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Colon emergency

Ramesh Kumar, Divendu Bhushan, Mukesh Kumar
A 24-year-old male who presented to our emergency department with the history of having ingested mercury due to accidental breakage of the tip of mercury thermometer. He had 3 bouts of vomiting following ingestion; however, mercury beads were not seen in the vomitus. On admission, the patient was clinically stable, and his physical and systemic examinations were unremarkable. His routine investigations which included complete blood count, liver function test, kidney function tests, coagulation profiles, blood glucose, and electrocardiogram were normal...
January 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Chi Chung Foo, Samuel Ho Ting Poon, Rosemaire Hon Yiu Chiu, Wai Yiu Lam, Lam Chi Cheung, Wai Lun Law
BACKGROUND: Despite studies showing superior results in terms of reduced stoma rate and higher primary anastomosis rate, the safety of bridge to surgery stenting (BTS stent) for left-sided malignant colonic obstruction, especially in oncological terms, remains a concern. AIM: The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate whether BTS stent is a safe alternative to emergency surgery (EmS). METHODS: Randomized control trials (RCTs) comparing BTS stent and EmS for left-sided colonic obstruction caused by primary cancer of the colon, up to Sep 2018, were retrieved from the Pubmed, Embase database, clinical trials registry of U...
October 19, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Noah W Sokol, Jonathan Sanderman, Mark A Bradford
To predict the behavior of the terrestrial carbon cycle, it is critical to understand the source, formation pathway, and chemical composition of soil organic matter (SOM). There is emerging consensus that slow-cycling SOM generally consists of relatively low molecular weight organic carbon substrates that enter the mineral soil as dissolved organic matter and associate with mineral surfaces (referred to as 'mineral-associated OM', or MAOM). However, much debate and contradictory evidence persists around: (1) whether the organic C substrates within the MAOM pool primarily originate from aboveground versus belowground plant sources, and (2) if C substrates directly sorb to mineral surfaces or undergo microbial transformation prior to their incorporation into MAOM...
October 19, 2018: Global Change Biology
Hiroki Kitagawa, Hiroki Ohge, Junzo Hisatsune, Toshiki Kajihara, Keijiro Katayama, Shinya Takahashi, Taijiro Sueda, Motoyuki Sugai
The emergence of a Japan-intrinsic community associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain (CA-MRSA/J) has been reported. A 70-year-old man with recurrent colon cancer and a history of mitral valve replacement was admitted to the hospital in a state of shock. He was diagnosed with prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) caused by MRSA and underwent cardiac surgery. The MRSA isolates belonged to multilocus sequence type 8 and carried staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec IVl and the genes of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, enterotoxin C, and enterotoxin L...
October 17, 2018: Internal Medicine
Satoru Kagami, Kimihiko Funahashi, Mitsunori Ushigome, Junichi Koike, Tomoaki Kaneko, Takamaru Koda, Akiharu Kurihara, Yasuo Nagashima, Yu Yoshino, Mayu Goto, Tetsuo Mikami, Kumiko Chino
BACKGROUND: Surgical management of malignant bowel obstruction carries with high morbidity and mortality. Placement of a trans-anal decompression tube (TDT) has traditionally been used for malignant bowel obstruction as a bridge to surgery. Recently, colonic metallic stent (CMS) as a bridge to surgery for malignant bowel obstruction, particularly left-sided malignant large bowel obstruction (LMLBO) caused by colorectal cancer, has been reported to be both a safe and feasible option. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the clinical effects of CMS for LMLBO as a bridge to surgery compared to TDT...
October 17, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Samuel Novais, Nancy Calderón-Cortés, Gumersindo Sánchez-Montoya, Mauricio Quesada
The twig-girdler beetle Oncideres albomarginata chamela (Chemsak and Giesbert) (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) detaches branches of Spondias purpurea L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) that fall on the forest floor or remain suspended on vegetation. Many wood-boring beetles also oviposit in these branches and larval development creates cavities that are abandoned when the adults emerge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of wood-boring beetles as facilitators by creating new habitats for arthropods, and test for vertical stratification and temporal variation of arthropods associated with S...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Thomas Chouvenc, Monica L Elliott, Jan Šobotník, Caroline A Efstathion, Nan-Yao Su
Mutualistic associations between insects and microorganisms must imply gains for both partners, and the emphasis has mostly focused on coevolved host-symbiont systems. However, some insect hosts may have evolved traits that allow for various means of association with opportunistic microbial communities, especially when the microbes are omnipresent in their environment. It was previously shown that colonies of the subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae) build nests out of fecal material that host a community of Streptomyces Waksman and Henrici (Actinomycetales: Streptomycetaceae)...
October 13, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Leilani G Sumabat, Robert C Kemerait, Dong Kyun Kim, Yeshwant R Mehta, Marin T Brewer
Corynespora cassiicola is a destructive plant-pathogenic fungus causing widespread target spot epidemics, including outbreaks on cotton, soybean, and tomato in the southeastern United States. Previous studies revealed that populations from the three hosts are genetically distinct and host specialized. Although variation in aggressiveness to cotton and tomato were observed, no genetic diversity was detected within populations sampled from each of these hosts. We aimed to gain a better understanding of the emerging target spot epidemics by developing microsatellite markers for C...
2018: PloS One
Jasmin Divers, Carl D Langefeld, Douglas S Lyles, Lijun Ma, Barry I Freedman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The presence of viruses in urine (urine virome) typically reflects infection in the kidneys and urinary tract. The urinary virome is associated with HIV-associated nephropathy and chronic glomerulosclerosis. There are many associations of this microbiome with human diseases that remain to be described. This manuscript reviews emerging data on relationships between kidney disease and urinary tract infection/colonization with JC polyomavirus (JCPyV). RECENT FINDINGS: Approximately 30% of the adult population sheds JCPyV in the urine...
October 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Bogdan Mitran, Ken Gösta Andersson, Elin Lindström, Javad Garousi, Maria Rosestedt, Vladimir Tolmachev, Stefan Ståhl, Anna Orlova, John Löfblom
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is often overexpressed during prostate cancer (PCa) progression towards androgen‑independence after hormone therapy, but the overexpression is lower than in other types of cancers. Despite the low expression, EGFR has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for patients with castration‑resistant PCa. Non‑invasive methods for determination of EGFR expression in PCa can serve for patient stratification and therapy response monitoring. Radionuclide imaging probes based on affibody molecules (7 kDa) provide high contrast imaging of cancer‑associated molecular targets...
October 15, 2018: Oncology Reports
Carla J Gargallo, Angel Ferrandez, Patricia Carrera, Miguel Angel Simon, Julio Ducons, Angel Lanas
OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate the short- and long-term clinical outcomes of patients after colorectal stent placement and (2) to assess the safety and efficacy of the stents for the resolution of colorectal obstruction according to the insertion technique. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study which included 177 patients with colonic obstruction who underwent insertion of a stent. RESULTS: A total of 196 stents were implanted in 177 patients. Overall, the most common cause of obstruction was colorectal cancer (89...
October 9, 2018: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
Divek V T Nair, Kumar Venkitanarayanan, Anup Kollanoor Johny
Salmonella enterica is one of the most ubiquitous enteropathogenic bacterial species on earth, and comprises more than 2500 serovars. Widely known for causing non-typhoidal foodborne infections (95%), and enteric (typhoid) fever in humans, Salmonella colonizes almost all warm- and cold-blooded animals, in addition to its extra-animal environmental strongholds. The last few decades have witnessed the emergence of highly virulent and antibiotic-resistant Salmonella , causing greater morbidity and mortality in humans...
October 11, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
James W Keith, Eric G Pamer
The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens is an all-too-common consequence of antibiotic use. Although antibiotic resistance among virulent bacterial pathogens is a growing concern, the highest levels of antibiotic resistance occur among less pathogenic but more common bacteria that are prevalent in healthcare settings. Patient-to-patient transmission of these antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a perpetual concern in hospitals. Many of these resistant microbes, such as vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae , emerge from the intestinal lumen and invade the bloodstream of vulnerable patients, causing disseminated infection...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Roberto Cirocchi, Riccardo Nascimbeni, Gian Andrea Binda, Nereo Vettoretto, Rosario Cuomo, Giovanni Gambassi, Antonio Amato, Bruno Annibale
INTRODUCTION: Although the true prevalence is unknown, colonic diverticulosis is one of the most common disease of the digestive tract in Western countries. Based on administrative data of hospitalized patients, the incidence of diverticulitis has been increasing in last decades. In general, elderly patients undergo less frequently an elective colonic resection; but a substantial part of emergency surgeries is performed in elderly patients. In these older patients the choice of any clinical and surgical option is to be correlated not only to the severity of diverticulitis, but also to general status and the co-existing comorbidities...
October 9, 2018: Minerva Chirurgica
Chih-En Tseng, Shih-Pin Lin, Hou-Chi Huang, Mei-Chung Chin
Colonic perforation is a medical emergency that may be fatal if surgery cannot be performed in a timely manner. Colonic rupture in adults is caused by primary (idiopathic) and secondary factors. Although the segmental absence of muscularis propria (SAMP) is a recognized cause of secondary colonic rupture in neonates and infants, few cases have been reported in adults. Here, we present the case of a large colonic rupture caused by SAMP in a 60-year-old woman and a review of the literature. We suggest that SAMP should be included in the differential diagnosis of large perforation and/or periperforation membranous thinning of the colonic wall in adults...
October 2018: Ci Ji Yi Xue za Zhi, Tzu-chi Medical Journal
Erla S Björnsdóttir, Elisabete R Martins, Helga Erlendsdóttir, Gunnsteinn Haraldsson, José Melo-Cristino, Mário Ramirez, Karl G Kristinsson
BACKGROUND: Despite a risk-based peripartum chemoprophylaxis approach in Iceland since 1996, Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) remains an important cause of early-onset (<7 days, EOD) and late-onset disease (7 days to 3 months, LOD). METHODS: We studied GBS invasive disease in children <1 year in Iceland in 1976-2015. Bacteria (n=98) were characterized by susceptibility to a panel of antimicrobials, capsular serotyping, resistance genes, surface protein and pilus-locus profiling, and multilocus sequence typing...
October 5, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Jose Tiago Silva, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Jose Maria Aguado
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Solid organ transplantation (SOT) is the best therapeutic option for both acute and chronic end-stage diseases. The development of more potent and safer immunosuppressants and the improvement of prophylactic practices have significantly diminished the morbidity and mortality associated with rejection and opportunistic infections. However, infections produced by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) have recently emerged as a significant threat. RECENT FINDINGS: The Spanish Society of Transplantation (SET), the Group for Study of Infection in Transplantation of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (GESITRA-SEIMC) and the Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) have recently published their recommendations concerning the management of MDR GNB infections in SOT recipients...
October 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Klara Junker, Gustavo Bravo Ruiz, Alexander Lorenz, Louise Walker, Neil A R Gow, Jürgen Wendland
Candida auris has recently emerged as a multi-drug resistant fungal pathogen that poses a serious global health threat, especially for patients in hospital intensive care units (ICUs). C. auris can colonize human skin and can spread by physical contact or contaminated surfaces and equipment. Here, we show that the mycoparasitic yeast Saccharomycopsis schoenii efficiently kills both sensitive and multi-drug resistant isolates of C. auris belonging to the same clade, as well as clinical isolates of other pathogenic species of the Candida genus suggesting novel approaches for biocontrol...
October 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Susan Monro, Katsuya L Colón, Huimin Yin, John Roque, Prathyusha Konda, Shashi Gujar, Randolph P Thummel, Lothar Lilge, Colin G Cameron, Sherri A McFarland
Transition metal complexes are of increasing interest as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT) and, more recently, for photochemotherapy (PCT). In recent years, Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes have emerged as promising systems for both PDT and PCT. Their rich photochemical and photophysical properties derive from a variety of excited-state electronic configurations accessible with visible and near-infrared light, and these properties can be exploited for both energy- and electron-transfer processes that can yield highly potent oxygen-dependent and/or oxygen-independent photobiological activity...
October 8, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Ji-Hong Chen, Sean P Parsons, Mitra Shokrollahi, Andrew Wan, Alexander D Vincent, Yuhong Yuan, Maham Pervez, Wu Lan Chen, Mai Xue, Kailai K Zhang, Arshia Eshtiaghi, David Armstrong, Premsyl Bercik, Paul Moayyedi, Eric Greenwald, Elyanne M Ratcliffe, Jan D Huizinga
Simultaneous pressure waves (SPWs) in manometry recordings of the human colon have been associated with gas expulsion. Our hypothesis was that the SPW might be a critical component of most colonic motor functions, and hence might act as a biomarker for healthy colon motility. To that end, we performed high-resolution colonic manometry (HRCM), for the first time using an 84-sensor (1 cm spaced) water-perfused catheter, in 17 healthy volunteers. Intraluminal pressure patterns were recorded during baseline, proximal and rectal balloon distention, after a meal and following proximal and rectal luminal bisacodyl administration...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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