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Colon emergency

Shu-Yi Lin, Zheng-Hao Huang, Hsiang-Cheng Chen, Deh-Ming Chang, Chun-Chi Lu
INTRODUCTION: Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) pneumonia with severe sepsis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), who is predisposed after treatment with tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFI), is a rare severe infection and can be successfully treated with prompt antibiotics. CASE PRESENTATION: A 75-year-old woman was diagnosed with RA >30 years previously. After inadequate treatment responses to conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), she developed progressive RA, including swollen joints in both hands, and had a high disease activity score of 4...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Björn Stelbrink, Elena Jovanovska, Zlatko Levkov, Nadja Ognjanova-Rumenova, Thomas Wilke, Christian Albrecht
Due to the ubiquity and high dispersal capacity of unicellular eukaryotes, their often extraordinary diversity found in isolated and long-lived ecosystems such as ancient lakes is typically attributed to multiple colonization events rather than to in situ speciation. However, respective evolutionary studies are very scarce and the often high number of species flocks in ancient lakes across multicellular taxa raises the question whether unicellular species, such as diatoms, may radiate as well. Here, we use an integrative approach that includes molecular data from benthic diatom species of the genus Aneumastus endemic to ancient Lake Ohrid, fossil data obtained from the sediment record of a recent deep-drilling project and biogeographical information to test if this group, indeed, constitutes a species flock...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Faisal Mahmood, Richard Chen, Sandra Sudarsky, Daphne Yu, Nicholas J Durr
Deep learning has emerged as a powerful artificial intelligence tool to interpret medical images for a growing variety of applications. However, the paucity of medical imaging data with high-quality annotations that is necessary for training such methods ultimately limits their performance. Medical data is challenging to acquire due to privacy issues, shortage of experts available for annotation, limited representation of rare conditions and cost. This problem has previously been addressed by using synthetically generated data...
August 16, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
A Bond, M Taylor, A Abraham, A Teubner, M Soop, G Carlson, S Lal
INTRODUCTION: Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a leading cause of intestinal failure (IF). Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) remains the standard treatment, with small intestinal transplantation reserved for cases with severe complications to HPN. There have recently been significant developments in growth factor therapy. We aimed to develop a greater contemporary understanding of our SBS-IF subset. METHOD: We performed a retrospective observational study of a prospectively maintained HPN audit database in October 2017...
August 15, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Sujen Jayakody, Danette Bianca Wright, Corrina Chiong, Mona Liu, Clare Bouffler, Toufic El-Khoury
BACKGROUND: Paclitaxel is a chemotherapy drug commonly used in the management of ovarian cancer. Colonic perforation is an extremely rare complication of paclitaxel administration with few case reports in the medical literature. We report a case of a patient with advanced ovarian cancer who had a rectal perforation following administration of paclitaxel. There has only been one other case report of rectal perforation in the medical literature following paclitaxel therapy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 55-year-old Caucasian woman with advanced ovarian cancer awaiting elective debulking surgery for her tumor presented to our emergency department with abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Fu-Sheng Gao, Yu-Tao Zhan, Xu-Dong Wang, Chuan Zhang
AIM: DNA vaccines have emerged as a promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy; however, their immunogenicity is weak. Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3-ligand (Flt3L) has been exploited for its ability to increase the proliferation of dendritic cells (DCs). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether co-administration of an adjuvant plasmid expressing mouse Flt3L and a DNA vaccine of the Mucin 1 (MUC1) antigen enhances immune responses. METHODS: The recombinant plasmids pVAX1-MUC1 and pVAX1-Flt3L were constructed and injected into mice intramuscularly (i...
August 15, 2018: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Camille Maringe, Bernard Rachet, Georgios Lyratzopoulos, Francisco Javier Rubio
BACKGROUND: Reducing hospital emergency admissions is a key target for all modern health systems. METHODS: We analysed colon cancer patients diagnosed in 2011-13 in England. We screened their individual Hospital Episode Statistics records in the 90 days pre-diagnosis, the 90 days post-diagnosis, and the 90 days pre-death (in the year following diagnosis), for the occurrence of hospital emergency admissions (HEAs). RESULTS: Between a quarter and two thirds of patients experience HEA in the three 90-day periods examined: pre-diagnosis, post-diagnosis and before death...
August 15, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
M Nadeem Khan, Karin Pryharski, Michael E Pichichero
BACKGROUND: In the current transmission, we studied the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of serotypes 22F and 33F in the prevention of colonization and of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) pathogenesis during an influenza co-infection. Serotypes 22F and 33F are emerging Spn serotypes, which are not part of currently administered pneumococcal conjugate vaccine formulations (PCVs). Spn serotype 6A is an ingredient in the currently administered PCV13 vaccine and was therefore included in the study as a control...
August 11, 2018: Vaccine
Kalyan K Dewan, Amanda L Skarlupka, Israel Rivera, Laura E Cuff, Monica C Gestal, Dawn L Taylor-Mulneix, Shannon Wagner, Valerie E Ryman, Coralis Rodriguez, Illiassou Hamidou Soumana, Bruce R Levin, Eric T Harvill
Background: Why resistance to specific antibiotics emerges and spreads rapidly in some bacteria confronting these drugs but not others remains a mystery. Resistance to erythromycin in the respiratory pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae emerged rapidly and increased problematically. However, resistance is uncommon amongst the classic Bordetella species despite infections being treated with this macrolide for decades. Objectives: We examined whether the apparent progenitor of the classic Bordetella spp...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
S Omar Ali, Xiang Qing Yu, Gabriel J Robbie, Yuling Wu, Kathryn Shoemaker, Li Yu, Antonio DiGiandomenico, Ashley E Keller, Chuka Anude, Martha Hernandez-Illas, Terramika Bellamy, Judith Falloon, Filip Dubovsky, Hasan S Jafri
OBJECTIVES: MEDI3902 is a bivalent, bispecific human immunoglobulin G1κ monoclonal antibody that binds to both the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PcrV protein involved in host cell cytotoxicity and the Psl exopolysaccharide involved in P. aeruginosa colonization and tissue adherence. MEDI3902 is being developed for the prevention of nosocomial P. aeruginosa pneumonia in high-risk patients. METHODS: This phase 1 dose escalation study (NCT02255760) evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, anti-drug antibody (ADA) responses, and ex vivo anticytotoxicity and opsonophagocytic killing (OPK) activities of MEDI3902 after a single intravenous infusion in healthy adults 18- 60 years of age...
August 11, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Bo Xiao, Qiubing Chen, Zhan Zhang, Lixin Wang, Timothy Denning, Yuejun Kang, Didier Merlin
Pro-resolving factors that are critical for colonic epithelial restitution were down-regulated during the treatment with inhibitor of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., anti-TNFα antibody) in ulcerative colitis (UC) therapy. We hypothesized that increased amounts of factors such as interleukin-22 (IL-22) during the therapeutic inhibition of TNFα could facilitate the resolution of intestinal inflammation. As combination therapy is an emerging strategy for UC treatment, we attempt to treat established UC based on the combination of TNFα siRNA (siTNF) and IL-22...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
C Joséphine H Blaazer, Ernesto A Villacis-Perez, Rachid Chafi, Thomas Van Leeuwen, Merijn R Kant, Bernardus C J Schimmel
Plants have evolved numerous defensive traits that enable them to resist herbivores. In turn, this resistance has selected for herbivores that can cope with defenses by either avoiding, resisting or suppressing them. Several species of herbivorous mites, such as the spider mites Tetranychus urticae and Tetranychus evansi , were found to maximize their performance by suppressing inducible plant defenses. At first glimpse it seems obvious why such a trait will be favored by natural selection. However, defense suppression appeared to readily backfire since mites that do so also make their host plant more suitable for competitors and their offspring more attractive for natural enemies...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Danyal A Siddiqui, Lidia Guida, Sathyanarayanan Sridhar, Pilar Valderamma, Thomas G Wilson, Danieli C Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Titanium (Ti) dominates as the material of choice for dental implant systems. Recently, titanium-zirconium alloy (TiZr) and zirconia (ZrO₂ ) have emerged as alternative materials due to higher mechanical strength and lower corrosion susceptibility. Oral pathogenic bacteria can colonize Ti surfaces, leading to surface degradation, which has yet to be investigated on TiZr and ZrO2 . The aim of this study was to compare in vitro oral bacterial adhesion and subsequent surface degradation on commercial Ti, TiZr, and ZrO2 implants...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Christina K Cajigas-Du Ross, Shannalee R Martinez, Leanne Woods-Burnham, Alfonso M Durán, Sourav Roy, Anamika Basu, Joshua A Ramirez, Greisha L Ortiz-Hernández, Leslimar Ríos-Colón, Evgeny Chirshev, Evelyn S Sanchez-Hernandez, Ubaldo Soto, Celine Greco, Claude Boucheix, Xin Chen, Juli Unternaehrer, Charles Wang, Carlos A Casiano
Patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) develop resistance to conventional therapies including docetaxel (DTX). Identifying molecular pathways underlying DTX resistance is critical for developing novel combinatorial therapies to prevent or reverse this resistance. To identify transcriptomic signatures associated with acquisition of chemoresistance we profiled gene expression in DTX-sensitive and -resistant mCRPC cells using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). PC3 and DU145 cells were selected for DTX resistance and this phenotype was validated by immunoblotting using DTX resistance markers (e...
July 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Ramon Diez-Barroso, Carlos H Palacio, Julian A Martinez, Konstantinos Makris, Nader N Massarweh, Christy Y Chai, Samir S Awad, Hop S Tran Cao
BACKGROUND: With the increasing use of the robotic platform in general surgery, whether 8-mm ports should be closed comes into question. We sought to characterize the incidence of port-site hernias (PSHs) among patients undergoing robotic-assisted general surgery. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of a single institutional database identified patients who underwent robotic-assisted general surgery from July 2010 to December 2016. For each patient, the number, type, location, and size of all ports were collected...
October 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Loredana Vesci, Ferdinando Maria Milazzo, Maria Antonietta Stasi, Silvia Pace, Francesco Manera, Carlo Tallarico, Elena Cini, Elena Petricci, Fabrizio Manetti, Rita De Santis, Giuseppe Giannini
Small series of acylguanidine and acylthiourea derivatives were synthesized in gram-scale and assayed for their ability to modulate the Hh signalling pathway. In vitro studies showed a low micromolar inhibitory activity toward tumor cell lines, while the oral administration revealed an excellent ADME profile in vivo. Compound 5 emerged as the most active and safe inhibitor of colon cancer cells both in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model. Based on these data, 5 could be prioritized to further development with the perspective of clinical studies...
July 27, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Martha Sajatovic, Kari Colon-Zimmermann, Mustafa Kahriman, Edna Fuentes-Casiano, Hongyan Liu, Curtis Tatsuoka, Kristin A Cassidy, Samden Lhatoo, Douglas Einstadter, Peijun Chen
OBJECTIVE: Despite advances in care, many people with epilepsy have negative health events (NHEs) such as accidents, emergency department visits, and poor quality of life. "Self-management for people with epilepsy and a history of negative health events" (SMART) is a novel group format epilepsy self-management intervention. A community participatory approach informed the refinement of SMART, which was then tested in a 6-month randomized controlled trial of SMART (n = 60) versus waitlist control (WL, n = 60)...
August 10, 2018: Epilepsia
Cheri Grigg, Danielle Palms, Nimalie D Stone, Nicole Gualandi, Wendy Bamberg, Ghinwa Dumyati, Lee H Harrison, Ruth Lynfield, Joelle Nadle, Susan Petit, Susan Ray, William Schaffner, John Townes, Isaac See
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology and incidence of invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in nursing home (NH) residents, which has previously not been well characterized. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of public health surveillance data. SETTING: Healthcare facilities in 33 U.S. counties. PARTICIPANTS: Residents of the surveillance area. MEASUREMENTS: Counts of NH-onset and hospital-onset (HO) invasive MRSA infections (cultured from sterile body sites) identified from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emerging Infections Program (EIP) population-based surveillance from 2009 to 2013 were compared...
August 10, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Mohamed Awad Zarog, Donal Peter O'Leary, Kirk J Levins, Gerard John Byrnes
A 31-year-old male patient with chronic constipation of unknown aetiology presented emergently with worsening nausea, vomiting and abdominal distension of one week duration. On examination, his abdomen was distended with minimal tenderness. A plain film of the abdomen demonstrated severe faecal loading. The patient was haemodynamically unstable on admission and appeared sick. An urgent CT abdomen and pelvis was conducted showing extensive rectal dilatation and associated proximal colonic stercoral perforation...
August 8, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Martina Taborelli, Pierluca Piselli, Giuseppe Maria Ettorre, Umberto Baccarani, Patrizia Burra, Augusto Lauro, Laura Galatioto, Maria Rendina, Sarah Shalaby, Raffaella Petrara, Francesco Nudo, Luca Toti, Giovanni Fantola, Claudia Cimaglia, Alessandro Agresta, Giovanni Vennarecci, Antonio Daniele Pinna, Salvatore Gruttadauria, Andrea Risaliti, Alfredo Di Leo, Massimo Rossi, Giuseppe Tisone, Fausto Zamboni, Diego Serraino
In the setting of liver transplant (LT), the survival after the diagnosis of de novo malignancies (DNMs) has been poorly investigated. In this study, we assessed the impact of DNMs on survival of LT recipients as compared to corresponding LT recipients without DNM. A nested case-control study was conducted in a cohort of 2818 LT recipients enrolled in nine Italian centres between 1985 and 2014. Cases were 244 LT recipients who developed DNMs after LT. For each case, 2 controls matched for gender, age, and year at transplant were selected by incidence density sampling among cohort members without DNM...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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