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Non malarial febrile illness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305137/integrated-fever-management-disease-severity-markers-to-triage-children-with-malaria-and-non-malarial-febrile-illness
#1
Chloe R McDonald, Andrea Weckman, Melissa Richard-Greenblatt, Aleksandra Leligdowicz, Kevin C Kain
Febrile symptoms in children are a leading cause of health-care seeking behaviour worldwide. The majority of febrile illnesses are uncomplicated and self-limited, without the need for referral or hospital admission. However, current diagnostic tools are unable to identify which febrile children have self-limited infection and which children are at risk of progressing to life-threatening infections, such as severe malaria. This paper describes the need for a simple community-based tool that can improve the early recognition and triage of febrile children, with either malarial or non-malarial illness, at risk of critical illness...
October 10, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29943717/how-far-are-we-from-reaching-universal-malaria-testing-of-all-fever-cases
#2
Mateusz M Plucinski, Timothée Guilavogui, Alioune Camara, Médoune Ndiop, Moustapha Cisse, John Painter, Julie Thwing
Universal malaria diagnostic testing of all fever cases is the first step in correct malaria case management. However, monitoring adherence to universal testing is complicated by unreliable recording and reporting of the true number of fever cases. We searched the literature to obtain gold-standard estimates for the proportion of patients attending outpatient clinics in sub-Saharan Africa with malarial and non-malarial febrile illness. To correct for differences in malaria transmission, we calculated the proportion of patients with fever after excluding confirmed malaria cases...
September 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864127/high-incidence-of-leptospirosis-in-an-observational-study-of-hospital-outpatients-in-vanuatu-highlights-the-need-for-improved-awareness-and-diagnostic-capacities
#3
Junior George Pakoa, Marie-Estelle Soupé-Gilbert, Dominique Girault, Dexter Takau, Justina Gaviga, Ann-Claire Gourinat, Arnaud Tarantola, Cyrille Goarant
BACKGROUND: Estimates of leptospirosis morbidity identified Oceania as the region with highest burden. Besides Australia and New Zealand, Oceania is home of Pacific Island Countries and Territories, most of which are developing countries facing a number of challenges. Their archipelago geography notably affects health infrastructure and access to healthcare. Although human leptospirosis was formerly identified in Vanuatu, there is a lack of knowledge of this disease in the country. We aimed to identify leptospirosis in outpatients visiting the hospital...
June 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649602/point-of-care-and-point-of-can-leveraging-reference-laboratory-capacity-for-integrated-diagnosis-of-fever-syndromes-in-the-tropics
#4
REVIEW
M Semret, M Ndao, J Jacobs, C P Yansouni
BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need for integrated diagnosis of febrile syndromes able to account for multiple pathogens and to inform decisions for clinical care and public health. AIMS: To reflect on the evolving roles of laboratory-based testing for non-malarial febrile illnesses (NMFIs) in low-resource settings, and to consider how advances in diagnostics, in connectivity and transport, and in implementation of quality systems may substantially enhance the capacity of reference laboratories to bridge the current gap between remote passive surveillance and clinically meaningful integrated fever diagnosis...
August 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519240/lactate-clearance-as-a-prognostic-marker-of-mortality-in-severely-ill-febrile-children-in-east-africa
#5
A Aramburo, Jim Todd, Elizabeth C George, Sarah Kiguli, Peter Olupot-Olupot, Robert O Opoka, Charles Engoru, Samuel O Akech, Richard Nyeko, George Mtove, Diana M Gibb, Abdel G Babiker, Kathryn Maitland
BACKGROUND: Hyperlactataemia (HL) is a biomarker of disease severity that predicts mortality in patients with sepsis and malaria. Lactate clearance (LC) during resuscitation has been shown to be a prognostic factor of survival in critically ill adults, but little data exist for African children living in malaria-endemic areas. METHODS: In a secondary data analysis of severely ill febrile children included in the Fluid Expansion as Supportive Therapy (FEAST) resuscitation trial, we assessed the association between lactate levels at admission and LC at 8 h with all-cause mortality at 72 h (d72)...
March 9, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509953/primary-healthcare-providers-practices-related-to-non-malarial-acute-febrile-illness-in-burkina-faso
#6
C Bottger, L Bernard, V Briand, C Bougouma, J Triendebeogo, V Ridde
Background: In Africa, fever is the main reason for consultation, with malaria playing a prominent role. Studies have reported that the widespread use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, implemented since 2010, has revealed an increasing proportion of non-malaria acute febrile illnesses (NMAFI). It is an important public health issue because evidence shows that mortality is higher among patients presenting with non-malarial fever than among those with malaria. Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed the professional practices of healthcare providers in the management of NMAFI in urban and rural sites in Burkina Faso...
December 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488460/a-prospective-hospital-study-to-evaluate-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-rapid-diagnostic-tests-for-the-early-detection-of-leptospirosis-in-laos
#7
Sabine Dittrich, Latsaniphone Boutthasavong, Dala Keokhamhoung, Weerawat Phuklia, Scott B Craig, Suhella M Tulsiani, Mary-Anne Burns, Steven L Weier, David A B Dance, Viengmon Davong, Manivanh Vongsouvath, Mayfong Mayxay, Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh, Paul N Newton, Kate Woods
Leptospirosis is a globally important cause of acute febrile illness, and a common cause of non-malarial fever in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Simple rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are needed to enable health-care workers, particularly in low resource settings, to diagnose leptospirosis early and give timely targeted treatment. This study compared four commercially available RDTs to detect human IgM against Leptospira spp. in a head-to-head prospective evaluation in Mahosot Hospital, Lao PDR. Patients with an acute febrile illness consistent with leptospirosis ( N = 695) were included in the study during the 2014 rainy season...
April 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034876/quantifying-the-contribution-of-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-to-febrile-illness-amongst-african-children
#8
Ursula Dalrymple, Ewan Cameron, Samir Bhatt, Daniel J Weiss, Sunetra Gupta, Peter W Gething
Suspected malaria cases in Africa increasingly receive a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) before antimalarials are prescribed. While this ensures efficient use of resources to clear parasites, the underlying cause of the individual's fever remains unknown due to potential coinfection with a non-malarial febrile illness. Widespread use of RDTs does not necessarily prevent over-estimation of clinical malaria cases or sub-optimal case management of febrile patients. We present a new approach that allows inference of the spatiotemporal prevalence of both Plasmodium falciparum malaria-attributable and non-malarial fever in sub-Saharan African children from 2006 to 2014...
October 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945755/estimating-the-burden-of-scrub-typhus-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Ana Bonell, Yoel Lubell, Paul N Newton, John A Crump, Daniel H Paris
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that can be life-threatening. There are no licensed vaccines, or vector control efforts in place. Despite increasing awareness in endemic regions, the public health burden and global distribution of scrub typhus remains poorly known. METHODS: We systematically reviewed all literature from public health records, fever studies and reports available on the Ovid MEDLINE, Embase Classic + Embase and EconLit databases, to estimate the burden of scrub typhus since the year 2000...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931399/principles-practices-and-knowledge-of-clinicians-when-assessing-febrile-children-a-qualitative-study-in-kenya
#10
Anneka M Hooft, Kelsey Ripp, Bryson Ndenga, Francis Mutuku, David Vu, Kimberly Baltzell, Linnet N Masese, John Vulule, Dunstan Mukoko, A Desiree LaBeaud
BACKGROUND: Clinicians in low resource settings in malaria endemic regions face many challenges in diagnosing and treating febrile illnesses in children. Given the change in WHO guidelines in 2010 that recommend malaria testing prior to treatment, clinicians are now required to expand the differential when malaria testing is negative. Prior studies have indicated that resource availability, need for additional training in differentiating non-malarial illnesses, and lack of understanding within the community of when to seek care play a role in effective diagnosis and treatment...
September 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728558/accuracy-of-a-plasmodium-falciparum-specific-histidine-rich-protein-2-rapid-diagnostic-test-in-the-context-of-the-presence-of-non-malaria-fevers-prior-anti-malarial-use-and-seasonal-malaria-transmission
#11
Francois Kiemde, Massa Dit Achille Bonko, Marc Christian Tahita, Palpouguini Lompo, Toussaint Rouamba, Halidou Tinto, Michael Boele van Hensbroek, Petra F Mens, Henk D F H Schallig
BACKGROUND: It remains challenging to distinguish malaria from other fever causing infections, as a positive rapid diagnostic test does not always signify a true active malaria infection. This study was designed to determine the influence of other causes of fever, prior anti-malarial treatment, and a possible seasonality of the performance of a PfHRP2 RDT for the diagnosis of malaria in children under-5 years of age living in a malaria endemic area. METHODS: A prospective etiology study was conducted in 2015 among febrile children under 5 years of age in Burkina Faso...
July 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056949/the-treatment-of-non-malarial-febrile-illness-in-papua-new-guinea-findings-from-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-studies-of-health-worker-practice
#12
MULTICENTER STUDY
Olga P M Saweri, Manuel W Hetzel, Ivo Mueller, Peter M Siba, Justin Pulford
BACKGROUND: The Papua New Guinea Department of Health recently shifted from a presumptive to a 'test and treat' malaria case management policy. This shift was supported by the widespread introduction of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in health facilities across the country. Health workers received training and job-aids detailing how to conduct and interpret a malaria rapid diagnostic test and how to treat test positive cases; however, little instruction on treating non-malaria febrile cases was provided...
January 5, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825318/prevalence-of-malaria-typhoid-toxoplasmosis-and-rubella-among-febrile-children-in-cameroon
#13
Olivia A Achonduh-Atijegbe, Kenji O Mfuh, Aristid H E Mbange, Jean P Chedjou, Diane W Taylor, Vivek R Nerurkar, Wilfred F Mbacham, Rose Leke
BACKGROUND: The current roll-out of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in many endemic countries has resulted in the reporting of fewer cases of malaria-attributed illnesses. However, lack of knowledge of the prevalence of other febrile illnesses and affordable diagnostic tests means that febrile patients are not managed optimally. This study assessed the prevalence of commonly treatable or preventable febrile illnesses in children between 6 months and 15 years using rapid diagnostic tests at the point-of-care...
November 8, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737634/a-prospective-study-of-the-importance-of-enteric-fever-as-a-cause-of-non-malarial-febrile-illness-in-patients-admitted-to-chittagong-medical-college-hospital-bangladesh
#14
Rapeephan R Maude, Aniruddha Ghose, Rasheda Samad, Hanna K de Jong, Masako Fukushima, Lalith Wijedoru, Mahtab Uddin Hassan, Md Amir Hossain, Md Rezaul Karim, Abdullah Abu Sayeed, Stannie van den Ende, Sujat Pal, A S M Zahed, Wahid Rahman, Rifat Karnain, Rezina Islam, Dung Thi Ngoc Tran, Tuyen Thanh Ha, Anh Hong Pham, James I Campbell, H Rogier van Doorn, Richard J Maude, Tom van der Poll, W Joost Wiersinga, Nicholas P J Day, Stephen Baker, Arjen M Dondorp, Christopher M Parry, Md Abul Faiz
BACKGROUND: Fever is a common cause of hospital admission in Bangladesh but causative agents, other than malaria, are not routinely investigated. Enteric fever is thought to be common. METHODS: Adults and children admitted to Chittagong Medical College Hospital with a temperature of ≥38.0 °C were investigated using a blood smear for malaria, a blood culture, real-time PCR to detect Salmonella Typhi, S. Paratyphi A and other pathogens in blood and CSF and an NS1 antigen dengue ELISA...
October 13, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604542/multi-method-assessment-of-patients-with-febrile-illness-reveals-over-diagnosis-of-malaria-in-rural-uganda
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ria R Ghai, Mary I Thurber, Azza El Bakry, Colin A Chapman, Tony L Goldberg
BACKGROUND: Health clinics in rural Africa are typically resource-limited. As a result, many patients presenting with fever are treated with anti-malarial drugs based only on clinical presentation. This is a considerable issue in Uganda, where malaria is routinely over-diagnosed and over-treated, constituting a wastage of resources and an elevated risk of mortality in wrongly diagnosed patients. However, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria are increasingly being used in health facilities...
September 7, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560094/lack-of-household-clustering-of-malaria-in-a-complex-humanitarian-emergency-implications-for-active-case-detection
#16
Hasan Hamze, Rhianna Charchuk, Makelele Katsuva Jean Paul, Kasereka Masumbuko Claude, Mashukano Léon, Michael T Hawkes
BACKGROUND: Malaria contributes to elevated morbidity and mortality in populations displaced by conflict in tropical zones. In an attempt to reduce malaria transmission in an internally displaced persons (IDP) camp in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), we tested a strategy of active case detection of household contacts of malaria cases. METHODS: Prospective community-based survey. RESULTS: From a convenience sample of 100 febrile patients under 5 years of age from the IDP camp presenting to a nearby clinic for management of a fever episode, 19 cases of uncomplicated malaria and 81 controls with non-malarial febrile illness (NFMI) were diagnosed...
September 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26851948/a-comparative-hospital-based-observational-study-of-mono-and-co-infections-of-malaria-dengue-virus-and-scrub-typhus-causing-acute-undifferentiated-fever
#17
S Ahmad, M Dhar, G Mittal, N K Bhat, N Shirazi, V Kalra, H C Sati, V Gupta
Positive serology for dengue and/or scrub typhus infection with/without positive malarial smear (designated as mixed or co-infection) is being increasingly observed during epidemics of acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses (AUFIs). We planned to study the clinical and biochemical spectrum of co-infections with Plasmodium sp., dengue virus and scrub typhus and compare these with mono-infection by the same organisms. During the period from December 2012 to December 2013, all cases presenting with AUFIs to a single medical unit of a referral centre in Garhwal region of the north Indian state of Uttarakhand were retrospectively selected and categorised aetiologically as co-infections, malaria, dengue or scrub typhus...
April 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26594615/acute-respiratory-infection-and-bacteraemia-as-causes-of-non-malarial-febrile-illness-in-african-children-a-narrative-review
#18
Florida Muro, Rita Reyburn, Hugh Reyburn
The replacement of "presumptive treatment for malaria" by "test before treat" strategies for the management of febrile illness is raising awareness of the importance of knowing more about the causes of illness in children who are suspected to have malaria but return a negative parasitological test. The most common cause of non-malarial febrile illness (NMFI) in African children is respiratory tract infection. Whilst the bacterial causes of NMFI are well known, the increasing use of sensitive techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests is revealing large numbers of viruses that are potential respiratory pathogens...
May 29, 2015: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26544671/causes-of-non-malarial-febrile-illness-in-outpatients-in-tanzania
#19
Helena Hildenwall, Ben Amos, George Mtove, Florida Muro, Kerstin Cederlund, Hugh Reyburn
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDT) has raised awareness of alternative fever causes in children but few studies have included adults. To address this gap we conducted a study of mRDT-negative fever aetiologies among children and adults in Tanzania. METHODS: 1028 patients aged 3 months to 50 years with a febrile illness and negative mRDT were enrolled from a Tanzanian hospital outpatient department. All had a physical examination and cultures from blood, nasopharynx/throat and urine...
November 6, 2015: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26186686/laboratory-evidence-of-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-is-associated-with-a-fatal-outcome-in-children-with-cerebral-malaria-despite-an-absence-of-clinically-evident-thrombosis-or-bleeding
#20
C A Moxon, N V Chisala, R Mzikamanda, I MacCormick, S Harding, C Downey, M Molyneux, K B Seydel, T E Taylor, R S Heyderman, C-H Toh
BACKGROUND: A procoagulant state is implicated in cerebral malaria (CM) pathogenesis, but whether disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is present or associated with a fatal outcome is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of overt DIC, according to ISTH criteria, in children with fatal and non-fatal CM. METHODS/PATIENTS: Malawian children were recruited into a prospective cohort study in the following diagnostic groups: retinopathy-positive CM (n = 140), retinopathy-negative CM (n = 36), non-malarial coma (n = 14), uncomplicated malaria (UM), (n = 91), mild non-malarial febrile illness (n = 85), and healthy controls (n = 36)...
September 2015: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
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