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Vinicius Figueiredo Sardela, Carina de Souza Anselmo, Isabelle Karine da Costa Nunes, Gabriel Reis Alves Carneiro, Gustavo Ramalho Cardoso Dos Santos, Aline Reis de Carvalho, Bruna de Jesus Labanca, Daniely Silva, William Dias Ribeiro, Amanda Lessa Dutra de Araujo, Monica Costa Padilha, Cleverton Kleiton Freitas de Lima, Valeria Pereira de Sousa, Francisco Radler de Aquino Neto, Henrique Marcelo Gualberto Pereira
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) water tank (ZWT) approach was investigated as an alternative model for metabolism studies based on six different experiments with four model compounds. Sibutramine was applied for the multivariate optimization of ZWT conditions, also for the comparison of the metabolism among ZWT, humans, and mice, and for the role of CYP2B6 in ZWT. After the optimization, 18 fish and 168 hours of experiments is the minimum requirement for a relevant panel of biotransformation products. A comparison among the species resulted in the observation of the same hydroxylated metabolites, with differences in metabolites' concentration ratio...
October 20, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Pengfei Lin, Jingjing Miao, Luqing Pan, Lei Zheng, Xiufen Wang, Yufei Lin, Jiangyue Wu
Acrylonitrile (ACN) spills in marine environment have the potential to cause ecological hazards and consequences, but currently little is known about the disruptive effects of ACN on marine organisms. In the present study, we investigated the lethal and sublethal effects of ACN on juvenile flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. The results showed that the 96-h LC50 of ACN to P. olivaceus juveniles was 6.07 mg/L. The fish were then exposed to different sublethal concentrations (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/L) of ACN for 28 days and then transferred to clean seawater and keep in clean seawater for 14 days to simulate the conditions of a spill incident...
October 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Mikhail Kolmogorov, Joel Armstrong, Brian J Raney, Ian Streeter, Matthew Dunn, Fengtang Yang, Duncan Odom, Paul Flicek, Thomas M Keane, David Thybert, Benedict Paten, Son Pham
Despite the rapid development of sequencing technologies, the assembly of mammalian-scale genomes into complete chromosomes remains one of the most challenging problems in bioinformatics. To help address this difficulty, we developed Ragout 2, a reference-assisted assembly tool that works for large and complex genomes. By taking one or more target assemblies (generated from an NGS assembler) and one or multiple related reference genomes, Ragout 2 infers the evolutionary relationships between the genomes and builds the final assemblies using a genome rearrangement approach...
October 19, 2018: Genome Research
Karoline S Nørstrud, Marco A Vindas, Göran E Nilsson, Ida B Johansen
Cardiac disease is a growing concern in farmed animals, and stress has been implicated as a factor for myocardial dysfunction and mortality in commercial fish rearing. We recently showed that the stress hormone cortisol induces pathological cardiac remodelling in rainbow trout. Wild and farmed salmonids are exposed to fluctuations and sometimes prolonged episodes of increased cortisol levels. Thus, studying the timeframe of cortisol-induced cardiac remodelling is necessary to understand its role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in salmonids...
October 19, 2018: Biology Open
Adriana Migliaro, Victoria Moreno, Paul Marchal, Ana Silva
Daily rhythms allow anticipation of changes and allocation of energy to better cope with predictable events. Rhythms in behavior result from a complex combination of physiological processes timed by the nervous system and synchronized with external information. We aim at understanding how rhythmic behaviors arise in nature, exposed to cyclic environmental influences and social context. Gymnotus omarorum is a South American nocturnal pulse-type gymnotiform. Its electric behavior encodes information about species, sex, and physiological state...
October 19, 2018: Biology Open
Yunqian Qiao, Jiao Wang, He Wang, Baozhong Chai, Chufeng Rao, Xiangdong Chen, Shishen Du
Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a major pathogen affecting fisheries worldwide. It is a well-known member of the pigmented Aeromonas species, which produces melanin at ≤22°C. However, melanogenesis decreases as the culture temperature increases and is completely suppressed at 30-35°C while bacterial growth is unaffected. The mechanism and biological significance of this temperature-dependent melanogenesis remain unclear. Heterologous expression of an A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HppD), the most critical enzyme in the homogentisic acid (HGA)-melanin synthesis pathway, results in thermosensitive pigmentation in Escherichia coli , suggesting that HppD plays a key role in this process...
October 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Lifang Yu, Ren Li, Robert Delatolla, Ru Zhang, Xiuling Yang, Dangcong Peng
Two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated for 100days under aerobic conditions, with one being fed with unsterilized municipal wastewater (USBR), and the other fed with sterilized municipal wastewater (SSBR). Respirometric assays and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results show that active nitrifiers were present in the unsterilized influent municipal wastewater. The maximum ammonia utilization rate (AUR) and nitrite utilization rate (NUR) of the unsterilized influent were 0.32±0.12mg NH4 + -N/(L·hr) and 0...
December 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Yueh-Chiang Han, Chun-Mean Lin, Thomas T Chen
BACKGROUND: In the past years, our laboratory successfully generated transgenic rainbow trout bearing cecropin P1 transgene. These fish exhibited resistant characteristic to infection by Aeromonas salmonicida, Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHNV) and Ceratomyxa shasta (a parasitic pathogen). Previously, treating rainbow trout macrophage cells (RTS-11) with cecropin B, pleurocidin and CF17, respectively, resulted in elevated expression of two pro-inflammatory genes, e.g. cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) and interleukin-1β (il-1β)...
October 19, 2018: BMC Genomics
Mónica Lopes-Marques, Naoki Kabeya, Yu Qian, Raquel Ruivo, Miguel M Santos, Byrappa Venkatesh, Douglas R Tocher, L Filipe C Castro, Óscar Monroig
BACKGROUND: Provision of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in vertebrates occurs through the diet or via endogenous production from C18 precursors through consecutive elongations and desaturations. It has been postulated that the abundance of LC-PUFA in the marine environment has remarkably modulated the gene complement and function of Fads in marine teleosts. In vertebrates two fatty acyl desaturases, namely Fads1 and Fads2, encode ∆5 and ∆6 desaturases, respectively...
October 19, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Tinashe Zenda, Songtao Liu, Xuan Wang, Hongyu Jin, Guo Liu, Huijun Duan
Drought stress is the major abiotic factor threatening maize ( Zea mays L.) yield globally. Therefore, revealing the molecular mechanisms fundamental to drought tolerance in maize becomes imperative. Herein, we conducted a comprehensive comparative analysis of two maize inbred lines contrasting in drought stress tolerance based on their physiological and proteomic responses at the seedling stage. Our observations showed that divergent stress tolerance mechanisms exist between the two inbred-lines at physiological and proteomic levels, with YE8112 being comparatively more tolerant than MO17 owing to its maintenance of higher relative leaf water and proline contents, greater increase in peroxidase (POD) activity, along with decreased level of lipid peroxidation under stressed conditions...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Laura Del Coco, Serena Felline, Chiara Roberta Girelli, Federica Angilè, Laura Magliozzi, Frederico Almada, Biagio D'Aniello, Ernesto Mollo, Antonio Terlizzi, Francesco P Fanizzi
The biological invasion of the green algae Caulerpa cylindracea represents a serious scientific and public issue in the Mediterranean Sea, essentially due to strong modifications both to habitat structure and native benthic communities. Although alterations in health status and changes in flesh quality of some marine species (dietary exposed to C. cylindracea ) have been observed, no studies on cause-effect relationships have been carried out. Here, for the first time, through a controlled feeding experiment followed by ¹H NMR Spectroscopy and multivariate analysis (PCA, OPLS-DA), we showed that caulerpin taken with diet is directly responsible of changes observed in metabolic profile of fish flesh, including alteration of lipid metabolism, in particular with a reduction of ω3 PUFA content...
October 18, 2018: Marine Drugs
Linnea Bärebring, Anna Winkvist, Inger Gjertsson, Helen M Lindqvist
The aim was to study whether dietary quality was associated with disease activity and inflammation among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This cross-sectional analysis included 66 Swedish participants, who each completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at screening. Food intake was scored by a dietary quality index created by the Swedish National Food Agency. Disease activity was measured as Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), a patient administered visual analogue scale of perceived global health and the number of tender and swollen joints out of 28 examined...
October 18, 2018: Nutrients
Hanna Hajdukiewicz, Bartłomiej Wyżga
Changes in hydromorphological conditions in the mountainous Czarny Dunajec River over the last six decades were investigated through the analysis of archival aerial photos and contemporary orthophotos. The aerial images from 7 dates between 1954 and 2009 were used to evaluate changes in selected hydromorphological parameters in six reaches delimited along the river course. As a result of channelization works and in-stream gravel mining, most of the analysed river course experienced dramatic hydromorphological alterations in the active river zone: change from the multi-thread to a single-thread channel, river narrowing associated with a reduced occurrence or elimination of channel bars and islands, transformation of the gravelly bed to a bedrock-alluvial or bedrock bed, stabilization of river banks with engineering structures, and disruption of longitudinal river continuity by transverse hydraulic structures...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Kangshun Zhao, Jorge García Molinos, Huan Zhang, Min Zhang, Jun Xu
Dynamics of inland fishery remain poorly understood despite their increasing socioeconomic importance and rapid growth. Here we analyze the changes in the dynamics of Chinese traditional and new inland fisheries by examining 26 years (1991-2016) of reported annual catch and mean trophic level in relation to socioeconomic development in China at provincial level. Results from spatial panel linear models indicate a significant correlation between socioeconomic and fishery variables, strongly suggesting that the development of these fisheries is nested in the socioeconomic context specific to each province...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Tinotenda Mangadze, Tatenda Dalu, P William Froneman
Biological monitoring programmes have gained popularity around the world particularly in southern Africa as they are fast, integrative and cost-effective approaches for assessing the effects of environmental stressors on aquatic ecosystems. This article reviews current efforts that have been made to use bioindicators (i.e. macroinvertebrates, diatoms and fish) in monitoring water resources and to summarise the challenges in employing these biological monitoring tools in southern Africa. In South Africa, macroinvertebrate (South African Scoring System (SASS)) and diatom based indices (e...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Shanshan Zhang, Jiannan Ding, Roger Mamitiana Razanajatovo, Hang Jiang, Hua Zou, Wenbin Zhu
There are hundreds of thousands metric tons of microplastics (MPs) present in aquatic environments. The MPs coexist with other pollutants in water bodies, such as pharmaceuticals, and may carry and transfer them into aquatic organisms, consequently causing unpredictable ecological risks. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the presence of polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) on the distribution and bioaccumulation of roxithromycin (ROX) in freshwater fish red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as well as their interactive biochemical effects in red tilapia...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Joanne L Parrott, Chris D Metcalfe
Antidepressant drugs have been detected in municipal wastewater effluents (MWWEs) at ng/L to low μg/L concentrations. We exposed fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) over a full lifecycle to a mixture of five antidepressants at concentrations similar to a MWWE (1× AntiD Mix); venlafaxine at 2400 ng/L, citalopram at 240 ng/L, fluoxetine at 90 ng/L, sertraline at 20 ng/L, and bupropion at 90 ng/L, and 10× these concentrations (i.e. 10× AntiD Mix). Mean measured concentrations of venlafaxine, citalopram, fluoxetine, sertraline, and bupropion were 2300, 160, 110, 7 ng/L, and below detection limits, respectively, for the 1× AntiD Mix, and 33,000, 2900, 1000, 210, and 100 ng/L, respectively for the 10× AntiD Mix...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Radmila Milačič, Tea Zuliani, Janja Vidmar, Matic Bergant, Eleni Kalogianni, Evangelia Smeti, Nikolaos Skoulikidis, Janez Ščančar
Among different stressors like drought, hydro-morphological alterations, and pollution from agricultural activities, nutrients, organic compounds and discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), potentially toxic elements (PTE) may also contribute to the overall pollution of the Evrotas River, Greece. Nevertheless, information on pollution of elements in water and sediments in this river is scarcely documented. There is also no information available on the impact of elemental pollution from the aquatic environmental compartments on biota...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Jason L Hornick
Pleomorphic sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal neoplasms with widely varied clinical behavior but overlapping histologic appearances. The following guidelines are helpful when approaching the diagnosis of a pleomorphic sarcoma. (1) Be aware of the relative incidence of the various sarcoma types: several pleomorphic sarcomas are relatively common (e.g., dedifferentiated liposarcoma and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma), whereas others are exceptionally rare. (2) Pay attention to anatomic location: some pleomorphic sarcomas have a predilection for somatic soft tissues, especially the thigh (e...
October 11, 2018: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
Álvaro Fernández-Montero, Silvia Torrecillas, Marisol Izquierdo, María José Caballero, Douglas John Milne, Christopher John Secombes, John Sweetman, Polyana Da Silva, Félix Acosta, Daniel Montero
The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of two forms of mannan oligosaccharides (MOS: Bio-Mos® and cMOS: Actigen® , Alltech Inc, USA) and their combination on greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili) growth performance and feed efficiency, immune parameters and resistance against ectoparasite (Neobenedenia girellae) infection. Fish were fed for 90 days with 5 g kg-1 MOS, 2 g kg-1 cMOS or a combination of both prebiotics, in a Seriola commercial base diet (Skretting, Norway). At the end of the feeding period, no differences were found in growth performance or feed efficiency...
October 16, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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