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Nicolas Guibert, Hisashi Tsukada, David H Hwang, Emily Chambers, Edmund S Cibas, Tejus Bale, Julianna Supplee, Bryan Ulrich, Lynette M Sholl, Cloud P Paweletz, Geoffrey R Oxnard
BACKGROUND: Tumor genotyping is transforming lung cancer care but requires adequate tumor tissue. Advances in minimally invasive biopsy techniques have increased access to difficult-to-access lesions, but often result in smaller samples. With the advent of highly sensitive DNA genotyping methods used for plasma analysis, we hypothesized that these same methods might allow genotyping of free DNA derived from fine needle aspiration supernatant (FNA-S). METHODS: We studied patients with known or suspected lung cancer undergoing fine needle aspirate (FNA)...
August 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Saniya Sharma, Nalini Gupta, Navneet Singh, Rini Chaturvedi, Digambar Behera, Arvind Rajwanshi
Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor mutation-positive ( EGFR-p ) lung adenocarcinomas are sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Although histopathological subtype is an independent predictor of mutation status, there is a paucity of data on the cytomorphological features correlating with the EGFR mutation status. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether certain cytomorphological features correlate with EGFR mutation in lung adenocarcinoma. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 48 lung adenocarcinoma cases diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology with known EGFR mutation status was conducted...
2018: CytoJournal
David L Diehl, Shaffer R S Mok, Harshit S Khara, Amitpal S Johal, H Lester Kirchner, Fan Lin
Background and study aims:  Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) or biopsy (FNB) is an indispensable diagnostic tool. Improvements in needling technique have led to increasing tissue yields. Blood clogging of the needle can cause difficulties with specimen handling and stylet passage, which improves when the needle is primed with heparin before use. However, the effect of heparin on cytology, histology or immunochemistry (IHC) of FNA and FNB specimens is unknown...
March 2018: Endoscopy International Open
You-Cai Zhu, Yue-Fen Zhou, Wen-Xian Wang, Chun-Wei Xu, Wu Zhuang, Kai-Qi Du, Gang Chen
ROS1 rearrangement is a validated therapeutic driver gene in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and represents a small subset (1-2%) of NSCLC. A total of 17 different fusion partner genes of ROS1 in NSCLC have been reported. The multi-targeted MET/ALK/ROS1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) crizotinib has demonstrated remarkable efficacy in ROS1-rearranged NSCLC. Consequently, ROS1 detection assays include fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and real-time PCR. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay covers a range of fusion genes and approaches to discover novel receptor-kinase rearrangements in lung cancer...
May 2018: Thoracic Cancer
Christopher LePhong, Elizabeth W Hubbard, Stuart Van Meter, Laurentia Nodit
BACKGROUND: With advent of personalized medicine, precise classification of malignant tumors becomes essential. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is rarely found in serous effusions and has morphologic and immunohistochemical (IHC) overlap with other neoplasms. METHODS: 17-year review identified 49 fluids from 26 patients where SCC was recognized. RESULTS: SCC was more frequent in pleural fluid (84%) and rare in other effusions. Lung SCC was common (65%), followed by head and neck (16%), with other origins less represented...
December 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Paweł Krawczyk, Bożena Jarosz, Tomasz Kucharczyk, Anna Grenda, Katarzyna Reszka, Juliusz Pankowski, Kamila Wojas-Krawczyk, Marcin Nicoś, Justyna Szumiło, Tomasz Trojanowski, Janusz Milanowski
Different immunohistochemical (IHC) assays were approved for PD-L1 expression examination on tumor cells in qualification to immune-checkpoint inhibitors therapy in NSCLC patients. These assays have some similarities, but also very serious differences. We assessed 2 IHC tests for PD-L1 expression evaluation in NSCLC tumors with different pathological diagnoses and genetic abnormalities. We enrolled 48 NSCLC patients (median age: 65 years) with known status of EGFR and ALK genes. We compared the effectiveness of PD-L1 expression examination of two IHC assays with 22C3 (Dako) and SP142 antibodies (Ventana)...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
Ankur Singh Kshatriya, Pravina M Santwani
INTRODUCTION: Transthoracic guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of clinically suspected lung tumors is an increasingly common procedure in diagnosis. Cytospin Smear and Cellblock preparations of available material are helpful in subtyping and confirming the diagnosis, and they can also be used for further studies, i.e., special stain and immunohistochemistry, etc. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This research was undertaken to study the technique of guided transthoracic lung FNAC of clinically suspected lung tumors and the establish role of FNAC smears, cytospin smears, and cellblocks in the detection and typing of neoplastic lung lesions and correlation...
July 2016: Journal of Cytology
Masayuki Oki, Tomihisa Nanao, Takuma Shinoda, Ayumi Tsuda, Atsushi Yasuda, Toshiro Seki, Hideki Ozawa, Naoya Nakamura, Atsushi Takagi
To date, there are only 15 case reports of lymphoma in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a common autosomal dominant tumor predisposition syndrome. Here, we present the first report of a primary effusion lymphoma (PEL)-like lymphoma (PEL-L), which is a human herpes virus 8/Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus-unrelated PEL, in a 73-year-old woman with NF1. The woman presented with pleural effusion following surgery for a small intestinal gastrointestinal stromal tumor and a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor...
September 20, 2016: Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine
Emad M Raddaoui, Majid A Almadi, Abdulrahman M Aljebreen, Faisal A Alsaif, Ahlam A AlShedoukhy, Abed H Al-Lehibi, Khalid A Almohameed, Apostolos V Tsolakis, Mousa A AlAbbadi, Amna R Almutrafi
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of applying a limited panel of immunohistochemical stains on the cellblock preparation from samples obtained by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in the aim of differentiating solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs) from neuroendocrine tumors (NETs).  METHODS: We retrospectively retrieved all the EUS-FNAs of the pancreas that have a diagnosis of NET or SPN that were performed at 2 tertiary care hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from May 2004 to December 2014...
July 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Takahiro Ebata, Yusuke Okuma, Yoshiro Nakahara, Makiko Yomota, Yusuke Takagi, Yukio Hosomi, Eichi Asami, Yasushi Omuro, Tsunekazu Hishima, Tatsuru Okamura, Yuichi Takiguchi
BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) can occur during the progression of various cancers. However, factors, such as the incidence of MPE associated with different types of cancers and its potential for diagnosing previously undetected cancers, are unknown. Moreover, MPE may accompany potentially curable cancers or those with a favorable survival prognosis with adequate treatment. The present study determined the types of cancers accompanied by MPE at initial diagnosis and investigated appropriate related methods for diagnosing previously unknown cancers...
January 2016: Thoracic Cancer
Yasuhiro Toyoda, Fumiyoshi Kojima, Shigeyuki Hojo, Setsuko Yoshioka, Yoshiichi Maeura
A 32-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for a right breast mass. Ultrasonography showed an 8 cm cystic mass with irregular solid components in the C area. CT showed the 8 cm cystic mass in the right breast, and that the chest wall was compressed by the mass. We performed fine needle aspiration(FNA)of this cyst and prepared a cellblock from the intracystic fluid. These cytological findings were malignant. We diagnosed cancer of the right breast and performed mastectomy and axillary node resection. Histologically, this lesion was diagnosed as a mixed metaplastic carcinoma, composed of squamous cell carcinoma, invasive carcinoma of no special type, and spindle cell carcinoma...
November 2015: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Mohamed El Hag, Lindsay Schmidt, Michael Roh, Claire W Michael
BACKGROUND: Similar to TTF-1, Napsin-A is recently used increasingly to differentiate between pulmonary adenocarcinoma (P-ADC) and extra-pulmonary adenocarcinoma (EP-ADC). The aim of this study was to compare the performance of TTF-1 and Napsin-A in determining the primary origin of adenocarcinoma in malignant serous effusion. METHODS: Following IRB approval, cellblocks from 139 cases of malignant serous effusions of histologically or clinically determined origin including: 26 P-ADC, 108 EP-ADC, 2 pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma (P-SQC), and 3 pulmonary small cell carcinoma (P-SCC) were retrieved...
April 2016: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Harumi Nakamura, Koji Tsuta, Takashi Nakagawa, Risen Hirai, Yasunori Ota
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that proliferates in body cavities without detectable masses. PEL is universally associated with human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) infection and has an aggressive prognosis. Recently, an HHV-8-unrelated PEL-like lymphoma that usually occurs in elderly individuals and follows a more indolent prognosis has been reported, and it is treated as a disease distinct from PEL. However, its pathogenesis and prognostic factors have not been sufficiently clarified...
December 2015: Pathology, Research and Practice
Michael Hallett, Joshua Hays, Byron Johnson, Sung Joon Jang, Grant Duwe
This article offers an ethnographic account of the "self-projects" of inmate graduates of Louisiana State Penitentiary's (aka "Angola's") unique prison seminary program. Angola's Inmate Minister program deploys seminary graduates in bivocational pastoral service roles throughout America's largest maximum-security prison. Drawing upon the unique history of Angola, inmates establish their own churches and serve in lay-ministry capacities in hospice, cellblock visitation, tier ministry, officiating inmate funerals, and through tithing with "care packages" for indigent prisoners...
March 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Ossama Tawfik, Marilyn Davis, Susan Dillon, Laila Tawfik, Francisco J Diaz, Khalid Amin, Fang Fan
OBJECTIVE: To date, the impact of digital imaging on routine cytology remains far from perfect. Cellblock (CB) preparations from Pap samples have been shown to be diagnostically valuable. We evaluated the validity of utilizing whole-slide imaging (WSI) prepared from Pap CBs as a screening tool. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 1,110 CB slides prepared from residual Pap samples were analyzed - 563 normal, 282 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 12 atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 188 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 36 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), 25 atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance, 1 adenocarcinoma in situ, 2 invasive adenocarcinomas, and 1 squamous cell carcinoma...
2015: Acta Cytologica
Vamadevan Saraswathy Veena, Preethi Sara George, Kattoor Jayasree, Kunjuraman Sujathan
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer claims highest rate of cancer related mortality worldwide, mainly due to late diagnosis and distant metastasis. Sputum cytology is the simplest, non-invasive and cost effective technique but it has low sensitivity due to lack of robust processing methods to retrieve all the diagnostic materials clogged in mucus, inflammatory exudates and blood. METHODS: This study have compared conventional pick and smear method of sputum processing with samples prepared by homogenization methods using N-acetyl-l-cysteine, Dithiothreitol (DTT), CytoRich red solution and cell blocks (CBs) with respect to screening time, quality of staining, cellularity, smear background, nuclear and cytoplasmic morphology preservation, and diagnostic efficacy...
July 2015: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Kamila Wojas-Krawczyk, Paweł Adam Krawczyk, Rodryg Adam Ramlau, Justyna Szumiło, Jerzy Kozielski, Ewa Kalinka-Warzocha, Maciej Bryl, Alina Knopik-Dąbrowicz, Lukasz Spychalski, Aleksandra Szczęsna, Ewelina Rydzik, Janusz Milanowski
INTRODUCTION: ALK gene rearrangement is observed in a small subset (3-7%) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. The efficacy of crizotinib was shown in lung cancer patients harbouring ALK rearrangement. Nowadays, the analysis of ALK gene rearrangement is added to molecular examination of predictive factors. AIM OF THE STUDY: The frequency of ALK gene rearrangement as well as the type of its irregularity was analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) in tissue samples from NSCLC patients...
2013: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
Theresa J Kokkat, Diane McGarvey, Miral S Patel, Andrew D Tieniber, Virginia A Livolsi, Zubair W Baloch
BACKGROUND: Methanol fixed and paraffin embedded (MFPE) cellblocks are an essential cytology preparation. However, MFPE cellblocks often contain limited material and their relatively small size has caused them to be overlooked in biomarker discovery. Advances in the field of molecular biotechnology have made it possible to extract proteins from formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks. In contrast, there are no established methods for extracting proteins from MFPE cellblocks...
2013: CytoJournal
Cristina Zanini, Elisa Gerbaudo, Elisabetta Ercole, Anna Vendramin, Marco Forni
BACKGROUND: Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a gas (available as a 37% concentrated solution, stabilized with methanol). The 10% dilution (approximately 4% formaldehyde) has been used as a fixative since the end of the 19th century. Alternative fixatives are also commercially available or may be prepared in-house in laboratories. Statements by the IARC, along with other USA agencies (CalEPA, RoC/NTP) on the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde for humans renders its substitution in Pathology Departments necessary since the annual use of formalin may exceed 3,500 liters for a medium-large laboratory...
September 4, 2012: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
D Mutreja, Vijay S Nijhawan, V Srinivasa, R Lakhtakia, H Subramanya
BACKGROUND: The cytological diagnosis of poorly differentiated tumors is challenging because the tumor cells may have morphologically difficult presentations in materials obtained by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). With the application of FNAC in primary diagnosis of malignant lesions, there has been a significant increase in the use of ancillary studies in the aspirated material. AIMS: We evaluated the value of ancillary studies, namely cell blocks, immunocytochemistry (ICC) and electron microscopy (EM), in the final interpretation of FNAC smears...
April 2012: Journal of Cytology
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