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T cell sensitivity

Z Xing, H-Y Wang, W-Y Su, Y-F Liu, X-X Wang, P Zhan, T-F Lv, Y Song
OBJECTIVE: Aberrant activation of (Wingless and mouse homolog Int-1) Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways closely involved in the occurrence and progression of several types of human malignancies. This research was undertaken to elucidate the important role of (Wingless and mouse homolog Int-1) in lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Wnt3 expression in lung cancers and their respective normal tissues were examined by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Then, Wnt3 was regulated with RNA interference (RNAi) technology in human lung cancer A549 cells, and the cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell invasion/metastasis, and apoptosis were evaluated...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
X-G Liu, J Xu, F Li, M-J Li, T Hu
OBJECTIVE: Chemoresistance is one of the obstacles for effective treatment of cancers, and recent evidence has shown that microRNAs play critical roles in drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the effect of miR-377 on cisplatin resistance in osteosarcoma (OS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tumor tissues from chemoresistant and control OS patients were subjected to Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assess miR-377 expression. The effect and mechanism of miR-377 on cisplatin resistance were assessed using Cell Counting Kit (CCK) 8, flow cytometry, Western blot, and luciferase assays in cisplatin-resistant OS cells lines...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Claire M Ouimet, Mohamed Dawod, James Grinias, Victoria A Assimon, Jean Lodge, Anna K Mapp, Jason E Gestwicki, Robert T Kennedy
Tools for measuring affinities and stoichiometries of protein-protein complexes are valuable for elucidating the role of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in governing cell functions and screening for PPI modulators. Such measurements can be challenging because PPIs can span a wide range of affinities and include stoichiometries from dimers to high order oligomers. Also, most techniques require large amounts of protein which can hamper research for difficult to obtain proteins. Protein cross-linking capillary electrophoresis (PXCE) has the potential to directly measure PPIs and even resolve multiple PPIs while consuming attomole quantities...
March 22, 2018: Analyst
Jayme P Coyle, Robert J Rinaldi, Giffe T Johnson, Marie M Bourgeois, James D McCluskey, Raymond D Harbison
Acrolein is a reactive electrophilic aldehyde known to cause mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and dysregulation of signaling transduction in vitro. Most in vitro systems employ standard cell culture maintenance conditions of 95% air/5% CO2 , translating to a culture oxygen tension of approximately 20%, far above most physiological tissues. The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether low-serum, retinoic acid differentiated H9c2 cells were less sensitive to acrolein insult when cultured under reduced oxygen tension...
March 22, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Su Huang, Yingjia Shen, Duy Pham, Li Jiang, Zheng Wang, Mark H Kaplan, Guangjun Zhang, Jie Sun
IFN regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is a key transcription factor that promotes effector CD8+ T cell differentiation and expansion. The roles of IRF4 in regulating the CD8+ T cell response to cytokines have not been explored. In this article, we show that IL-2 and IL-15 signaling and STAT5 activation regulate IRF4 expression in CD8+ T cells. Gene-expression profile analysis has also revealed that IRF4 is required for expression of the receptors of IL-2 family cytokines CD122 and CD127. We found that IRF4 binds directly to CD122 and CD127 gene loci, indicating that it may directly promote CD122 and CD127 gene transcription...
August 1, 2017: ImmunoHorizons
Lissette C Sánchez-Aranguren, Cindy T Espinosa-González, Laura M González-Ortiz, Sandra M Sanabria-Barrera, Carlos E Riaño-Medina, Andrés F Nuñez, Asif Ahmed, Jeannette Vasquez-Vivar, Marcos López
Preeclampsia is a maternal hypertensive disorder that affects up to 1 out of 12 pregnancies worldwide. It is characterized by proteinuria, endothelial dysfunction, and elevated levels of the soluble form of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1, known as sFlt-1). sFlt-1 effects are mediated in part by decreasing VEGF signaling. The direct effects of sFlt-1 on cellular metabolism and bioenergetics in preeclampsia, have not been established. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether sFlt-1 causes mitochondrial dysfunction leading to disruption of normal functioning in endothelial and placental cells in preeclampsia...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Frank Fasbender, Carsten Watzl
The use of impedance-based label free cell analysis is increasingly popular and has many different applications. Here, we report that a real-time cell analyzer (RTCA) can be used to study the stimulation of Natural Killer (NK) cells. Engagement of NK cells via plate-bound antibodies directed against different activating surface receptors could be measured in real time using the label-free detection of impedance. The change in impedance was dependent on early signal transduction events in the NK cells as it was blocked by inhibitors of Src-family kinases and by inhibiting actin polymerization...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tram T Nguyen, Eun-Mee Park, Yun-Sook Lim, Soon B Hwang
RAD51-associated protein 1 (RAD51AP1) is a member of the multiprotein complexes postulated to carry out RAD51-mediated homologous recombination and DNA repair in mammalian cells. In the present study, we showed that hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A directly bound RAD51AP1 and increased protein level of RAD51AP1 through modulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. We also demonstrated that RAD51AP1 protein levels were increased in the liver tissues of HCV-infected patients and NS5A transgenic mice. Importantly, NS5A impaired DNA repair by disrupting RAD51/RAD51AP1/UAF1 complex and rendered HCV-infected cells more sensitive to DNA damage...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
L Ye, J Guo, L P Jing, G X Peng, K Zhou, Y Li, Y Li, J P Li, H H Fan, L Song, F K Zhang, L Zhang
Objective: To explore the life span of red blood cells (RBC) in patients with severe/very severe aplastic anemia (SAA/VSAA). Methods: Clinical data of 128 SAA/VSAA patients from November 2016 to April 2017 were retrospectively analyzed, and 13 healthy volunteers in the same period was used as normal control. The endogenous Breath Carbon Monoxide (CO) test was used to detect the life span of RBC in SAA/VSAA patients, and the effect of immunosuppressive therapy (IST) on the life span of RBC in these patients was explored...
February 14, 2018: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
Zhiyan Fu, Chunlai Zuo, Christine E Sheehan, Deepa T Patil, Jingmei Lin, Zhaohai Yang, Hwajeong Lee
Although nuclear immunostaining for paired box protein (PAX5) is widely used in practice, its cytoplasmic localization has not been evaluated. Recently we encountered cytoplasmic granular PAX5 staining in rectal well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (WD-NET) in the absence of nuclear staining. We investigated the specificity of this staining pattern for rectal NET (n=21) in comparison with 108 NETs, 1 WD rectal NET with elevated proliferation (WD-NET G3), and 40 poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas from the gastrointestinal and pancreatobiliary tract and liver...
March 20, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Nicola Silvestris, Oronzo Brunetti, Rosamaria Pinto, Daniela Petriella, Antonella Argentiero, Livia Fucci, Stefania Tommasi, Katia Danza, Simona De Summa
OBJECTIVES: Adenosquamous cancer of pancreas (ASCP) is a rare variant of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). It is characterized by poor prognosis and lacks of literature data supporting the choice of systemic therapies. The role of immunotherapy for this malignancy is still unknown. In this study, we evaluated any differences between immune-related genes of PDAC and its adenosquamous variant with the aim to characterize these histothistotypes and eventually identify potential biomarkers useful for an immune-therapy approach in ASCP...
March 21, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Lei Yang, Rebecka Lindblad, Erik Gabrielsson, Gerrit Boschloo, Håkan Rensmo, Licheng Sun, Anders Hagfeldt, Tomas Edvinsson, Erik M J Johansson
4-tert-butylpyridine (t-BP) is commonly used in solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs) to increase the photo-voltaic performance. In this report, the mechanism how t-BP functions as a favorable additive is investigated compre-hensively. ssDSSCs were prepared with different concentration of t-BP and a clear increase in efficiency was observed up to a maximum concentration and for higher concentrations the efficiency thereafter decreases. The energy level alignment in the complete devices was measured using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES)...
March 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ahmad Piroozmand, Babak Soltani, Mohsen Razavizadeh, Amir Hasan Matini, Gholam Abbas Moosavi, Mohammad Salehi, Siamak Soltani
Background and aim: Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM-1) is a receptor on phagocytes that is triggered by infectious agents. The soluble form of it (sTREM-1) can be elevated in gastric juice by Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) infection of gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic values of sTREM-1 and C-reactive protein (CRP) for detection of H. pylori infection in gastric mucosa. Methods: In this diagnostic accuracy study on cases who underwent endoscopy from March 2015 to July 2016 in Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Kashan, Iran, gastric juice sTREM-1 and CRP concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and their diagnostic values were compared to detect H...
December 2017: Electronic Physician
Marilia N N Lima, Cleber C Melo-Filho, Gustavo C Cassiano, Bruno J Neves, Vinicius M Alves, Rodolpho C Braga, Pedro V L Cravo, Eugene N Muratov, Juliana Calit, Daniel Y Bargieri, Fabio T M Costa, Carolina H Andrade
Malaria is a life-threatening infectious disease caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium , affecting more than 200 million people worldwide every year and leading to about a half million deaths. Malaria parasites of humans have evolved resistance to all current antimalarial drugs, urging for the discovery of new effective compounds. Given that the inhibition of deoxyuridine triphosphatase of Plasmodium falciparum ( Pf dUTPase) induces wrong insertions in plasmodial DNA and consequently leading the parasite to death, this enzyme is considered an attractive antimalarial drug target...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jonathan Richard, Jérémie Prévost, Amy E Baxter, Benjamin von Bredow, Shilei Ding, Halima Medjahed, Gloria G Delgado, Nathalie Brassard, Christina M Stürzel, Frank Kirchhoff, Beatrice H Hahn, Matthew S Parsons, Daniel E Kaufmann, David T Evans, Andrés Finzi
The conformation of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) substantially impacts antibody recognition and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses. In the absence of the CD4 receptor at the cell surface, primary Envs sample a "closed" conformation that occludes CD4-induced (CD4i) epitopes. The virus controls CD4 expression through the actions of Nef and Vpu accessory proteins, thus protecting infected cells from ADCC responses. However, gp120 shed from infected cells can bind to CD4 present on uninfected bystander cells, sensitizing them to ADCC mediated by CD4i antibodies (Abs)...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Inge C Van Gool, Emily Rayner, Elisabeth M Osse, Remi A Nout, Carien L Creutzberg, Ian Tomlinson, David N Church, Vincent T H B M Smit, Niels de Wind, Tjalling Bosse, Mark Drost
PURPOSE: Pathogenic POLE proofreading domain mutations are found in many malignancies where they are associated with ultramutation and favorable prognosis. The extent to which this prognosis depends on their sensitivity to adjuvant treatment is unknown, as is the optimal therapy for advanced-staged or recurrent POLE-mutant cancers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined the recurrence-free survival of women with POLE-mutant and POLE-wild-type endometrial cancers (ECs) in the observation arm of the randomized PORTEC-1 EC trial (N=245 patients with stage I EC for analysis)...
March 20, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Xiao-Mei Shi, Gao-Chao Fan, Xueying Tang, Qingming Shen, Jun-Jie Zhu
Sensitive and specific detection of DNA is of great significance for clinical diagnosis. In this paper, an effective cascade signal amplification strategy was introduced into photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) DNA. This proposed signal amplification strategy integrates λ-exonuclease (λ-Exo) aided target recycling with hybridization chain reaction (HCR) and enzyme catalysis. In the presence of target DNA (tDNA) of HTLV-I, the designed hairpin DNA (h1 DNA) hybridized with tDNA, subsequently recognized and cleaved by λ-Exo to set free tDNA...
March 13, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Karin Kfir-Elirachman, Rona Ortenberg, Bella Vizel, Michal J Besser, Iris Barshack, Jacob Schachter, Yael Nemlich, Gal Markel
BRAF becomes constitutively activated in 50% to 70% of melanoma cases. CEACAM1 has a dual role in melanoma, including facilitation of cell proliferation and suppression of infiltrating lymphocytes, which are consistent with its value as a marker for poor prognosis in melanoma patients. Here we show that BRAFV600E melanoma cells treated with BRAF and MEK inhibitors (MAPKi) downregulate CEACAM1 mRNA and protein expression in a dose- and exposure time-dependent manners. Indeed, there is a significant correlation between the presence of BRAFV600E and CEACAM1 expression in melanoma specimens obtained from 45 patients...
March 17, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Marcele F Bastos, Ana Carolina A V Kayano, João Luiz Silva-Filho, João Conrado K Dos-Santos, Carla Judice, Yara C Blanco, Nathaniel Shryock, Michelle K Sercundes, Luana S Ortolan, Carolina Francelin, Juliana A Leite, Rafaella Oliveira, Rosa M Elias, Niels O S Câmara, Stefanie C P Lopes, Letusa Albrecht, Alessandro S Farias, Cristina P Vicente, Claudio C Werneck, Selma Giorgio, Liana Verinaud, Sabrina Epiphanio, Claudio R F Marinho, Pritesh Lalwani, Rogerio Amino, Julio Aliberti, Fabio T M Costa
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a multifactorial syndrome involving an exacerbated proinflammatory status, endothelial cell activation, coagulopathy, hypoxia, and accumulation of leukocytes and parasites in the brain microvasculature. Despite significant improvements in malaria control, 15% of mortality is still observed in CM cases, and 25% of survivors develop neurologic sequelae for life-even after appropriate antimalarial therapy. A treatment that ameliorates CM clinical signs, resulting in complete healing, is urgently needed...
March 20, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Qian Zhou, Hui Zeng, Peng Ye, Yu Shi, Juan Guo, Xinghua Long
Increasing evidence has shown that the dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is associated with drug resistance. Fulvestrant and tamoxifen represent the major endocrine drugs for the treatment of breast cancer patients, and yet little is known about the biological mechanisms of acquiring resistance to fulvestrant and tamoxifen, let alone the differences between cell lines resistant to these two drugs. Exploration of the differential miRNA profiles between these two cell lines is a useful way to further clarify these resistance mechanisms...
March 19, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
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