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Brain recovery

Ana Clara Liberman, Emiliano Trias, Luana da Silva Chagas, Pablo Trindade, Marissol Dos Santos Pereira, Damian Refojo, Cecilia Hedin-Pereira, Claudio A Serfaty
An extensive microglial-astrocyte-monocyte-neuronal cross talk seems to be crucial for normal brain function, development, and recovery. However, under certain conditions neuroinflammatory interactions between brain cells and neuroimmune cells influence disease outcome and brain pathology. Microglial cells express a range of functional states with dynamically pleomorphic profiles from a surveilling status of synaptic transmission to an active player in major events of development such as synaptic elimination, regeneration, and repair...
December 5, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Abigail C Gambrill, Regina L Faulkner, Caroline R McKeown, Hollis T Cline
Traumatic brain injuries introduce functional and structural circuit deficits that must be repaired for an organism to regain function. We developed an injury model in which Xenopus laevis tadpoles are given a penetrating stab wound that damages the optic tectal circuit and impairs visuomotor behavior. In tadpoles, as in other systems, injury induces neurogenesis. The newly generated neurons are thought to integrate into the existing circuit, however, whether they integrate via the same mechanisms that govern normal neuronal maturation during development is not understood...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Jonas Schröder, Steven Truijen, Tamaya Van Criekinge, Wim Saeys
BACKGROUND: Pre-clinical evidence suggests a period early after stroke during which the brain is most receptive to rehabilitation, if it is provided as high-dose motor training. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of repetitive gait training within the first 3 months post-stroke and the effects on gait-specific outcomes. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Rehab Data and PEDro databases were searched systematically. Randomized controlled trials were included to descriptively analyse the feasibility and quantitatively investigate the effectiveness of repetitive gait training compared with conventional therapy...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Fabrício Guimarães Gonçalves, Suraj D Serai, Giulio Zuccoli
Synthetic magnetic resonance imaging is a novel imaging technique that allows generating multiple contrast-weighted images based on relaxivity measurements of tissue properties in a single acquisition using a multiecho, multidelay saturation recovery spin-echo sequence. The synthetic images can be generated postacquisition from the parametric tissue maps, which can be beneficial to reduce scan time and improve patient throughput. Based on relaxometry maps, synthetic magnetic resonance imaging can also perform brain tissue segmentation and myelin quantification without additional scan time...
December 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Javiera P Oyarzún, Estela Càmara, Sid Kouider, Lluis Fuentemilla, Ruth de Diego-Balaguer
INTRODUCTION: It has long been posited that threat learning operates and forms under an affective and a cognitive learning system that is supported by different brain circuits. A primary drawback in exposure-based therapies is the high rate of relapse that occurs when higher order areas fail to inhibit responses driven by the defensive circuit. It has been shown that implicit exposure of fearful stimuli leads to a long-lasting reduction in avoidance behavior in patients with phobia. Despite the potential benefits of this approach in the treatment of phobias and posttraumatic stress disorder, implicit extinction is still underinvestigated...
December 4, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Xiaowei Chen, CheukYing Tang, Hongwei Zhou, Zhenlan Li
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to observe residual brain function and responsiveness to amantadine in a patient in a vegetative state (VS) following traumatic brain injury. METHOD: We observed cerebral cortex activation in a 52-year-old man in a VS, and in a healthy individual using fMRI during passive listening and motor-imagery tasks. The patient received oral amantadine for 3 months. fMRI was repeated after treatment...
December 5, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Oxana Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Dmitry Postnov, Jürgen Kurths
The peripheral lymphatic system plays a crucial role in the recovery mechanisms after many pathological changes, such as infection, trauma, vascular, or metabolic diseases. The lymphatic clearance of different tissues from waste products, viruses, bacteria, and toxic proteins significantly contributes to the correspondent recovery processes. However, understanding of the cerebral lymphatic functions is a challenging problem. The exploration of mechanisms of lymphatic communication with brain fluids as well as the role of the lymphatic system in brain drainage, clearance, and recovery is still in its infancy...
November 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yimei Yuan, Zhaoguang Zhang, ZhenGang Wang, Liu Jinlan
Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and serious disability worldwide with limited treatment options. Angiogenesis has been reported to involved in post-stroke recovery. Although the molecular mechanisms that regulate angiogenesis remain ambiguous, microRNAs have emerged as effective regulators of angiogenesis, involved in neurological function outcome. The present study aims to investigate the regulatory effects of miRNA-27b on post-stroke angiogenesis. In primary cultured brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), the inhibition of miRNA-27b induced the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which increased tube formation and migration...
December 1, 2018: Neuroscience
Gigi Y Lau, Jeffrey G Richards
Environmental hypoxia presents a metabolic challenge for animals because it inhibits mitochondrial respiration and can lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We investigated the interplay between O2 use for aerobic respiration and ROS generation among sculpin fishes (Cottidae, Actinopterygii) that are known to vary in whole-animal hypoxia tolerance. We hypothesized that mitochondria from hypoxia tolerant sculpins would show more efficient O2 use with a higher phosphorylation efficiency and lower ROS emission...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Robert A Whittington, László Virág, Maud Gratuze, Hilana Lewkowitz-Shpuntoff, Mehdi Cheheltanan, Franck Petry, Isabelle Poitras, Françoise Morin, Emmanuel Planel
Preclinical studies have shown that anesthesia might accelerate the clinical progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and can have an impact on tau pathology, a hallmark of AD. Although benzodiazepines have been suggested to increase the risk of incident dementia, their impact on tau pathology in vivo is unknown. We thus examined the impact of midazolam, a benzodiazepine that is often administered perioperatively as an anxiolytic, on tau hyperphosphorylation in nontransgenic and in hTau mice, the latter a model of AD-like tau pathology...
November 8, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Perri Zeitz Ruckart, Adrienne S Ettinger, Mona Hanna-Attisha, Nicole Jones, Stephanie I Davis, Patrick N Breysse
CONTEXT: The City of Flint was already distressed because of decades of financial decline when an estimated 140 000 individuals were exposed to lead and other contaminants in drinking water. In April 2014, Flint's drinking water source was changed from Great Lakes' Lake Huron (which was provided by the Detroit Water and Sewerage Department) to the Flint River without necessary corrosion control treatment to prevent lead release from pipes and plumbing. Lead exposure can damage children's brains and nervous systems, lead to slow growth and development, and result in learning, behavior, hearing, and speech problems...
January 2019: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Reza Rikhtegar, Mehdi Yousefi, Sanam Dolati, Hosein Delavar Kasmaei, Saeid Charsouei, Mohammad Nouri, Seyed Kazem Shakouri
Neurological disorders, such as stroke, are triggered by a loss of neurons and glial cells. Ischemic stroke remains a substantial problem for industrialized countries. Over the previous few decades our understanding about the pathophysiology of stroke has enhanced, nevertheless, more awareness is required to advance the field of stroke recovery. Existing therapies are incapable to adequately relief the disease outcome and are not appropriate to all patients. Meanwhile, the majority of patients continue to show neurological deficits even subsequent effective thrombolysis, recuperative therapies are immediately required that stimulate brain remodeling and repair once stroke damage has happened...
December 2, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Li Huo, Nan Li, Heyu Wu, Wenjia Zhu, Haiqun Xing, Jiantao Ba, Tong Wang, Fang Li, Hui Zhang
BACKGROUND: PoleStar m660 is a newly developed clinical PET/CT system with time-of-flight (TOF) capability. The aim of this study is to characterize the performance of the new system. Spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction, and noise equivalent count rate (NECR) were measured on the scanner according to the NEMA NU 2-2012 protocol. The timing resolution was measured using a rotating line source that orbited around the center of field of view (CFOV) at a radius of 20 cm. The image quality phantom was also imaged to quantify the percent contrast, percent background variability, and residual error...
December 1, 2018: EJNMMI Physics
Jessica A Wojtalik, Shaun M Eack, Matthew J Smith, Matcheri S Keshavan
Mental health interventions do not yet offer complete, client-defined functional recovery, and novel directions in treatment research are needed to improve the efficacy of available interventions. One promising direction is the integration of social work and cognitive neuroscience methods, which provides new opportunities for clinical intervention research that will guide development of more effective mental health treatments that holistically attend to the biological, social, and environmental contributors to disability and recovery...
2018: Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research
Ev Christin Heide, Laura Bindila, Julia Maria Post, Dörthe Malzahn, Beat Lutz, Jana Seele, Roland Nau, Sandra Ribes
Easy-to-achieve interventions to promote healthy longevity are desired to diminish the incidence and severity of infections, as well as associated disability upon recovery. The dietary supplement palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) exerts anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. Here, we investigated the effect of prophylactic PEA on the early immune response, clinical course, and survival of old mice after intracerebral E. coli K1 infection. Nineteen-month-old wild type mice were treated intraperitoneally with two doses of either 0...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ran Kim, Pilseog Kim, Chang Youn Lee, Seokyeon Lee, Hwayoung Yun, Min Young Lee, Jongmin Kim, Kyungmin Baek, Woochul Chang
Alternative medicines attract attention because stroke is rarely expected to make a full recovery with the most advanced medical technology. Angelica gigas (AG) is a well-known herbal medicine as a neuroprotective agent. The present study introduced mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to identify for the advanced treatment of the cerebrovascular disease. The objective of this research is validation of the enhanced effects of multiple combined treatment of AG extract with MSCs on stroke through angiogenesis. Our results confirmed that AG extract with MSCs improved the neovascularization increasing expression of angiogenesis-regulated molecules...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Nikola Sladojevic, Svetlana M Stamatovic, Allison M Johnson, Jennifer Choi, Anna Hu, Sophie Dithmer, Ingolf E Blasig, Richard F Keep, Anuska V Andjelkovic
Recent evidence suggests that blood brain barrier (BBB) recovery and reestablishment of BBB impermeability after stroke is incomplete. This could influence stroke recovery, increase the risk of repeat stroke and be a solid substrate for developing vascular dementia. While accumulating evidence has defined morphological alterations and underlying mechanisms of tight junction (TJ) changes during BBB breakdown in acute stroke, very little is known about the type of alterations and mechanisms in BBB "leakage" found sub-acutely or chronically...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Stephana Carelli, Toniella Giallongo, Zuzana Gombalova, Federica Rey, Maria Carlotta F Gorio, Massimiliano Mazza, Anna Maria Di Giulio
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, presenting with midbrain dopaminergic neurons degeneration. A number of studies suggest that microglial activation may have a role in PD. It has emerged that inflammation-derived oxidative stress and cytokine-dependent toxicity may contribute to nigrostriatal pathway degeneration and exacerbate the progression of the disease in patients with idiopathic PD. Cell therapies have long been considered a feasible regenerative approach to compensate for the loss of specific cell populations such as the one that occurs in PD...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Lu Luo, Congqin Li, Xinxin Du, Qilin Shi, Qiao Huang, Xiangyu Xu, Qiang Wang
BDNF and proBDNF play an opposite role in hippocampal neurogenesis. What remains to be known is the effect of balance between BDNF and proBDNF in the ischemic hippocampus on pathogenesis of post-stroke depression (PSD) and the potential mechanisms of aerobic exercise (AE) on PSD. Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, Sham, Sedentary and AE groups. After PSD model was successful made, the blood lactate threshold corresponding speed (SLT ) were measured. The behavioral tests (open field, forced swimming and sucrose preference tests) were performed before and after 4 weeks of aerobic treadmill training...
November 27, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Natalie P Kreitzer, Kimberly Hart, Christopher J Lindsell, Geoffrey T Manley, Sureyya S Dikmen, Jonathan J Ratcliff, John K Yue, Opeolu M Adeoye
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between satisfaction with life (SWL) and functional outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Pilot study (TRACK-TBI Pilot) enrolled patients at 3 US Level I trauma centers within 24 hours of TBI. DESIGN: Patients were grouped by outcome measure concordance (good-recovery/good-satisfaction, impaired-recovery/impaired-satisfaction) and discordance (good-recovery/impaired-satisfaction, impaired-recovery/good-satisfaction)...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
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