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Rieke van der Graaf, Indira S E van der Zande, Johannes J M van Delden
As early as 2002, CIOMS stated that pregnant women should be presumed eligible for participation in research. Despite this position and calls of other well-recognized organizations, the health needs of pregnant women in research remain grossly under-researched. Although the presumption of eligibility remains unchanged, the revision of the 2002 CIOMS International ethical guidelines for biomedical research involving human subjects involved a substantive rewrite of the guidance on research with pregnant women and related guidelines, such as those on fair inclusion and vulnerability...
October 20, 2018: Bioethics
S P D Chrisman, K G Harmon, J D Schmidt, T W Kaminski, T A Buckley, A P Kontos, J R Clugston, M McCrea, T McAllister, S P Broglio, J Ortega
The King-Devick (K-D) test is often used as part of a multimodal assessment to screen for sport-related concussion. However, the test involves reading numbers, and little is known about variation in baseline performance on the K-D by reading skill level. We conducted a cross-sectional study analyzing data from the Concussion Assessment, Research and Education (CARE) Consortium to assess differences in baseline performance on the K-D associated with factors that impact reading skill level (learning disorder [LD] and primary home language other than English [PHLOTE]), while controlling for covariates (gender, type of sport, attentional issues, history of concussion and modality of administration)...
October 12, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Lauren Orser, Patrick O'Byrne
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an HIV prevention strategy involving the use of once daily antiretroviral medications to prevent HIV infection. Available research supports that PrEP, when used as prescribed, can prevent HIV transmission by upwards of 96%. Such findings have led to the development of research publications and guidelines supporting PrEP for individuals at high risk for HIV acquisition, such as men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite its benefit, current use of PrEP in clinical settings has been undermined by false impressions of poor efficacy of PrEP and concerns about increased risk-taking among MSM should PrEP be readily available...
October 19, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Lavinia Iancu, Emily N Junkins, Georgiana Necula-Petrareanu, Cristina Purcarea
During violent criminal actions in which the perpetrator disposes of the victim's remains by burial, the analysis of insects and bacterial colonization patterns could be necessary for postmortem interval (PMI) estimation. Our research aimed to assess the decomposition process of buried rat carcasses from shallow graves (40 cm), the diversity and dynamics of insects and bacteria throughout the decomposition stages, and the environmental parameters' influence on these variations. The results provide further insight on decomposition in soil and contribute to a broader understanding of the factors involved in decomposition by qualitatively and quantitatively analysing the decomposer community (bacteria and insects)...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anthony Fullam, Lili Gu, Yvette Höhn, Martina Schröder
DDX3 is a DEAD-box RNA helicase that we and others have previously implicated in anti-viral immune signalling pathways leading to type I interferon (IFN) induction. We previously demonstrated that it directly interacts with the kinase IKKε, enhances it activation, and then facilitates phosphorylation of the transcription factor IRF3 by IKKε. However, the TLR7/9-mediated pathway, one of the most physiologically relevant IFN induction pathways, proceeds independently of IKKε or the related kinase TBK1. This pathway induces type I IFN production via the kinases NIK and IKKα and is activated when plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells (pDCs) sense viral nucleic acids...
October 19, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Nao Hagiwara, Briana Mezuk, Jennifer Elston Lafata, Scott R Vrana, Michael D Fetters
INTRODUCTION: Patient-physician racial discordance is associated with Black patient reports of dissatisfaction and mistrust, which in turn are associated with poor adherence to treatment recommendations and underutilisation of healthcare. Research further has shown that patient dissatisfaction and mistrust are magnified particularly when physicians hold high levels of implicit racial bias. This suggests that physician implicit racial bias manifests in their communication behaviours during medical interactions...
October 18, 2018: BMJ Open
Ibone Olza, Patricia Leahy-Warren, Yael Benyamini, Maria Kazmierczak, Sigfridur Inga Karlsdottir, Andria Spyridou, Esther Crespo-Mirasol, Lea Takács, Priscilla J Hall, Margaret Murphy, Sigridur Sia Jonsdottir, Soo Downe, Marianne J Nieuwenhuijze
OBJECTIVE: To synthesise qualitative studies on women's psychological experiences of physiological childbirth. DESIGN: Meta-synthesis. METHODS: Studies exploring women's psychological experiences of physiological birth using qualitative methods were eligible. The research group searched the following databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, SocINDEX and Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection. We contacted the key authors searched reference lists of the collected articles...
October 18, 2018: BMJ Open
Thomas Langford, Zehra Arkir, Anastasia Chalkidou, Kate Goddard, Lamprini Kaftantzi, Mark Samaan, Peter Irving
BACKGROUND: Currently, treatment decisions for people with Crohn disease are based on clinical judgment and trial and error. Consequently, people may continue to receive high drug dosages and experience unnecessary toxicity when it is possible to reduce or discontinue without a detrimental effect on clinical outcomes. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) involves regularly testing blood samples for drug and antibody levels that could help clinicians identify the optimal treatment strategy and pre-empt treatment failure...
October 19, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Randi Stokke
BACKGROUND: Due to demographic changes with an aging population, there is a demand for technology innovations in care services. However, technology innovations have proven difficult to implement in regular use. To understand the complexity of technology innovations in care practices, we need a knowledge base of the complex and diverse experiences of people interacting with established technologies. OBJECTIVE: This paper addresses the research gap in relation to understanding the microcontext of co-production of care involving established technologies integrated into care practices...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Xu-Kai Yang, Nan Wang, Cheng Yang, Yang-Min Wang, Tuan-Jie Che
INTRODUCTION: Urosepsis in adults comprises approximately 25% of all sepsis cases, and is due to complicated urinary tract infections in most cases. However, its mechanism is not fully clarified. Urosepsis is a very complicated disease with no effective strategy for early diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to identify possible target-related proteins involved in urosepsis using proteomics and establish possible networks using bioinformatics. METHODS: Fifty patients admitted to the Urology Unit of Lanzhou General PLA (Lanzhou, China), from October 2012 to October 2015, were enrolled in this study...
October 2, 2018: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
Samantha L Thomas, Amy Bestman, Hannah Pitt, Rebecca Cassidy, Simone McCarthy, Christian Nyemcsok, Sean Cowlishaw, Mike Daube
BACKGROUND: Research has demonstrated that the promotion of gambling, particularly within sport, may have a significant impact on positively shaping young people's attitudes towards gambling. While some governments have implemented restrictions to limit young people's exposure to gambling advertising, few studies have investigated where young people recall seeing gambling advertising, and whether they perceive that advertising restrictions have gone far enough in reducing exposure to these promotions...
October 19, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Wilbroad Mutale, Susan Cleary, Jill Olivier, Roma Chilengi, Lucy Gilson
BACKGROUND: Under the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation's African Health Initiative, five Population Health Implementation and Training partnerships were established as long-term health system strengthening projects in five Sub-Saharan Countries. In Zambia, the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia began to implement the Better Health Outcomes through Mentorship and Assessments (BHOMA) in 2009. This was a combined community and health systems project involving 42 public facilities and their catchment populations...
October 19, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Jessica Gergen, Yogesh Rajkotia, Julia Lohmann, Nirmala Ravishankar
BACKGROUND: Performance-based financing (PBF) reforms aim to directly influence health worker behavior through changes to institutional arrangements, accountability structures, and financial incentives based on performance. While there is still some debate about whether PBF influences extrinsic or intrinsic motivators, recent research finds that PBF affects both. Against this backdrop, our study presents findings from a process evaluation of a PBF program in Mozambique, exploring the perceived changes to both internal and external drivers of health worker motivation associated with PBF...
October 19, 2018: Human Resources for Health
Christian G G Schwab, Martin Nikolaus Dichter, Martin Berwig
BACKGROUND: Accurate assessment of health-related quality of life as an endpoint in intervention studies is a major challenge in dementia research. The DEMQOL (29 items) and the proxy version (32 items), which is partly based on the DEMQOL, are internationally used instruments. To date, there is no information on the structural validity, item distribution, or internal consistency for the German language version of these questionnaires. METHODS: This psychometric study is based on a secondary data analysis of a sample of 201 outpatients with a mild form of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their informal caregivers...
October 19, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Anna Schliermann, Joachim Nickel
Ontogeny of higher organisms as well the regulation of tissue homeostasis in adult individuals requires a fine-balanced interplay of regulating factors that individually trigger the fate of particular cells to either stay undifferentiated or to differentiate towards distinct tissue specific lineages. In some cases, these factors act synergistically to promote certain cellular responses, whereas in other tissues the same factors antagonize each other. However, the molecular basis of this obvious dual signaling activity is still only poorly understood...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Anisyah Ridiandries, Joanne T M Tan, Christina A Bursill
Wound healing is a multistep process with four overlapping but distinct stages: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. An alteration at any stage may lead to the development of chronic non-healing wounds or excessive scar formation. Impaired wound healing presents a significant health and economic burden to millions of individuals worldwide, with diabetes mellitus and aging being major risk factors. Ongoing understanding of the mechanisms that underly wound healing is required for the development of new and improved therapies that increase repair...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
F Rey, C Bifulco, G B Bischetti, F Bourrier, G De Cesare, F Florineth, F Graf, M Marden, S B Mickovski, C Phillips, K Peklo, J Poesen, D Polster, F Preti, H P Rauch, P Raymond, P Sangalli, G Tardio, A Stokes
Soil and water bioengineering is a technology that encourages scientists and practitioners to combine their knowledge and skills in the management of ecosystems with a common goal to maximize benefits to both man and the natural environment. It involves techniques that use plants as living building materials, for: (i) natural hazard control (e.g., soil erosion, torrential floods and landslides) and (ii) ecological restoration or nature-based re-introduction of species on degraded lands, river embankments, and disturbed environments...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Li Zhang, Hu Li, Hong Ren, Peng Hu
Given the B helper function of follicular T helper (Tfh) cells and peripheral T helper (Tph) cells, we researched the roles of circulating PD-1hi CXCR5+ CD4+ T cells and PD-1hi CXCR5- CD4+ T cells in the decrease in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels and hepatitis B virus (HBV) clearance in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). In the present study, the frequencies of PD-1hi CXCR5+ CD4+ T cells and PD-1hi CXCR5- CD4+ T cells measured by flow cytometry were significantly higher in patients with CHB than that in healthy controls (HCs)...
October 16, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Sophie Debs, Amy Cohen, Elham Hosseini-Beheshti, Giovanna Chimini, Nicholas H Hunt, Georges E R Grau
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a serious parasitic infection affecting millions of people worldwide each year. Cerebral malaria is the most severe complication of Plasmodium infections, predominantly affecting children. Extracellular vesicles are essential mediators of intercellular communication and include apoptotic bodies, microvesicles and exosomes. Microvesicle numbers increase during disease pathogenesis and inhibition of their release can prevent brain pathology and mortality. SCOPE OF REVIEW: We explore the current knowledge on microvesicles and exosomes in cerebral malaria pathogenesis...
October 16, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects
Daniele Borzelli, Benedetta Cesqui, Denise J Berger, Etienne Burdet, Andrea d'Avella
Manipulative actions involving unstable interactions with the environment require controlling mechanical impedance through muscle co-contraction. While much research has focused on how the central nervous system (CNS) selects the muscle patterns underlying a desired movement or end-point force, the coordination strategies used to achieve a desired end-point impedance have received considerably less attention. We recorded isometric forces at the hand and electromyographic (EMG) signals in subjects performing a reaching task with an external disturbance...
2018: PloS One
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