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Brain recovery

Yasuko Nagasaka, Bernadette O Fernandez, Andrea U Steinbicker, Ester Spagnolli, Rajeev Malhotra, Donald B Bloch, Kenneth D Bloch, Warren M Zapol, Martin Feelisch
BACKGROUND: Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) may contribute to ischemic and anesthetic preconditioning while exogenous NO protects against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in the heart and other organs. Why those beneficial effects observed in animal models do not always translate into clinical effectiveness remains unclear. To mitigate reperfusion damage a source of NO is required. NO inhalation is known to increase tissue NO metabolites, but little information exists about the lifetime of these species...
August 13, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Ida S Sano-Martins, Camila Gonzalez, Isabelle Valle Dos Anjos, Juana Diaz, Luis Roberto C Gonçalves
In South America, accidental contact with Lepidoptera larvae can produce a diversity of reactions that vary from dermatological problems to severe hemorrhagic syndromes, such as those caused by contact with caterpillars of the genus Lonomia (Saturniidae). Lonomia venom can alter the hemostatic system and lead to renal failure, internal and brain bleeding, and in severe cases, death. The only specific treatment available for these envenomations is the Lonomia Antivenom (LAV) produced by the Butantan Institute, in Brazil, using an extract of Lonomia obliqua as the antigen...
August 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Erica L Archer, Eric A Liao, Jonathan D Trobe
BACKGROUND: Radiation-induced optic neuropathy (RON) is a form of delayed radionecrosis of the anterior visual pathways, which develops within months to years after external cranial irradiation and causes severe and irreversible vision loss. Small series reports have adequately documented its clinical features, but imaging characteristics have been less completely described. METHODS: We accrued cases from the University of Michigan Neuro-Ophthalmology Clinic files and from cases coded as "radiation optic neuropathy" at the University of Michigan Medical Center between 1994 and 2017...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Elizabeth K Lucas, Wan-Chen Wu, Ciorana Roman-Ortiz, Roger L Clem
RATIONALE: Recovery from a traumatic experience requires extinction of cue-based fear responses, a process that is impaired in post-traumatic stress disorder. While studies suggest a link between fear behavioral flexibility and noradrenaline signaling, the role of specific receptors and brain regions in these effects is unclear. OBJECTIVES: Here, we examine the role of prazosin, an α1-adrenergic receptor (α1-AR) antagonist, in auditory fear conditioning and extinction...
August 15, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Yang Sai, Xiao Zhang, Mei Feng, Jingwen Tang, Hongmei Liao, Lihong Tan
The aim of the present retrospective study was to investigate the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of pediatric anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis. A total of 23 pediatric patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis were included in the present study. The clinical data, laboratory test results, imaging examination, treatment outcomes, and follow-up records were reviewed and analyzed. A total of 8 patients exhibited prodromal symptoms, including fever, cough, and vomiting. Clinical symptoms included epilepsy, convulsions, ataxia, coma, dyskinesia, personal behavior change and hallucinations...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Napplika Kongpolprom, Jiraphat Cholkraisuwat
Background: Currently, there are limited data of prognostic clues for neurological recovery in comatose survivors undergoing therapeutic hypothermia (TH). We aimed to evaluate clinical signs and findings that could predict neurological outcomes, and determine the optimal time for the prognostication. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed database of postarrest survivors treated with TH in our hospital from 2006 to 2014. Cerebral performance category (CPC), neurological signs and findings in electroencephalography (EEG) and brain computed tomography (CT) were evaluated...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Yan-Zhu Pan, Chun-Lan Song, Yan-Jun Guo, Ling-Ling Wang, Ya-Jie Cui, Yi-Fan Ren
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of L-carnitine treatment on serum levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP) and cardiac function in children with heart dysfunction and severe hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). METHODS: A total of 120 children with severe HFMD were enrolled and randomly and equally divided into routine treatment group and L-carnitine treatment group. Thirty healthy children served as the control group. HFMD patients were given anti-fever and antiviral treatment as the basic treatment, while the patients in the L-carnitine treatment group were given L-carnitine as an adjuvant treatment to the basic treatment...
August 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Ashley E Mohrman, Mahmoud Farrag, Rachel K Grimm, Nic D Leipzig
The goal of the present work was to characterize a hydrogel material for localized spinal cord delivery. To address spinal cord injuries, an injectable in situ gelling system was tested utilizing a simple, effective, and rapid cross-linking method via Michael addition. Thiolated chitosan material and maleimide-terminated polyethylene glycol material were mixed to form a hydrogel and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Three distinct thiolated chitosan precursors were made by varying reaction conditions; a modification of chitosan with Traut's reagent (2-iminothiolane) displayed the most attractive hydrogel properties once mixed with polyethylene glycol...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Jared H Hara, Ashley Wu, Javier E Villanueva-Meyer, Gilmer Valdes, Vikas Daggubati, Sabine Mueller, Timothy D Solberg, Steve E Braunstein, Olivier Morin, David R Raleigh
PURPOSE: To investigate the prognostic utility of quantitative 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging radiomic analysis for primary pediatric embryonal brain tumors. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty-four pediatric patients with embryonal brain tumor with concurrent preoperative T1-weighted postcontrast (T1PG) and T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance images were identified from an institutional database. The median follow-up period was 5...
June 8, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Tatsuya Ueno, Rie Desaki, Tomoya Kon, Rie Haga, Jin-Ichi Nunomura, Kensuke Murakami, Masahiko Tomiyama
Neurosarcoidosis is difficult to diagnose, because definite diagnosis requires detailed histology of the central nervous system. Three-dimensional contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (CE-FLAIR) is more useful for detecting leptomeningeal lesions compared with 3D CE-T1 weighted imaging. However, the clinical diagnostic utility of 3D CE-FLAIR for neurosarcoidosis is unclear. We describe a case of a 46-year-old Japanese woman who was admitted to our department due to chronic headache with fever and diplopia...
August 4, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Yujie Li, Heng Huang, Hanbo Chen, Tianming Liu
Transcriptome in brain plays a crucial role in understanding the cortical organization and the development of brain structure and function. Two challenges, the incomplete data and the high dimensionality of transcriptome, remain unsolved. Here we present a novel training scheme that successfully adapts the U-net architecture to the problem of volume recovery. By analogy to denoising autoencoder, we hide a portion of each training sample so that the network can learn to recover missing voxels from the context...
August 7, 2018: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Xiao Tang, Xu Zhang, Xiaoping Gao, Xiang Chen, Ping Zhou
The objective of this study was to develop sample entropy (SampEn) as a novel surface electromyogram (EMG) biomarker to quantitatively examine post-stroke neuromuscular alternations. The SampEn method was performed on surface EMG interference patterns recorded from biceps brachii muscles of nine healthy control subjects, fourteen subjects with subacute stroke, and eleven subjects with chronic stroke, respectively. Measurements were collected during isometric contractions of elbow flexion at different constant force levels...
August 8, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Dong Yuan, Chunli Liu, Jiang Wu, Bingren Hu
INTRODUCTION: Neuroprotective therapeutics achieved from animal studies have not been able to translate into clinical stroke therapies. A major reason may be that the functional tests and outcomes between animal stroke studies and clinical trials are significantly different. Ultimately, functional recovery is most important for stroke patients, but it remains challenging to identify animal functional tests that reflect human stroke deficits. This study aimed to explore whether the nest-building activity can be used as a functional test of mouse stroke deficit...
June 2018: Brain and Behavior
Chuan-Wen Chiu, Wen-Hung Huang, Huai-Sheng Kuo, May-Jywan Tsai, Ching-Jung Chen, Meng-Jen Lee, Henrich Cheng
Alternatively activated macrophages (M2 macrophages) promote central nervous system regeneration. Our previous study demonstrated that treatment with peripheral nerve grafts and fibroblast growth factor-1 recruited more M2 macrophages and improved partial functional recovery in spinal cord transected rats. The migration of macrophages is matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) dependent. We used a general inhibitor of MMPs to influence macrophage migration, and we examined the migration of macrophage populations and changes in spinal function...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Jing Han, Ji-Zhou Zhang, Zhi-Feng Zhong, Zuan-Fang Li, Wen-Sheng Pang, Juan Hu, Li-Dian Chen
Recovery following stroke involves neurogenesis and axonal remodeling within the ischemic brain. Gualou Guizhi decoction (GLGZD) is a Chinese traditional medicine used for the treatment of post-stroke limb spasm. GLGZD has been reported to have neuroprotective effects in cerebral ischemic injury. However, the effects of GLGZD on neurogenesis and axonal remodeling following cerebral ischemia remain unknown. In this study, a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Xiao-Qiao Zhang, Li Li, Jiang-Tao Huo, Min Cheng, Lin-Hong Li
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive treatment that can enhance the recovery of neurological function after stroke. Whether it can similarly promote the recovery of cognitive function after vascular dementia remains unknown. In this study, a rat model for vascular dementia was established by the two-vessel occlusion method. Two days after injury, 30 pulses of rTMS were administered to each cerebral hemisphere at a frequency of 0.5 Hz and a magnetic field intensity of 1.33 T...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Megan A Evans, Brad R S Broughton, Grant R Drummond, Henry Ma, Thanh G Phan, Euan M Wallace, Rebecca Lim, Christopher G Sobey
Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability and new therapies are desperately needed. Given the complex nature of ischemic brain injury, it has been postulated that cell-based therapies may be useful. However, cell resources, invasive extraction procedures, immunological rejection, tumorigenesis and ethical challenges make it unlikely that many stem cell types could serve as a practical source for therapy. By contrast, these issues do not pertain to human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs), which are placenta-derived stem cells...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Laura Otero-Ortega, Fernando Laso-García, MariCarmen Gómez-de Frutos, Blanca Fuentes, Luke Diekhorst, Exuperio Díez-Tejedor, María Gutiérrez-Fernández
Approximately, 16 million strokes occur worldwide each year, causing 6 million deaths and considerable disability, implying an enormous social, individual health, and economic burden. Due to this high incidence, strategies to promote stroke recovery are urgently needed. Research into new therapeutic approaches for stroke has determined that intravenous administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a good strategy to improve recovery by amplifying mechanisms implicated in brain plasticity. Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of MSCs in stroke, with no need for them to reach the area of brain injury...
August 13, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
K Bergen, M Frödin, C von Gertten, A -C Sandberg-Nordqvist, M K Sköld
Following traumatic brain injuries (TBI), insulin-like growth factor (IGF) is cortically widely upregulated. This upregulation has a potential role in the recovery of neuronal tissue, plasticity, and neurotrophic activity, though the molecular mechanisms involved in IGF regulation and the exact role of IGF after TBI remain unclear. Vitronectin (VN), an extracellular matrix (ECM) molecule, has recently been shown to be of importance for IGF-mediated cellular growth and migration. Since VN is downregulated after TBI, we hypothesized that insufficient VN levels after TBI impairs the potential beneficial activity of IGF...
August 11, 2018: Brain Sciences
Ryan D Shepard, Shawn Gouty, Haifa Kassis, Aylar Berenji, William Zhu, Brian M Cox, Fereshteh S Nugent
Severe early life stressors increase the probability of developing psychiatric disorders later in life through modifications in neuronal circuits controlling brain monoaminergic signaling. Our previous work demonstrated that 24 h maternal deprivation (MD) in male Sprague Dawley rats modifies dopamine (DA) signaling from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) through changes at GABAergic synapses that were reversible by in vitro histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition which led to restoration of the scaffold A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP150) signaling and subsequently recovered GABAergic plasticity (Authement et al...
August 10, 2018: Experimental Neurology
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