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Colon emergency

A K Román-Ruiz, J F Barrera, L Cruz-López, J C Rojas, B P Dufour
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), can survive in residual coffee berries during the inter-harvest period, while new fructification only appears 2-3 months after the last harvest. The dispersal of colonizing females is an adaptation that enables the life cycle of the species to go ahead whenever his flight aptitude allows. This paper focuses on accurately determining the rate of inseminated females ready to reproduce when emerging from residuals berries to colonize new ones, which constitutes a characteristic of the live cycle far from common in Curculionidae...
December 5, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Ioannis Koliarakis, Anna Psaroulaki, Taxiarchis Konstantinos Nikolouzakis, Markos N Sgantzos, George Goulielmos, Vasilis P Androutsopoulos, John Tsiaoussis
Colon holds a complex microbial community, which is crucial for maintaining homeostasis and regulating metabolic functions, supporting the intestinal barrier and controlling immune responses. Previous studies have supported a link between intestinal microbiota and colorectal cancer (CRC). Based on these fndings, the present review analyzed the numerous interactions that occur between microbiota and CRC, starting from the role of intestinal microbiota in colonic homoeostasis. Intestinal microbiota is a cause of CRC and involves various mechanisms such as chronic inflammation, the production of genotoxins causing DNA impairment and/or the biosynthesis of toxic compounds...
September 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Anusha Jayaram, Nathan Barr, Robert Plummer, Mengdi Yao, Lilian Chen, James Yoo
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic removal of benign colon polyps is not always possible, even with advanced endoscopic techniques. Segmental colectomy has been the traditional therapy but is associated with an increased risk of complications and may be unnecessary since fewer than 20% of these polyps harbor malignancy. Combined endo-laparoscopic surgery (CELS) has emerged as an alternative method to address these polyps. While feasibility, safety, and improved short-term patient outcomes have been demonstrated, there has never been an evaluation of cost comparing these two approaches within a single institution...
December 3, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Claudio Costantini, Giorgia Renga, Vasilis Oikonomou, Giuseppe Paolicelli, Monica Borghi, Marilena Pariano, Antonella De Luca, Matteo Puccetti, Claudia Stincardini, Paolo Mosci, Andrea Bartoli, Teresa Zelante, Luigina Romani
Mast cells are increasingly being recognized as crucial cells in the response of the organism to environmental agents. Interestingly, the ability of mast cells to sense and respond to external cues is modulated by the microenvironment that surrounds mast cells and influences their differentiation. The scenario that is emerging unveils a delicate equilibrium that balances the effector functions of mast cells to guarantee host protection without compromising tissue homeostasis. Among the environmental components able to mold mast cells and fine-tune their effector functions, the microorganisms that colonize the human body, collectively known as microbiome, certainly play a key role...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Peggy S Lai, David C Christiani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent evidence suggests that environmental exposures change the adult human microbiome. Here, we review recent evidence on the impact of the work microbiome and work-related chemical, metal and particulate exposures on the human microbiome. RECENT FINDINGS: Prior literature on occupational microbial exposures has focused mainly on the respiratory effects of endotoxin, but a recent study suggests that not all endotoxin is the same; endotoxin from some species is proinflammatory, whereas endotoxin from other species is anti-inflammatory...
November 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Vanessa P Ho, Nicholas K Schiltz, Andrew P Reimer, Elizabeth A Madigan, Siran M Koroukian
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Over a million older patients in the United States are admitted yearly for emergency general surgery (EGS) conditions. Seven procedure types dominate: colon, small bowel, gallbladder, ulcer disease, adhesiolysis, appendix, and laparotomy operations. A higher comorbidity burden is known to increase mortality in this population, but the impact of specific comorbidity combinations is unknown. Our objectives were to (1) characterize the distribution of procedures, comorbidities, and outcomes for older patients undergoing EGS; and (2) apply a data-driven approach (association rule mining) to identify comorbidity combinations associated with disproportionately high mortality...
December 2, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Lele Zhang, Haiyi Wang
Both malignant tumors derived from gastrointestinal tract and metastasis from peritoneal spread, hematogenous dissemination and lymph node can lead to acute abdomen. Such acute abdomen patients have poor prognosis, high mortality, and complex clinical manifestations. It is difficult to make a correct diagnosis in clinical practice. Recent studies show that gastrointestinal tumors are associated with clinical emergency. Malignant gastrointestinal tumors mostly result in obstruction, so upper gastrointestinal contrast for gastric cancer and post-enhanced CT for colon cancer are recommended; gastrointestinal stromal tumors usually cause bleeding, so computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the first choice for examination; primary gastrointestinal lymphoma tends to cause perforation and usually occurs in small intestine, so CT is the first examination for patients with ischemic acute abdomen, and post-enhanced CT is essential to exclude small intestine carcinoid because of its rising incidence in recent years...
November 25, 2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Vishnu Chaturvedi, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Ferry Hagen, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo, Hamid Badali, Anamelia Lorenzetti Bocca, Jose F Cano-Lira, Cunwei Cao, Sudha Chaturvedi, Sanjay H Chotirmall, Anne D van Diepeningen, Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Jesus Guinea, Sybren de Hoog, Macit Ilkit, Rui Kano, Weida Liu, Nilce M Martinez-Rossi, Marcia de Souza Carvalho Melhem, Mario Augusto Ono, Yuping Ran, Stephane Ranque, Celia Maria de Almeida Soares, Takashi Sugita, Philip A Thomas, Anna Vecchiarelli, Nancy L Wengenack, Patrick C Y Woo, Jianping Xu, Rosely M Zancope-Oliveira
Mycopathologia was founded in 1938 to 'diffuse the understanding of fungal diseases in man and animals among mycologists.' This was an important mission considering that pathogenic fungi for humans and animals represent a tiny minority of the estimated 1.5-5 million fungal inhabitants on Earth. These pathogens have diverged from the usual saprotrophic lifestyles of most fungi to colonize and infect humans and animals. Medical and veterinary mycology is the subdiscipline of microbiology that dwells into the mysteries of parasitic, fungal lifestyles...
November 30, 2018: Mycopathologia
Jeppe N Pedersen, Deniz Bombar, Ryan W Paerl, Lasse Riemann
Putative heterotrophic bacteria carrying out N2 -fixation, so-called non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs (NCDs), are widely distributed in marine waters, but details of how the O2 -inhibited N2 -fixation process is promoted in the oxic water column remains ambiguous. Here we carried out two experiments with water from a eutrophic temperate fjord to examine whether low-oxygen microenvironments within particulate organic matter could be loci suitable for N2 -fixation. First, water enriched with natural particles or sediment showed higher N2 -fixation rates than bulk water, and nitrogenase genes ( nifH ) revealed that specific diazotrophs were affiliated with the particulate matter...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Pascale Flury, Pilar Vesga, Ana Dominguez-Ferreras, Camille Tinguely, Cornelia I Ullrich, Regina G Kleespies, Christoph Keel, Monika Maurhofer
The discovery of insecticidal activity in root-colonizing pseudomonads, best-known for their plant-beneficial effects, raised fundamental questions about the ecological relevance of insects as alternative hosts for these bacteria. Since soil bacteria are limited in their inherent abilities of dispersal, insects as vectors might be welcome vehicles to overcome large distances. Here, we report on the transmission of the root-colonizing, plant-beneficial and insecticidal bacterium Pseudomonas protegens CHA0 from root to root by the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum...
November 30, 2018: ISME Journal
Lutz Frönicke, Denise N Bronner, Mariana X Byndloss, Bridget McLaughlin, Andreas J Bäumler, Alexander J Westermann
Dual RNA-seq has emerged as a genome-wide expression profiling technique, simultaneously measuring RNA transcript levels in a given host and its pathogen during an infection. Recently, the method was transferred from cell culture to in vivo models of bacterial infections; however, specific host cell-type resolution has not yet been achieved. Here we present a detailed protocol that describes the application of Dual RNA-seq to murine colonocytes isolated from mice infected with the enteric pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Francesco d'Errico, Luc Doyon, Shuangquan Zhang, Malvina Baumann, Martina Lázničková-Galetová, Xing Gao, Fuyou Chen, Yue Zhang
When, how, and following which paths hominins created the innovations that allowed them to colonize regions of the planet that were not suited to their thermal physiology is still a matter of inquiry. In this paper, we elaborate a theoretical framework to investigate the origin and diversification of bone needles, summarize the evidence for their emergence, create a large database of their morphometric and stylistic characters, and present results of the study of an exceptionally well-preserved collection of needles from Shuidonggou Locality 12 (SDG12), a site located in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Northern China, dated to ca...
December 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
B Davido, R Batista, H Fessi, H Michelon, L Escaut, C Lawrence, M Denis, C Perronne, J Salomon, A Dinh
OBJECTIVE: A rapid and worrying emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) gut colonization is occurring worldwide and may be responsible for outbreaks, especially in healthcare facilities. While no efficient decolonization strategies are recommended, we assessed fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to eradicate VRE colonization. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Our main objective was to measure the impact of FMT on decolonization of VRE carriers, confirmed by at least two consecutive negative rectal swabs at one-week interval during a 3-month follow-up period...
November 27, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Shuofei Yang, Yiping Zhao, Jiaquan Chen, Qihong Ni, Xiangjiang Guo, Xiaozhong Huang, Guanhua Xue, Lan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Early identification of patients with acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) involving the large bowel may play a decisive role in improving the prognosis of AMI. This study aims to compare the outcomes between patients with isolated AMI and AMI patients with colon involvement (CI) and to identify the predictors of worse outcomes. The different surgical modalities for AMI patients with CI were also evaluated. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 199 AMI patients admitted from January 2005 to January 2014...
January 2019: Journal of Surgical Research
Kevin Heinze, Mohammed Kabeto, Emily Toth Martin, Marco Cassone, Liam Hicks, Lona Mody
BACKGROUND: The emergence of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) poses significant challenges for antibiotic therapy. We characterized the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) co-colonization that may facilitate resistance transfer and vancomycin-resistant S aureus emergence among nursing facility patients. METHODS: We cultured newly admitted patient hands, nares, oropharynx, groin, and perianal region plus wounds and device insertion sites, if applicable, upon enrollment at day 14, day 30, and monthly follow-up up to 6 months...
November 27, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Yu-Min Huang, Yan Jiun Huang, Po-Li Wei
PURPOSE: Robotic surgery for colorectal cancer is an emerging technique. Potential benefits as compared with the conventional laparoscopic surgery have been demonstrated. However, experience with the previous da Vinci Si robotic system revealed several unsolved problems. The novel features of the new da Vinci Xi increase operational flexibility and maneuverability and are expected to facilitate the performance of multiquadrant surgery. METHODS: Between December 2011 and May 2015, 120 patients with colon or rectal cancer were operated on using the Si robotic system (the Si group)...
December 3, 2018: Surgical Innovation
Fiona Augsburger, Csaba Szabo
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), produced by various endogenous enzyme systems, serves various biological regulatory roles in mammalian cells in health and disease. Over recent years, a new concept emerged in the field of H2 S biology, showing that various cancer cells upregulate their endogenous H2 S production, and utilize this mediator in autocrine and paracrine manner to stimulate proliferation, bioenergetics and tumor angiogenesis. Initial work identified cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) in many tumor cells as the key source of H2 S...
November 27, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Franka Menge, Jens Jakob, Bernd Kasper, Armand Smakic, Timo Gaiser, Peter Hohenberger
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. They constitute 1-2% of all gastrointestinal neoplasms but are the most common subtype of soft tissue sarcomas, accounting for 20-25%. In the late 1990s, GISTs were more and more recognized as a particular tumor entity. The tumors are supposed to originate from the interstitial pacemaker cells of Cajal. They are usually well circumscribed and can be located in every part of the tubular gastrointestinal tract...
October 2018: Visceral Medicine
Joseph F Golob, Laura A Kreiner
BACKGROUND: Renovating or building a new intensive care unit (ICU) can be a challenging project. Planning the renovation or rebuild as a quality improvement project will help break down the process into manageable pieces with clear goals. METHODS: Literature was reviewed with regards to ICU design and renovation, with specific attention to patient quality improvement, process and structural change, healthcare systems engineering, emerging technology, and infection control...
November 29, 2018: Surgical Infections
Odelia Mouhadeb, Shani Ben Shlomo, Keren Cohen, Inbal Farkash, Shlomo Gruber, Nitsan Maharshak, Zamir Halpern, Ezra Burstein, Nathan Gluck, Chen Varol
Ly6Chi monocyte tissue infiltrates play important roles in mediating local inflammation, bacterial elimination and resolution during sepsis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Yet, the immunoregulatory pathways dictating their activity remain poorly understood. COMMD family proteins are emerging as key regulators of signaling and protein trafficking events during inflammation, but the specific role of COMMD10 in governing Ly6Chi monocyte-driven inflammation is unknown. Here we report that COMMD10 curbs canonical and non-canonical inflammasome activity in Ly6Chi monocytes in a model of LPS-induced systemic inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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