinical issues may be a primary concern, interpersonal aspects can impact significantly. Mothers in this situation are not easy to access for research and little quantitative evidence is available. In this study we aimed to describe their experience of care, emphasising associations with infant gestational age. METHODS: Secondary analysis of population-based survey data collected through the Office for National Statistics following neonatal death in England in 2012-13...
2018: PloS One
Nicholas Paul Holmes, Luigi Tamè
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over human primary somatosensory cortex (S1), unlike over primary motor cortex (M1), does not produce an immediate, objective output. Researchers must therefore rely on one or more indirect methods to position the TMS coil over S1. The 'gold standard' method of TMS coil positioning is to use individual functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (F/SMRI) alongside a stereotactic navigation system. In the absence of these facilities, however, one common method used to locate S1 is to find the scalp location which produces twitches in a hand muscle (e...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Valerie L Flax, John Chapola, Lemekeza Mokiwa, Innocent Mofolo, Henry Swira, Mina C Hosseinipour, Suzanne Maman
Based on formative research, HIV-positive women in Lilongwe District, Malawi receive little infant and young child feeding (IYCF) counseling postpartum and want more support for IYCF from their husbands. To address these gaps, we implemented a behavior change communication intervention promoting IYCF in village savings and loan associations (VSLAs) that included HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. The intervention consisted of 15 IYCF learning sessions facilitated by VSLA volunteers during regular VSLA meetings and included four sessions to which husbands were invited...
December 5, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Suzanne C van Bronswijk, Lotte H J M Lemmens, John R Keefe, Marcus J H Huibers, Robert J DeRubeis, Frenk P M L Peeters
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) has a highly recurrent nature. After successful treatment, it is important to identify individuals who are at risk of an unfavorable long-term course. Despite extensive research, there is no consensus yet on the clinically relevant predictors of long-term outcome in MDD, and no prediction models are implemented in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to create a prognostic index (PI) to estimate long-term depression severity after successful and high quality acute treatment for MDD...
December 5, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Katie L Burkhouse, Jonathan P Stange, Rachel H Jacobs, Runa Bhaumik, Katie L Bessette, Amy T Peters, Natania A Crane, Kayla A Kreutzer, Kate Fitzgerald, Christopher S Monk, Robert C Welsh, K Luan Phan, Scott A Langenecker
BACKGROUND: Three well-established intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) involved in cognitive-affective processing include the cognitive control network (CCN), default mode network (DMN), and salience and emotional network (SEN). Despite recent advances in understanding developmental changes in these ICNs, the majority of research has focused on single seeds or networks in isolation with limited age ranges. Additionally, although internalizing psychopathologies (IPs), such as anxiety and depression, are often characterized by maladaptive cognitive-affective processing styles, it is not clear how IP history influences age-related changes in brain networks...
December 5, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Nicole Andelic, Clifford Stevenson, Aidan Feeney
Previous research has found that stigma can be a barrier to service use but there has been little work examining actual service encounters involving members of stigmatized groups. One such group are those with problematic or unmanageable debts. Providing advice to members of this group is likely to be particularly difficult due to the stigma associated with being in debt. Using conversation analysis and discursive psychology, this study examines 12 telephone advice conversations between debt advisors and individuals in debt...
December 5, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Nora D Volkow, Emily B Jones, Emily B Einstein, Eric M Wargo
Importance: More than 42 000 Americans died of opioid overdoses in 2016, and the fatalities continue to increase. This review analyzes the factors that triggered the opioid crisis and its further evolution, along with the interventions to manage and prevent opioid use disorder (OUD), which are fundamental for curtailing the opioid crisis. Observations: Opioid drugs are among the most powerful analgesics but also among the most addictive. The current opioid crisis, initially triggered by overprescription of opioid analgesics, which facilitated their diversion and misuse, has now expanded to heroin and illicit synthetic opioids (fentanyl and its analogues), the potency of which further increases their addictiveness and lethality...
December 5, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
A Archvadze, A Kistauri, N Gongadze, T Makharadze, K Chirakadze
Nowadays, chronic diseases are leading cause of death worldwide. One of popular chronic disease of 21 century is Diabetes Mellitus (DM) that affected 422 million people around the world in 2014; its prevalence is expected to increase to 592 million by the year 2035. Diabetic neuropathy (DN) seems to be the most common and least understood complication being present in over 50% of chronic diabetics. As the latest date explain the pathogenesis of DN is not fully understood. Therefore, considering the widespread of DN, severity of its consequences, it is vital to investigate details of its pathophysiology and find therapeutic strategies to improve patients' condition...
October 2018: Georgian Medical News
Selman Yeniocak, Özgür Karcıoğlu, Asım Kalkan, Fatma Saraç, Gökçe Akgül Karadana, Zehra Zeynep Keklikkıran, Alper Gümüş, Macit Koldaş, Semih Korkut
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of irisin by examining the serum level of this smooth muscle protein in patients presenting at the emergency department (ED) with acute abdominal pain. METHODS: This research was performed as a single-center, prospective, cross-sectional study. In all, 213 adult patients presenting at the ED with acute abdominal pain and 140 healthy controls were enrolled. The serum irisin level was correlated with the leukocyte, C-reactive protein, amylase, and creatine kinase values...
November 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
Raquel Monteiro, David Tomé, Paula Neves, Daniel Silva, Matilde A Rodrigues
Introduction: Human performance is influenced by several job-related factors and workplace conditions, including occupational noise. This influence can occur at sound pressure levels lower than the ones that cause physiological damage, such as hearing loss, being mediated by the noise characteristics. However, studies concerning this issue are still scarce. Study. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three noise conditions on attention and short-term memory: standard condition (C1), environmental noise without alarm sounds (C2), and environmental noise with alarm sounds (C3)...
September 2018: Noise & Health
Nina Vadiei, Sandipan Bhattacharjee
PURPOSE: One in five adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the United States (US) suffers from depression. Comorbid depression in adults with CKD is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. This study used US national survey data to examine patterns and predictors of depression treatment among adults with non-dialysis-dependent CKD in the US. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted using 2014-2015 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) data...
December 4, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
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