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John Lippmann
AIM: The aim of this study was to identify the number, location and characteristics associated with fatal shark attacks on divers in Australian waters from 1960 to 2017, inclusive. METHODS: Searches were made of the Divers Alert Network Asia-Pacific Diving Mortality Database; the International Shark Attack File website; the Australian Shark Attack File and the Global Shark Attack File to identify cases of fatal shark attacks on divers in Australia. In addition, a systematic search of published medical and sporting literature was conducted to identify relevant reports...
December 24, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Paolo Armando Gagliardi, Luca Primo
Activation of Rho-associated protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) and myotonic dystrophy kinase-related CDC42-binding kinase alpha (MRCKα) by caspases during apoptosis in vertebrates represents a prototypical example of co-option of kinases by proteases. How caspases acquired the ability to control these proteins during evolution of vertebrates is still unknown. Here, we report a phylogenetic and molecular study on the acquisition of caspase-cleavage sites in the family of Rho-activated kinases (RaKs). We demonstrate that the acquisition of such sites has more frequently occurred in identifiable intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) within or flanking the coiled-coil domain...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Rebekah L Rogers, Long Zhou, Chong Chu, Roberto Márquez, Ammon Corl, Tyler Linderoth, Layla Freeborn, Matthew D MacManes, Zijun Xiong, Jiao Zheng, Chunxue Guo, Xu Xun, Marcus R Kronforst, Kyle Summers, Yufeng Wu, Huanming Yang, Corinne L Richards-Zawacki, Guojie Zhang, Rasmus Nielsen
We sequenced the genome of the strawberry poison frog, Oophaga pumilio, at a depth of 127.5× using variable insert size libraries. The total genome size is estimated to be 6.76 Gb, of which 4.76 Gb are from high copy number repetitive elements with low differentiation across copies. These repeats encompass DNA transposons, RNA transposons, and LTR retrotransposons, including at least 0.4 and 1.0 Gb of Mariner/Tc1 and Gypsy elements, respectively. Expression data indicate high levels of gypsy and Mariner/Tc1 expression in ova of O...
December 1, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Naglezi M Lovatto, Bruno B Loureiro, Dirleise Pianesso, Taida J Adorian, Fernanda R Goulart, Caroline S Speroni, Ana Betine B Bender, Jucieli Müller, Leila P DA Silva
The objective of this study was to evaluate growth and metabolic parameters of silver catfish fed with protein concentrates of sunflower meal (SMPC) and crambe meal (CrMPC). The study evaluated two levels of substitution, where 25 or 50% of animal protein was replaced with plant-based protein. A total of 300 silver catfish (14 ± 0.26 g) were used in five treatments and three replications, in fifteen 280-liter experimental units. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and the means of the control diet was compared to the remaining treatments by Dunnett's test at 5% significance level...
October 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Rui Rocha, Carina Almeida, Nuno F Azevedo
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0196522.].
2018: PloS One
Andrew O Finley, Patrick S Forsythe, James A Crossman, Edward A Baker, Kim T Scribner
Modeling spatially explicit data provides a powerful approach to identify the effects of exogenous features associated with biological processes, including recruitment of stream fishes. However, the complex spatial and temporal dynamics of the stream and the species' reproductive and early life stage behaviors present challenges to drawing valid inference using traditional regression models. In these settings it is often difficult to ensure the spatial independence among model residuals-a key assumption that must be met to ensure valid inference...
2018: PloS One
Jianhua Liu, Weilin Liu, Louise J Salt, Mike J Ridout, Yuting Ding, Peter J Wilde
Incorporation of fish oil containing ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into functional foods remains challenging. In this study, caseinate and glycoconjugates (CD6, CD40, CD70, CD100) of caseinate to dextrans of different molecular weights (D6, D40, D70, D100 kDa) were used to stabilize fish oil emulsions, and the impact on physicochemical stability and gastrointestinal fate was investigated. The glycoconjugate of CD6 exhibited significantly higher conjugation efficiency, lower surface hydrophobicity (H0) and lower surface activity than other glycoconjugates...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Moria A Borys, Sean E Hulsebosch, F Charles Mohr, Katherine D Watson, Jane E Sykes, Kenneth W Simpson, Jodi L Westropp
BACKGROUND: Proliferative urethritis (PU) is a lower urinary tract disease of dogs characterized by frond-like lesions in the urethra. The etiology of PU is unknown, although an association with bacterial cystitis is reported. OBJECTIVES: Deep-seated bacterial cystitis is associated with PU, particularly in dogs with neutrophilic or granulomatous inflammation. ANIMALS: Twenty-two client-owned dogs with PU and 5 control dogs euthanized for non-urinary disease...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Samantha Honeywell, Rena Zelig, Diane Rigassio Radler
A fish oil (FO)-containing intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE; FO ILE) has been approved for use in the United States; however, similar formulations have been used throughout Europe and China in intensive care units since the 1990s. This literature review evaluates the evidence regarding the effectiveness of FO ILE on clinical outcomes in the critically ill surgical patient population. The review of available evidence demonstrates that ILEs containing FO lower triglyceride concentrations, inflammatory markers, and liver function enzymes, and improve morbidity and mortality outcomes in critically ill surgical patients...
December 5, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Masahumi Kawaguchi, Hanako Hagio, Naoyuki Yamamoto, Koji Matsumoto, Kei Nakayama, Yasuhisa Akazome, Hironori Izumi, Yousuke Tsuneoka, Fumikazu Suto, Yasunori Murakami, Hiroyuki Ichijo
Gobiida is a basal subseries of percomorphs in teleost fishes, holding a useful position for comparisons with other orders of Percomorpha as well as other cohort of teleosts. Here, we describe a telencephalic atlas of a Gobiida species Rhinogobius flumineus (Mizuno, Memoirs of the College of Science, University of Kyoto, Series B: Biology, 1960; 27, 3), based on cytoarchitectural observations, combined with analyses of the distribution patterns of neurochemical markers and transcription factors. The telencephalon of R...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Xu-Qing Wei, Xue-Peng Li, Chao-Ling Wu, Shu-Min Yi, Ke-Li Zhong, Tong Sun, Jian-Rong Li
The composite chitosan coatings were prepared and characterized to evaluate their preservation properties for silver carp fish balls, and the microstructures and physicochemical properties of the coatings were improved by in situ nano silicon oxide (SiOx) and zinc oxide/titania (ZnO/TiO2 ) nano-particles (NPs). In the chitosan coatings, when the chitosan combines with NPs by chemical bonds, the crystal lattice is slightly changed due to the modification of NPs. The chitosan coatings modified by NPs showed few cracks, among which sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) modified ZnO/TiO2 /SiOx-chitosan (ZTS-CS) coating is proved to be the optimal one...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Food Science
P Hedberg, F Tomband, M Gullström, N S Jiddawi, M Winder
Fish larvae abundances, diversity and trophic position across shallow seagrass, coral reef and open water habitats were examined to characterize their distribution in coastal East Africa. Larvae were identified to family and analysed for abundance differences between sites and habitats, trophic level using stable-isotope analysis and parental spawning mode. Abundances differed greatly between sites with the highest numbers of larvae occurring in the open-water habitats. Larval fish diversity was high across habitats with 51 families identified with small differences between sites and habitats...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Mario Vitor Buzete Gardinal, Thalles Fernando Rocha Ruiz, Sandro Estevan Moron, Eliane Tie Oba Yoshioka, Ligia Uribe Gonçalves, Irene Bastos Franceschini Vicentini, Carlos Alberto Vicentini
The fish heart ventricle has varied morphology and may have a specific morpho-functional design in species adapted to extreme environmental conditions. In general, the Amazonian ichthyofauna undergoes constant variations in water temperature, pH and oxygen saturation, which makes these species useful for investigations of cardiac morphology. Arapaima gigas, a member of the ancient teleost group Osteoglossomorpha, is one of the largest freshwater fish in the world. This species has a specific heart metabolism that uses fat as the main fuel when O2 supplies are abundant but also can change to glycogen fermentation when O2 content is limiting...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Eric Vc Schneider, Caleb T Hasler, Cory D Suski
Deterring the spread of invasive fishes is a challenge for managers, and bigheaded carp (including bighead and silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys spp.) are invasive fish that have spread throughout large portions of the Mississippi River basin and threaten to invade the Great Lakes' ecosystem. Studies have shown that elevated levels of carbon dioxide gas (CO2 ) have the ability to act as a nonphysical fish barrier, but little work has been done on the efficacy of CO2 to deter fish movement in flowing water. An annular swim flume was used to measure Uburst and sprint duration of the model species largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) across a range of pCO2 levels (< 400 μatm [ambient]; 10,000 μatm; 50,000 μatm; and 100,000 μatm)...
December 4, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sarah Letsinger, Paul Kay
Only a small proportion of pharmaceuticals available for commercial use have been monitored in the aquatic environment, and even less is known about the effects on organisms. With thousands of pharmaceuticals in use, it is not feasible to monitor or assess the effects of all of these compounds. Prioritisation schemes allow the ranking of pharmaceuticals based on their potential as environmental contaminants, allowing resources to be appropriately used on those which are most likely to enter the environment and cause greatest harm...
December 4, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Sharine N Descovi, Tiago G Petrolli, Aleksandro S da Silva, Bernardo Baldisserotto
Purinergic signaling is linked to neurodegenerative and proinflammatory damage during pathological conditions such as hypoxia, but involvement of this pathway in brain damage in fish exposed to environmental hypoxia remains unknown, and we propose dietary supplementation with caffeine in order to improve the immune response. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate whether the enzymatic purinergic signaling pathway is associated with inflammatory brain damage in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to environmental hypoxia and whether dietary supplementation with caffeine (5% and 8%) can prevent these changes in purinergic signaling...
December 4, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Alex M Zimmer, Kevin V Brix, Chris M Wood
Killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) has been extensively used as a model for ion regulation by euryhaline fishes. Na+ and Cl- dynamics have been well studied in killifish, but few studies have addressed that of Ca2+ . Therefore, this study aimed to characterize Ca2+ fluxes in freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW)-acclimated killifish, their response to salinity transfer, and to elucidate the mechanisms of Ca2+ influx in FW and SW. SW killifish displayed a significantly higher Ca2+ influx rate than that of FW fish, while Ca2+ efflux rates were comparable in both salinities...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Dandan Cao, Bin He, Yongguang Yin
Ethylmercury (EtHg) has been widely observed in the environment due to anthropogenic contamination and/or environmental ethylation of inorganic mercury. Herein, the acute and sublethal effect of EtHg chloride on Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) as a fish model was studied. EtHg chloride showed an obvious toxicity to 4-month-old Chinese rare minnow (LC50 24.8 µg L-1 (as Hg) at 24 h). Histological analysis revealed that acute EtHg exposure can induce necrosis, telangiectasis and exfoliation of epithelial cells in the gill, as well as edema, vacuoles, and pyknotic nuclei in hepatocytes...
December 4, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
General Leung, Dragos Duta, Julie Perry, Lorenzo Leonardi, Joel Fish, Karen Cross
Burns are a frequent cause of traumatic injury, accounting for an average of 1,230 visits to the emergency department every day in the United States. While many of these injuries will heal spontaneously, nearly 1 in 10 are severe enough to require hospitalization or transfer to a specialized burn center. The early surgical management of a severe burn is critical to patient outcome, but few tools exist for triaging viable and non-viable tissue at early time-points post-injury. Without a validated outcome measure, even experienced burn surgeons diagnose tissue viability with an accuracy of only 50-70%, with significant consequences for patient morbidity, mortality and cost to the healthcare system...
2018: International Journal of Burns and Trauma
Aripin Ahmad, Siti Madanijah, Cesilia Meti Dwiriani, Risatianti Kolopaking
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The 6-23 months for infants is the longest period in the "first 1,000 days" of life. This period is very important for child development, so complementary feeding (CF) practices should be optimized to maximize children's potential for growth and development. The aim of this study was to analyze the CF practices and nutritional status of children aged 6-23 months. SUBJECTS/METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, 392 children aged 6-23 months were selected using stratified random sampling...
December 2018: Nutrition Research and Practice
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