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Xiang-Yu Liu, Cheng-Bin Zhou, Chao Fang
Neural stem cells (NSCs) have been widely investigated for their potential in the treatment of various diseases and transplantation therapy. However, NSC growth regulation, labeling, and its application to disease diagnosis and treatment are outstanding challenges. Recently, nanomaterials have shown promise for various applications including genetic modification, imaging, and controlled drug release. Here we summarize the recent progress in the use of nanomaterials in combination with NSCs for disease treatment and diagnosis, cell labeling, and NSC growth regulation...
August 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Iván Flores Martínez, Laura Helena Atuesta
BACKGROUND: Research has shown the substantial impact on mental health for victims of drug-related crime in Mexico, especially individuals who have been heavily exposed to violence. However, the effect of drug-related violence in non-victims has been less studied because causal pathways via indirect violence are more ambiguous. We argue that drug-related violence does have an influence on the mental health of non-victims: For example, because of how violence is publicized by criminal groups, including their use of gruesome killing methods in executions, or via news about government confrontations with these criminal groups...
August 13, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Ziyue Huang, Qingyue Liu, Hongdao Meng, Danping Liu, Debra Dobbs, Kathryn Hyer, Kyaien O Conner
OBJECTIVE: To describe Chinese older adults' willingness to enter long-term care facilities and to examine individual factors associated with the willingness of using this growing model of long-term care in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 670 adults aged 60+ in the Hezuo community in Chengdu, China in 2016. Respondents were interviewed by trained staff on socio-demographics, health status, quality of life, social support, and willingness to enter long-term care facilities...
2018: PloS One
AliReza JafariNezhad, Mohammad Hossein YektaKooshali
BACKGROUND: There are many epidemiological pieces of evidence that show IPF patients have the highest risk of lung cancer. We conducted a systematic review of all published data to define the characteristics of lung cancer that develops in IPF by performing a meta-analysis. METHOD: This study was performed based on the PRISMA guideline. Documents gathered by searching through the Web of Sciences, Scopus, PubMed/Medline, OVID, and COCHRANE databases which published before 03/25/2018 that related to lung cancer in IPFs' patients...
2018: PloS One
Filipp Schmidt, Roland W Fleming
An important task of human visual cognition is to make inferences about properties of objects. One such property is an object's causal history: what happened to the object in its past (e.g., "this paper has been folded"). There is relatively little research on whether and how we make such inferences. We took photographs of objects from six different materials ('wax', 'aluminum foil', 'gold foil', 'chicken wire', 'putty', 'cardboard') transformed by one of four shape-altering transformations ('folded', 'bent', 'crumpled', 'twisted')...
2018: PloS One
Kimberley J Haines
Rehabilitation of people who are critically ill has received increased attention in recent years, although this has not extended to specifically facilitating family involvement. Engaging families in the rehabilitation arc has the potential to optimize outcomes. Likely benefits include redirecting family psychological distress into an active participatory role, humanizing the patient illness and recovery experience, and supporting staff and the health care system beyond the constraints of therapy time. This viewpoint explores why families should be engaged in critical care rehabilitation, gives an overview of the evidence for family participation in bedside care, and provides practical implementation strategies and signpost areas for future research...
August 3, 2018: Physical Therapy
Yi Qi Liaw, Mien Li Goh
OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this evidence-based utilization project was to improve the accuracy of fluid intake charting through patient involvement. INTRODUCTION: The accurate documentation and maintenance of fluid balance charts constitute an integral part of nursing care. However, inaccuracies in fluid balance charting by nurses often occur. Inaccurate charting can result in delayed interventions, affecting the safety of patients. It has been found that fluid intake charting in an acute surgical inpatient ward is highly inaccurate...
August 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Man Hu, Zhaomin Yu, Dan Luo, Haiming Zhang, Jinxiao Li, Fengxia Liang, Rui Chen
BACKGROUND: Many researchers have suggested that the -174G>C polymorphism in the interleukin-6 (IL-6) promoter region contributes to the risk of obesity; however, this hypothesis is still inconclusive. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to combine the data from several studies to arrive at a conclusion regarding the association between -174G>C polymorphism and the risk of obesity. METHODS: The PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to February 20, 2018...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Max M Feinstein, Anthony E Pannunzio, Samuel Lobell, Eric Kodish
Informed consent for pediatric anesthesia challenges practitioners to navigate complex ethical, medical, and legal ambiguities. A patient's status as a minor does not negate the importance of his or her participation in the decision-making process but, rather, necessitates a nuanced evaluation of age and development to involve the patient to an appropriate extent. Given the complexities involved with pediatric informed consent in anesthesia practice and research, it is important to understand the experience of key stakeholders involved...
August 14, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Dunya Tomic, William W Kemp, Stuart K Roberts
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most prevalent liver disease in the world. It involves a spectrum of conditions from hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis, and is a major cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is defined by presence of steatosis in 5% of hepatocytes or more in the absence of other causes of fatty liver. The metabolic syndrome is the major known risk factor for NAFLD. Dietary contributors such as high fructose intake and coffee consumption appear to increase and decrease the risk of disease respectively, but these links are unclear...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Cynthia Kay, Joanne Bernstein, Nicole Fergestrom, Jeffrey L Jackson
OBJECTIVES: Overall opioid prescribing rates have decreased since 2012, but opioid-involved deaths have not. This study describes the regional and overall trends of opioid-related emergency department visits (EDVs) and hospitalizations of commercially insured patients on chronic opioids and those on concurrent opioids and benzodiazepines. METHODS: Secondary data analysis from Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters (MarketScan) database from 2009-2015 was used...
August 14, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
April Mazzuca, Dawood Nagarchi, Satyanarayana Ramanaik, T Raghavendra, Prakash Javalkar, Sarojini Rotti, Parinita Bhattacharjee, Shajy Isac, Alex Cohen, Tara Beattie
Adolescent girls vulnerable to early marriage and school dropout in rural India may be at elevated risk of psychosocial problems. However, few screening instruments have been culturally adapted and validated to measure this risk. This paper describes the process by which the Primary Health Questionnaire PHQ-9, a screening instrument for depression, was tested for cultural validity as part of the Samata evaluation - an intervention to support low caste adolescent girls in rural south India to attend and complete secondary school and to delay marriage until adulthood...
August 16, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Naista Zhand, Robert Milin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sleep disturbance is one of the hallmarks of cannabis withdrawal. Studies have indicated that treatment of this key symptom may facilitate abstinence. In the present paper we aim to provide a systematic review of the extant literature on pharmacological management of sleep disturbance associated with cannabis withdrawal. METHOD: We conducted a systematic literature search across five electronic databases including PubMed, Psycinfo, MEDLINE, Cochrane review and Embase...
August 16, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Ashutosh Kumar, Amruta Dhawan, Akshada Shinde
Cellular physiology and energy metabolism is maintained by the constant supply of energy furnished by the powerhouses of the cell called mitochondria. Cellular homeostasis depends on the timely clearance of damaged cellular organelles and proteins via pathways including autophagy. Mitochondria and mitochondrial autophagy play a vital role in cellular health and failure of these pathways can have devastating effect on cellular homeostasis. Amongst the various cell types, neuronal cells are more vulnerable to bioenergetic depletion since most of their functions critically depend upon the availability of energy derived from mitochondrial metabolism, thus making neurodegenerative disorders an obstinate issue...
August 15, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Francesco Paradisi, Eugenio Di Stanislao, Aurora Summa, Stefano Brunelli, M Traballesi, Giuseppe Vannozzi
BACKGROUND: The observation of upper body movement is gaining interest in the gait analysis community. Recent studies involved the use of body-worn motion sensors, allowing translation of laboratory measurements to real-life settings in the context of patient monitoring and fall prevention. OBJECTIVES: It was shown that amputee persons demonstrate altered acceleration patterns due to the presence of prosthetic components, while no information is available on how accelerations propagate upwards to the head during level walking...
August 16, 2018: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
O Bamidele, B M Lagan, H McGarvey, D Wittmann, E McCaughan
PURPOSE: Evidence suggests that partners of men with prostate cancer (CaP) experience greater psychosocial distress compared with men themselves. However, the experiences of partners of high-risk (1 in 4) Black African (BA) and Black Caribbean (BC) men with CaP remain poorly understood as existing research has predominantly focused on Caucasian populations. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring partners' experience and support needs as influenced both by the specific impacts of CaP, treatment side effects and socio-cultural context...
August 15, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Carla M Patist, Nicolas J C Stapelberg, Eugene F Du Toit, John P Headrick
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and obesity are dominant and inter-related health burdens. Obesity is a risk factor for MDD, and there is evidence MDD increases risk of obesity. However, description of a bidirectional relationship between obesity and MDD is misleading, as closer examination reveals distinct unidirectional relationships in MDD subtypes. MDD is frequently associated with weight loss, although obesity promotes MDD. In contrast, MDD with atypical features (MDD-AF) is characterised by subsequent weight gain and obesity...
August 15, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Li-Juan Gao, Xin Zhao, Jian-Guo Li, Yong Xu, Yu Zhang
The aim of this study was to screen the genes related to the pathogenesis of major depression disorder (MDD) by bioinformatics. Taking GSE98793 chip data from GEO public database of National Biotechnology Information Center (NCBI) website as the research object, 116 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened by R language limma package. Among the 116 DEGs, 66 genes were up-regulated and 50 down-regulated. The results of gene functional annotation analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) showed that the DEGs were mainly distributed in mitochondria intima and mitochondria...
August 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Constantinos D Zeinalipour-Yazdi, Justin S J Hargreaves, Said Laassiri, C Richard A Catlow
In this perspective we present recent experimental and computational progress in catalytic ammonia synthesis research on metal nitrides involving a combined approach. On this basis, it suggested that the consideration of nitrogen vacancies in the synthesis of ammonia can offer new low energy pathways that were previously unknown. We have shown that metal nitrides that are also known to have high activity for ammonia synthesis can readily form nitrogen vacancies on their surfaces. These vacancies adsorb dinitrogen much more strongly than the defect-free surfaces and can efficiently activate the strong N-N triple bond...
August 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Alberto Baldini, Alessandro Nota, Silvia Caruso, Simona Tecco
Background: The development of visual functions takes place in the first months of postnatal life and is completed around the one year of age. In this period, the maturation of the retina and the visual pathways occur, and binocular bonds are established at the level of the visual cortex. During this phase and then for a few years, a certain plasticity of the visual functions remains, which seem therefore susceptible to change both in a pejorative sense (by pathogens) and in an improving sense (for example, by therapeutic measures)...
2018: BioMed Research International
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