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Urology: Bladder: Urethra

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303589/the-anatomy-of-urination-what-every-physician-should-know
#1
REVIEW
Elroy Patrick Weledji, Divine Eyongeta, Eleanour Ngounou
INTRODUCTION: Normal voiding needs a coordinated, sustained bladder contraction of adequate size and duration. It requires a decrease in resistance of the bladder neck and urethra and no obstruction. Voiding problems can arise from abnormal storage of urine or problems with urinary control. The aim of this article was to review the functional anatomy and physiology of urinary control and micturition and the pathophysiology of urinary control problems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Medline (PubMed) database, Cochrane Library, and Science Citation Index were searched electronically to identify original published studies on bladder anatomy, function and urinary control...
October 10, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30285777/intravesical-migration-of-female-urethral-dilator-a-case-report-of-a-new-urologic-emergency-in-the-era-of-e-commerce
#2
Andrea Mogorovich, Cesare Selli, Alessio Tognarelli, Francesca Manassero, Maurizio De Maria
BACKGROUND: The introduction of foreign bodies in the female urethra for auto-erotic stimulation or in case of psychiatric disorders is not uncommon. The occurrence of intravesical migration of these objects makes it necessary to remove it shortly after insertion, since after long term permanence complications are likely to occurr. CASE PRESENTATION: A 47-year-old white female was referred at our Urology department for migration inside the bladder of a metallic urethral dilator used for sexual stimulation...
October 3, 2018: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115449/congenital-prepubic-sinus-an-aborted-dorsal-urethral-duplication-or-a-cloacal-remnant
#3
Zafar Nazir, Muhammad Arif Mateen Khan, Javaria Qamar
BACKGROUND: Congenital Prepubic Sinus (CPS) is an uncommon urogenital anomaly characterized by a blind tract between the skin over the pubis to anterior of the urinary bladder, Urethra or umbilicus. We report four such cases to emphasize varied clinical presentation and embryological conundrum. METHODS: Following Ethical Review Committee (ERC) approval, medical records of pediatric patients (<16 years) presenting with CPS (identified through operating room records and Hospital Information Management System (HIMS) between 1994 and 2018 were reviewed for demographics, clinical presentation, investigations including histopathology, management and outcome...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30066462/regenerative-medicine-for-urological-tissues-updated-review-2018
#4
REVIEW
Akihiro Kanematsu
The focus of the present review on regenerative medicine is limited; first, on a few human clinical trials carried out thus far in the urology field, and second, on more basic but important biological progress that regenerative medicine has brought us. Clinical trials for the bladder, urethra and urethral sphincter have been carried out thus far. Reconstruction with autologous cell-seeded biomaterial failed in patients in need of bladder augmentation. The strategy succeeded for urethral reconstruction in patients who might not have required this approach...
September 2018: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30036617/urologic-complications-following-pelvic-radiotherapy
#5
REVIEW
Niyati Lobo, Meghana Kulkarni, Simon Hughes, Rajesh Nair, Muhammad Shamim Khan, Ramesh Thurairaja
Radiotherapy is widely used as a curative treatment for pelvic malignancies. The location of these organs leads to unavoidable exposure of the bladder, urethra, and distal ureters to radiation and may cause subsequent development of radiation cystitis, fistulae, strictures, and secondary malignancy. As cancer survival improves, an ever-increasing number of patients is living with the long-term complications of radiotherapy. Symptoms are not only debilitating for the patient but also pose a treatment challenge to the urologist...
July 20, 2018: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912090/rupture-of-the-corpus-cavernosum-in-a-pediatric-patient
#6
Blake C Gruenberg, David Mortel, Amanda Bogie
Pediatric penile pain is an uncommon complaint and is associated with a wide differential diagnosis including infectious, inflammatory, traumatic, and idiopathic conditions. Penile fractures, anatomically known as rupture of the corpus cavernosum, are almost exclusively reported in sexually mature patients and usually involve forceful manipulation during sexual activity. Rupture of the corpus cavernosum is a true urologic emergency. Failure to recognize and treat rupture of the corpus cavernosum has been associated with residual penile angulation, persistent hematoma, abscess, erectile dysfunction, and fibrosis...
June 14, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783036/retrospective-study-on-the-management-and-follow-up-of-18-patients-with-a-mid-urethral-sling-penetrating-the-urethra-or-bladder
#7
Edouard Goujon, Adélaide Jarniat, Florian Bardet, Lise Bergogne, Emmanuel Delorme
INTRODUCTION: The mid-urethral sling (MUS) procedure is the gold-standard for the surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Urethro-vesical sling exposure is one of the most serious complications of this procedure. We describe the treatment and follow-up of 18 patients with bladder or urethral sling exposure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This single-center, retrospective study assessed the diagnosis and management of MUS penetrating the lower urinary tract in 18 women...
September 2018: Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774810/procedural-module-flexible-cystoscopy
#8
Shoaib Safiullah, Daniel J Lama, Roshan Patel, Ralph V Clayman
INTRODUCTION: Cystoscopy is a basic urologic skill necessary for the endoscopic evaluation of the urethra and bladder. Presented is a step-by-step guide for flexible cystoscopy of the male and female patient. MATERIALS/METHODS: Routine flexible cystoscopy was performed on a male patient with a history of upper tract urothelial carcinoma and a female patient as part of a hematuria evaluation. The male patient was positioned supine, and the female patient frog-leg supine...
May 2018: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697030/the-role-of-stem-cells-for-reconstructing-the-lower-urinary-tracts
#9
Niall F Davis, Eoghan M Cunnane, John J Mulvihill, Mark R Quinlan, Damien M Bolton, Michael T Walsh, Gregory S Jack
BACKGROUND: The urinary bladder and urethra comprise the lower urinary tracts. Pathological conditions that affect both structures necessitate reconstructive urological intervention with autologous tissue sources that cause neuromechanical and metabolic complications. Stem-cell therapies may offer an attractive alternative as they can replicate important host derived cellular functions such as mitosis, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview on the application of stem cell therapies for regenerating the lower urinary tracts and to discuss factors that need to be addressed before stem-cells can be reliably introduced into clinical urological practice...
2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688647/-position-statement-for-intermittent-catheterization-of-urinary-bladder
#10
Michael Vainrib, Kobi Stav, Ilan Gruenwald, Gabriel Gilon, Shahar Aharony, Miki Gross, Vadim Bluvshtein, Yakova Kauffman
A position paper presents the standpoint of the Israeli Urological Association on clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) for all physicians and nurses. The position paper is based on international guidelines and professional literature and is adapted to medical activities in Israel. CIC is indicated for the treatment of temporary/permanent disability in the emptying of the bladder, which is expressed by large post-voided urine/urine retention and related complications. There are a few contra-indications for CIC (low bladder volume or compliance, pressure sores/external infection of the urethra, anatomical, functional or cognitive disorder that does not allow to perform CIC, recurrent macrohematuria or urethrorrhagia, urethral pain that does not allow frequent catheterization, patient unwillingness to perform CIC by himself or by another person)...
April 2018: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681634/urological-manifestations-of-the-disease-related-to-immunoglobulin-g4
#11
Luis Daniel Carrillo-Córdova, Carlos Alberto Carrillo-Córdova, Johnatan Vitar-Sandoval, Jorge Jaspersen-Álvarez, Elba Luz Villena-López, Raúl Carrillo-Esper
Immunoglobulin G4 related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibro-inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, characterized by lesions in the form of tumors, elevated serum IgG4 levels, plasma cells with significant IgG4 infiltration, accompanied by phlebitis obliterans and fibrosis. This disease usually has multiorgan disease, including pancreas, biliary tract, salivary glands, peri orbital tissues, kidneys, lungs, lymph nodes and retro peritoneum. IgG4-RD mainly affects men with a predominance of age by young adults until old age...
2018: Cirugia y Cirujanos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656064/a-prospective-study-of-patient-reported-pain-after-bulbar-urethroplasty
#12
Patrick Evans, Sorena Keihani, Benjamin N Breyer, Bradley A Erickson, James M Hotaling, Sara M Lenherr, Jeremy B Myers
OBJECTIVE: To understand the prevalence of chronic perineal pain, activity limitations, and patient satisfaction after urethroplasty. METHODS: From 2014 to 2016, we prospectively enrolled men undergoing urethroplasty for bulbar urethral strictures. Patients, before and after surgery, completed questions from the Core Lower Urinary Tract Symptom Score assessing pain frequency in the bladder and penis or urethra, as well as nonvalidated questions assessing perineal pain...
July 2018: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562770/human-amniotic-membrane-and-amniotic-membrane-derived-cells-how-far-are-we-from-their-use-in-regenerative-and-reconstructive-urology
#13
Taja Železnik Ramuta, Mateja Erdani Kreft
Human amniotic membrane (hAM) is the innermost layer of fetal membranes, which surrounds the developing fetus and forms the amniotic cavity. hAM and hAM-derived cells possess many properties that make them suitable for use in regenerative medicine, such as low immunogenicity, promotion of epithelization, anti-inflammatory properties, angiogenic and antiangiogenic properties, antifibrotic properties, antimicrobial properties, and anticancer properties. Many pathological conditions of the urinary tract lead to organ damage or complete loss of function...
January 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484468/results-of-minimally-invasive-surgical-treatment-of-allograft-lithiasis-in-live-donor-renal-transplant-recipients-a-single-center-experience-of-3758-renal-transplantations
#14
Mehmet Sarier, Ibrahim Duman, Yucel Yuksel, Sabri Tekin, Meltem Demir, Fatih Arslan, Osman Ergun, Alim Kosar, Asuman Havva Yavuz
Allograft lithiasis is a rare urologic complication of renal transplantation (RT). Our aim is to present our experience with minimally invasive surgical treatment of allograft lithiasis in our series of live-donor renal transplant recipients. In a retrospective analysis of 3758 consecutive live-donor RTs performed in our center between November 2009 and January 2017, the results of minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of renal graft lithiasis diagnosed at follow-up were evaluated. Twenty-two (0.58%) patients underwent minimally invasive surgery for renal graft lithiasis...
February 26, 2018: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467024/male-synthetic-sling-versus-artificial-urinary-sphincter-trial-for-men-with-urodynamic-stress-incontinence-after-prostate-surgery-master-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Lynda Constable, Nikki Cotterill, David Cooper, Cathryn Glazener, Marcus J Drake, Mark Forrest, Chris Harding, Mary Kilonzo, Graeme MacLennan, Kirsty McCormack, Alison McDonald, Anthony Mundy, John Norrie, Robert Pickard, Craig Ramsay, Rebecca Smith, Samantha Wileman, Paul Abrams
BACKGROUND: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a frequent adverse effect for men undergoing prostate surgery. A large proportion (around 8% after radical prostatectomy and 2% after transurethral resection of prostate (TURP)) are left with severe disabling incontinence which adversely effects their quality of life and many are reliant on containment measures such as pads (27% and 6% respectively). Surgery is currently the only option for active management of the problem. The overwhelming majority of surgeries for persistent bothersome SUI involve artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) insertion...
February 21, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406065/urologic-emergencies
#16
REVIEW
Adarsh S Manjunath, Matthias D Hofer
Urologic emergencies can involve the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, penis, scrotum, or testicles. History and physical examination are essential to diagnosis, whereas imaging is increasingly used to confirm diagnoses. Acute urinary retention should be relieved with Foley placement. Penile emergencies include paraphimosis, which can be treated by foreskin reduction, whereas penile fracture and priapism require urologic intervention. Fournier gangrene and testicular torsion are scrotal emergencies requiring emergent surgery...
March 2018: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312842/bladder-neck-collagen-injection-in-the-treatment-of-congenital-retrograde-ejaculation-a-case-report
#17
Basri Cakiroglu, Orhun Sinanoglu, Ersan Arda
The present study describes the first successful treatment of a congenital retrograde ejaculation case with a submucosal collagen injection to the bladder neck. A 28-year-old male (height 170 cm, weight 80 kg) attended to the urology outpatient clinic with complaints of scattered urine stream and absence of ejaculation. The laboratory tests, including hormone profile (follicle   stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone) and the routine blood count were within normal ranges, whereas semen analysis demonstrated a total absence of ejaculation...
November 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296045/current-pharmacological-and-surgical-treatment-of-underactive-bladder
#18
REVIEW
Yuan-Hong Jiang, Cheng-Ling Lee, Jia-Fong Jhang, Hann-Chorng Kuo
Underactive bladder (UAB) or detrusor underactivity (DU) is a common yet still poorly understood urological problem. In addition to true detrusor failure and neuropathy, the inhibitory effects of detrusor contraction by the striated urethral sphincter and the bladder neck through alpha-adrenergic activity may also play a role in the development of UAB or DU. Treatment of UAB or DU aims to reduce the postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume and increase voiding efficiency, either by spontaneous voiding or abdominal straining...
October 2017: Ci Ji Yi Xue za Zhi, Tzu-chi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211359/continent-catheterizable-conduits-in-pediatric-urology-one-center-experience
#19
Paweł Kroll, Ewa Gajewska, Jacek Zachwieja, Danuta Ostalska-Nowicka, Maciej Micker, Andrzej Jankowski
BACKGROUND: Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) is a standard treatment for patients who are unable to empty the bladder. In the absence of the urethra or if catheterization through the urethra is problematic, a continent vesicostomy is used as a catheterizable conduit. The Malone procedure is an established treatment option for children with neurogenic constipation and fecal incontinence. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to report the authors' experience with continent catheterizable conduits (CCCs) in children, to review the results and to determine the efficacy of the technique, with an emphasis on continence and the need for revision...
October 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965380/-inlaid-labial-versus-bladder-mucosal-graft-repair-for-complex-urethral-skin-fistula
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jun Lü, Hai-Dong Wen, Tian-Zhou Peng, Xiao-Ming Zhang, Wen Shen, Yi-Gao Wu, Yong-Ping Xue
Objective: To compare the effect of inlaid labial mucosal graft repair (LMGR) with that of bladder mucosal graft repair (BMGR) in the treatment of complex urethral skin fistula after hypospadias repair. METHODS: This study included 55 cases of complex urethral skin fistula following hypospadias repair. We randomly assigned them to receive inlaid LMGR (n=36) or BMGR (n=19). After surgery, we compared the incidence of complications and recurrence rate of urinary fistula between the two groups of patients...
July 2016: Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue, National Journal of Andrology
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