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Brain recovery

R K Anadure, C S Narayanan, V Hande
Neurotoxicity from elapid bite may masquerade as early morning neuroparalytic syndrome (EMNS). We are reporting a series of two cases who presented as EMNS with absent brain stem reflexes, mimicking brain death. The first case was being considered for potential organ retrieval when the diagnosis was revised, and he recovered completely with Anti-snake venom (ASV). The second patient developed severe anaphylaxis to ASV, which made continuation of the empirical therapy in a comatose patient very tricky. She gradually tolerated a low dose ASV infusion under steroid and adrenaline cover, with reversal of paralysis and coma...
January 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Muyinatu A Lediju Bell, Joshua Shubert
In intraoperative settings, the presence of acoustic clutter and reflection artifacts from metallic surgical tools often reduces the effectiveness of ultrasound imaging and complicates the localization of surgical tool tips. We propose an alternative approach for tool tracking and navigation in these challenging acoustic environments by augmenting ultrasound systems with a light source (to perform photoacoustic imaging) and a robot (to autonomously and robustly follow a surgical tool regardless of the tissue medium)...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Andrea Reinecke, Kai V Thilo, Alison Croft, Catherine J Harmer
Exposure-based cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders is an effective intervention, but the brain mechanisms driving recovery are largely unknown. In this experimental medicine study, we investigated to what degree CBT affects neural markers of anxiety at an early stage of treatment, to identify dynamic mechanistic changes which might be crucial in the process of recovery as opposed to those seen following full treatment completion. In a randomised controlled trial, unmedicated patients with panic disorder either received four weekly sessions of exposure-based CBT (N = 14) or were allocated to a waiting group (N = 14)...
October 19, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Kelly C McPhee, Alan H Wilman
PURPOSE: To extract longitudinal and transverse (T1 and T2 ) relaxation maps from standard MRI methods. METHODS: Bloch simulations were used to model relative signal amplitudes from standard turbo spin-echo sequences: proton density weighted, T2 -weighted, and either T2 -weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery or T1 -weighted images. Simulations over a range of expected parameter values yielded a look-up table of relative signal intensities of these sequences...
October 19, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Stephen Malloch, Colwyn Trevarthen
Music is at the centre of what it means to be human - it is the sounds of human bodies and minds moving in creative, story-making ways. We argue that music comes from the way in which knowing bodies (Merleau-Ponty) prospectively explore the environment using habitual 'patterns of action,' which we have identified as our innate 'communicative musicality.' To support our argument, we present short case studies of infant interactions using micro analyses of video and audio recordings to show the timings and shapes of intersubjective vocalizations and body movements of adult and child while they improvise shared narratives of meaning...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
J Sung, O Kwon, D Kim, K Kim
INTRODUCTION: Intracranial complications of acute rhinosinusitis are rare, but may turn life-threatening. CASE SUMMARY: We report a healthy 30-year-old male who complained of frontal headache, which developed while on a plane. A brain CT showed a low-density lesion on the left frontal convexity with right maxillary and ethmoid sinusitis. Despite receiving intravenous antibiotics, a follow-up brain CT showed two lesions with adjacent dural and leptomeningeal enhancement...
October 15, 2018: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
Xueyuan Zhou, Pengfei Xu, Ruili Dang, Yujin Guo, Gongying Li, Yi Qiao, Ruining Xie, Yuanyuan Liu, Pei Jiang
Doxorubicin (Dox) is an effective anti-cancer agent, whose clinical use is limited by the cytotoxicity in non-target tissues, especially the heart and brain. The drug-induced neuronal damage is primarily mediated by oxidative stress, in which autophagy plays a central role. Although numerous studies indicate the involvement of autophagy in neurodegenerative diseases and brain injury, the evidence concerning autophagic process in Dox-induced neuronal death is limited. We found that repeated Dox administration induced the protein expression of LC3II and P62 and impaired autophagic flux with enhanced autophagasome accumulation in rat hippocampus, whereas two weeks after the cessation of Dox treatment, the autophagic process was restored, even stimulated, with normalized protein levels of LC3II and P62 and enhanced expression of Becline-1, indicating a compensatory response in the recovery state...
October 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Severin Schramm, Nico Sollmann, Sebastian Ille, Bernhard Meyer, Sandro M Krieg
PURPOSE: The supplementary motor area is involved in the planning and coordination of movement sequences. This study investigates the potential of repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation for systematic mapping of the supplementary motor area by interfering with normal movement coordination processing. METHODS: Ten healthy females (median age: 23.5 years) performed the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, first without stimulation (baseline) and afterward during application of repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation with 10 Hz to 6 cortical sites located within the supplementary motor area of both hemispheres...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Mónica Rosselli, David A Loewenstein, Rosie E Curiel, Ailyn Penate, Valeria L Torres, Merike Lang, Maria T Greig, William W Barker, Ranjan Duara
OBJECTIVES: Maintaining two active languages may increase cognitive and brain reserve among bilingual individuals. We explored whether such a neuroprotective effect was manifested in the performance of memory tests for participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). METHODS: We compared 42 bilinguals to 25 monolinguals on verbal and nonverbal memory tests. We used: (a) the Loewenstein-Acevedo Scales for Semantic Interference and Learning (LASSI-L), a sensitive test that taps into proactive, retroactive, and recovery from proactive semantic interference (verbal memory), and (b) the Benson Figure delayed recall (nonverbal memory)...
October 18, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Roxana Maria Tudor, Christopher J Thompson
Neurohypophysial dysfunction is common in the first days following traumatic brain injury (TBI), manifesting as dysnatremia in approximately 1 in 4 patients. Both hyponatremia and hypernatremia can impair recovery from TBI and in the case of hypernatremia, there is a significant association with excess mortality. Hyponatremia secondary to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIAD) is the commonest electrolyte disturbance following TBI. Acute adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)/cortisol deficiency occurs in 10-15% of TBI patients and can present with a biochemical picture identical to SIAD...
October 17, 2018: Pituitary
Richard Digby, Adam Wells, David Menon, Adel Helmy
This report describes a case of a 62-year-old man who developed Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome subsequent to traumatic brain injury. The initial presentation of the syndrome was profound loss of voluntary control of orofacial muscles, causing a loss of speech and impairment of swallow. Over subsequent months, a remarkable recovery of these functions was observed. The natural history of FCMS in this case was favourable, with good improvement in function over months. Furthermore, the pattern of bilateral opercular injury was more readily recognised on MRI than on CT, supporting the role of MRI in cases of traumatic brain injury...
October 17, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Philipp Lohmann, Pantelis Stavrinou, Katharina Lipke, Elena K Bauer, Garry Ceccon, Jan-Michael Werner, Bernd Neumaier, Gereon R Fink, Nadim J Shah, Karl-Josef Langen, Norbert Galldiks
PURPOSE: Areas of contrast enhancement (CE) on MRI are usually the target for resection or radiotherapy target volume definition in glioblastomas. However, the solid tumour mass may extend beyond areas of CE. Amino acid PET can detect parts of the tumour that show no CE. We systematically investigated tumour volumes delineated by amino acid PET and MRI in patients with newly diagnosed, untreated glioblastoma. METHODS: Preoperatively, 50 patients with neuropathologically confirmed glioblastoma underwent O-(2-[18 F]-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET) PET, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and contrast-enhanced MRI...
October 16, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Olena G Filatova, Yuan Yang, Julius P A Dewald, Runfeng Tian, Pablo Maceira-Elvira, Yusuke Takeda, Gert Kwakkel, Okito Yamashita, Frans C T van der Helm
In hemiparetic stroke, functional recovery of paretic limb may occur with the reorganization of neural networks in the brain. Neuroimaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have a high spatial resolution which can be used to reveal anatomical changes in the brain following a stroke. However, low temporal resolution of MRI provides less insight of dynamic changes of brain activity. In contrast, electro-neurophysiological techniques, such as electroencephalography (EEG), have an excellent temporal resolution to measure such transient events, however are hindered by its low spatial resolution...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
K L Whitcroft, J Fischer, P Han, C Raue, M Bensafi, V Gudziol, P Andrews, T Hummel
Functional plasticity of the adult brain is well established. Recently, the structural counterpart to such plasticity has been suggested by neuroimaging studies showing experience-dependent differences in grey matter (GM)-volumes. Within the primary and secondary olfactory cortices, reduced GM-volumes have been demonstrated in patients with olfactory loss. However, these cross-sectional studies do not provide causal evidence for GM-volume change, and thereby structural plasticity. Disorders of the peripheral olfactory system, such as chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), provide an ideal model to study GM structural plasticity, given that patients may experience long periods of olfactory impairment, followed by near complete recovery with treatment...
October 13, 2018: Neuroscience
Tian-Xiao Wang, Bo Xiong, Wei Xu, Hao-Hua Wei, Wei-Min Qu, Zong-Yuan Hong, Zhi-Li Huang
WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: BACKGROUND:: The parabrachial nucleus (PBN), which is a brainstem region containing glutamatergic neurons, is a key arousal nucleus. Injuries to the area often prevent patient reanimation. Some studies suggest that brain regions that control arousal and reanimation are a key part of the anesthesia recovery. Therefore, we hypothesize that the PBN may be involved in regulating emergence from anesthesia. METHODS: We investigated the effects of specific activation or inhibition of PBN glutamatergic neurons on sevoflurane general anesthesia using the chemogenetic "designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs" approach...
October 16, 2018: Anesthesiology
Olinda Habib Perez, Robin E Green, George Mochizuki
PURPOSE: To identify impairments and recovery of balance control after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) through spectral analyses of static balance tasks and to characterise the contributions of each limb to balance control. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of longitudinal balance data from force platforms at 2, 5, and 12 months post-injury in 31 individuals with moderate to severe TBI was performed. Single-visit data from age-matched controls (n = 22) were collected for descriptive comparison...
October 16, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Yan Yan, Jian Song, Shun Yao, Yusong Gao, Guibao Peng, Chenglong Cao, Wei Liao, Wan Yang, Zhixian Lan, Haiyang Xie, He Huang, Hao Du, Guozheng Xu
BACKGROUND: To develop and validate a refined traumatic brain injury (TBI) classification system to supplement the existing systems which have limited accuracy for predicting long-term consciousness recovery. METHODS: The refined classification system was developed using medical records of 527 patients according to clinical presentations within 12-24 hrs after injury. Multiple linear regression was applied to identify protective and risk factors for Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score at 12-month follow-up...
October 16, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Abolfazl Mehranian, Martin A Belzunce, Colm J McGinnity, Aurelien Bustin, Claudia Prieto, Alexander Hammers, Andrew J Reader
PURPOSE: To propose a framework for synergistic reconstruction of PET-MR and multi-contrast MR data to improve the image quality obtained from noisy PET data and from undersampled MR data. THEORY AND METHODS: Weighted quadratic priors were devised to preserve common boundaries between PET-MR images while reducing noise, PET Gibbs ringing, and MR undersampling artifacts. These priors are iteratively reweighted using normalized multi-modal Gaussian similarity kernels...
October 16, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Jianjun Xue, Huili Li, Ziqing Xu, Danxu Ma, Ruijuan Guo, Kehu Yang, Yun Wang
The mechanisms underlying the pronociceptive effect of paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) are not fully established. The modulation of BDNF signaling-mediated descending facilitation from the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) of brain stem has been demonstrated in persistent pain models of inflammatory pain, but not in incisional pain model. Recent study has shown that PSD increases the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brainstem structure. Therefore, in the current study, we asked whether the BDNF signaling-mediated descending facilitation was involved in the PSD-induced pronociceptive effect on incisional pain and delay the recovery period of postoperative pain in rats...
October 15, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Pierre-Nicolas Boyer, Michael Devlin, Mike Boggild
A 30-year-old man presented with new onset severe headache and homonymous hemianopia, with a subsequent seizure, on a background of a right parietal astrocytoma resected at age 5 with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed post-surgical and radiotherapy changes only and a clinical diagnosis of Stroke-like Migraine Attacks after Radiation Therapy (SMART) syndrome was made. Vision subsequently recovered gradually over a 6-week period, however, during the recovery phase he reported well formed hallucinations in the affected hemi-field consisting of small mammals, particularly possums, which gradually became less distinct as vision recovered; a phenomenon which was felt likely to represent the Charles Bonnet syndrome...
October 2018: Oxford Medical Case Reports
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