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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30557829/visible-light-driven-photocatalytic-degradation-of-diclofenac-by-carbon-quantum-dots-modified-porous-g-c-3-n-4-mechanisms-degradation-pathway-and-dft-calculation
#1
Wen Liu, Yunyi Li, Fuyang Liu, Wei Jiang, Dandan Zhang, Jialiang Liang
Metal-free photocatalysts have attracted growing concern in recent years. In this work, a new class of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) modified porous graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3 N4 ) is synthesized via a facile polymerization method. With the optimal CQDs loading, the CQDs modified g-C3 N4 exhibits ∼15 times higher degradation kinetic towards diclofenac (DCF) than that of pure g-C3 N4 . The enhanced photocatalytic activity can be ascribed to the improved separation of charge carriers as well as the tuned band structure...
December 3, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30557825/stability-of-synthetic-cathinones-in-blood-and-urine
#2
Piotr Adamowicz, Aleksandra Malczyk
INTRODUCTION: Although there is an observed decline in the number of new psychoactive substances entering the drug market, this phenomenon is still a significant public health problem. Synthetic cathinones are the second largest group of new substances and currently belong to the most frequently confiscated. Their availability and prevalence cause that they are often abused. Because of this, they should be detected and determined as part of routine toxicological screening in materials collected from both the living and cadavers...
December 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30557563/pre-formulation-studies-of-the-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-and-montelukast-inclusion-compound-prepared-by-co-milling
#3
Jessica Silva Barbosa, Mariela M Nolasco, Paulo Ribeiro-Claro, Filipe A Almeida Paz, Susana S Braga
Montelukast (MLK), an oral anti-asthmatic drug with growing use, requires special care in formulation and storage to avoid its degradation by action of light and/or water. This work investigates the increase in the stability of montelukast as the effect of molecular encapsulation with gamma-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) by means of a solvent-free method, co-grinding. As a first step, a 1:1 preferred stoichiometry is established for this host-guest system using a combination of molecular modelling and the continuous variation method...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30557098/minimalist-barcodes-for-sponges-a-case-study-classifying-african-freshwater-spongillida
#4
Dirk Erpenbeck, Markus Steiner, Astrid Schuster, Martin J Genner, Renata Manconi, Roberto Pronzato, Bernhard Ruthensteiner, Didier Van den Spiegel, Rob Wm van Soest, Gert Wörheide
African sponges, particularly freshwater sponges, are understudied relative to demosponges in most other geographical regions. Freshwater sponges (Spongillida) likely share a common ancestor; however, their evolutionary history, particularly during their radiation into endemic and allegedly cosmopolitan groups, is unclear. Freshwater sponges of at least 58 species of 17 genera and four families are described from Central and Eastern Africa, but the diversity is underestimated due to limited distinguishable morphological features...
December 17, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30556634/a-first-principles-study-on-the-adsorption-of-small-molecules-on-arsenene-comparison-of-oxidation-kinetics-in-arsenene-antimonene-phosphorene-and-inse
#5
Andrey Kistanov, Salavat Khadiullin, Sergey Dmitriev, Elena Korznikova
Arsenene, a new group V two-dimensional (2D) material beyond phosphorene and antimonene, has recently gained an increasing attention owning to its various interesting properties which can be altered or intentionally functionalized by chemical reactions with various molecules. This work provides a systematic study on the interactions of arsenene with the small molecules, including H2, NH3, O2, H2O, NO, and NO2. It is predicted that O2, H2O, NO, and NO2 are strong acceptors, while NH3 serves as a donor. It is shown a negligible charge transfer between H2 and arsenene which is ten times lower than that between H2 and phosphorene and about thousand times lower than that between H2 and InSe and antimonene...
December 17, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30556545/logical-stimuli-triggered-delivery-of-small-molecules-from-hydrogel-biomaterials
#6
Emily R Ruskowitz, Michael P Comerford, Barry A Badeau, Cole A DeForest
Stimuli-responsive biomaterials are useful platforms for environmentally triggered drug delivery. By varying the molecular architecture of orthogonal stimuli-labile linkages between small molecules and non-degradable materials, we demonstrate the Boolean logic-based release of model therapeutics from gels. Programmable responses are demonstrated for materials sensitive to input combinations involving enzymes, chemical reductants, and light via YES, OR, and AND logic gates.
December 17, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30556394/prussian-blue-microcrystals-with-morphology-evolution-as-high-performance-photo-fenton-catalyst-for-degradation-of-organic-pollutants
#7
Na Wang, Wenjie Ma, Yunchen Du, Ziqiu Ren, Binhua Han, Leijiang Zhang, Bojing Sun, Ping Xu, Xijiang Han
The morphology-dependent property of crystal materials has aroused extensive attentions and raised high requirements for subtly tailoring the morphology of micro-/nanocrystals. Herein, we develop an in-situ etching method for preparation of Prussian blue (PB) microcrystals with morphology evolution by progressively increasing the concentration of chloroplatinic acid in the reaction system. These PB microcrystals with controllable morphologies are employed as photo-Fenton reagents to degrade organic pollutants...
December 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30556304/gut-microbial-compositions-mirror-caste-specific-diets-in-a-major-lineage-of-social-insects
#8
Saria Otani, Mariya Zhukova, N'golo Abdoulaye Koné, Rafael Rodrigues da Costa, Aram Mikaelyan, Panagiotis Sapountzis, Michael Poulsen
Social insects owe their ecological success to the division of labour between castes, but associations between microbial community compositions, castes with different tasks, and diets have not been extensively explored. Fungus-growing termites associate with fungi to degrade plant material, complemented by diverse gut microbial communities. Here we explore whether division of labour and accompanying dietary differences between fungus-growing termite castes are linked to gut bacterial community structure. Using amplicon sequencing, we characterise community compositions in sterile (worker and soldier) and reproductive (queen and king) termites and combine this with gut enzyme activities and microscopy to hypothesise sterile caste-specific microbiota roles...
December 16, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30556002/competitive-association-of-antibiotics-with-a-clay-mineral-and-organoclay-derivatives-as-a-control-of-their-lifetimes-in-the-environment
#9
Tiago De Oliveira, Elodie Fernandez, Laëtitia Fougère, Emilie Destandau, Mohammed Boussafir, Minoru Sohmiya, Yoshiyuki Sugahara, Régis Guégan
A Na-smectite clay mineral (Na-Mt) was exchanged with two concentrations of benzyldimethyltetradecyl ammonium chloride cationic surfactant up to one time the cation exchange capacity. Nonionic organoclay was prepared with polyoxyethylene (20) oleyl ether (Brij-O20) nonionic surfactant at one concentration. The resulting organoclays displayed lateral layer organization of the surfactants within their interlayer space.. The adsorption properties of these organoclays and the starting raw clay mineral were evaluated for three extensively used antibiotic pharmaceutical products: the amoxicillin (AMX), the sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and the trimethoprim (TRI), recognized as recalcitrant compounds to conventional water treatments and to display a complex behavior for different pH and temperature experimental conditions...
November 30, 2018: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30555914/a-path-for-lignin-valorization-via-additive-manufacturing-of-high-performance-sustainable-composites-with-enhanced-3d-printability
#10
Ngoc A Nguyen, Sietske H Barnes, Christopher C Bowland, Kelly M Meek, Kenneth C Littrell, Jong K Keum, Amit K Naskar
We report the manufacture of printable, sustainable polymer systems to address global challenges associated with high-volume utilization of lignin, an industrial waste from biomass feedstock. By analyzing a common three-dimensional printing process-fused-deposition modeling-and correlating the printing-process features to properties of materials such as acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and nylon, we devised a first-of-its-kind, high-performance class of printable renewable composites containing 40 to 60 weight % (wt %) lignin...
December 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30553505/renewing-the-performance-of-an-expired-particle-packed-column-using-active-flow-technology-end-fittings
#11
Drew C Hayman, R Andrew Shalliker
The performance of a particle packed column will inevitably degrade through use or misadventure. 'Active flow technology' (AFT) is known to greatly improve the performance of pristine columns, but is as of yet untested when used on columns that have degraded significantly. In this study AFT was used to regenerate a degraded column, where the reduced plate height and asymmetry values were 3.5 and 1.25 respectively. Once the AFT fittings were fitted to the column outlet and the flow segmentation ratio adjusted to 28% from the radial central exit port, the reduced plate height decreased to 2...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552478/second-shot-arterial-phase-to-overcome-degraded-hepatic-arterial-phase-in-liver-mr-imaging
#12
Yang Shin Park, Jongmee Lee, Jeong Woo Kim, Cheol Min Park, Chang Hee Lee
OBJECTIVES: Second shot arterial phase (SSAP) imaging is an additional arterial phase image obtained by re-injecting a small amount of contrast medium after routine dynamic imaging in gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and additional value of a SSAP image in gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI. METHODS: One hundred seventy-two patients who underwent SSAP imaging after re-injection of 4 mL of contrast material after routine dynamic imaging (original) in gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRIs were included...
December 14, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30550960/human-dna-degradation-assessment-and-male-dna-detection-by-quantitative-pcr-followed-by-high-resolution-melting-analysis
#13
S Ginart, M Caputo, D Corach, A Sala
We developed a q-PCR technique that simultaneously evaluates the extent of degradation and determines the gender of a human DNA donor. QYDEG HRM is a triplex real-time PCR whose products are analysed by high-resolution melting (HRM). The system produces three amplicons: (1) transducin (beta)-like 1, Y-linked (TBL1Y) (84bp); (2) large-target sequence (DGlt) (244bp); and (3) small-target sequence (DGst) (152bp). After HRM analysis, three melting peaks are detected in male DNA samples and two in female DNA samples...
November 29, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30550816/degradation-rate-observations-as-a-function-of-drug-load-in-solid-state-drug-products
#14
Steven W Baertschi, Allison L Dill, Timothy T Kramer, Garry Scrivens, Miroslav Suruzhon
Degradation rates of solid state drug products generally increase as the drug load decreases. A model for quantifying this effect based on surface area ratios is proposed here. This model relates the degradation rate to an estimate of the proportion of drug substance in contact with the excipient, and that the drug substance in contact with excipients degrades more quickly. Degradation data from previously published case studies and from five new case studies were found to be consistent with our proposed model; our model performed better than similar previously published models...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30550136/-the-effect-of-the-nasal-packing-material-on-nasal-epithelial-cells
#15
G H Yang, D M Han, H R Zang, T Wang, L F Li
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of polyethylene glycol acrylate hybrid hydrogel degradation substance on nasal mucociliary transport system. Method: In our experiment, the complex hydrogel were formed by the combination of different ratios of polyethyleneglycol diacrylate, chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol. The experiment was divided into four groups according to the international standard of medical devices. DMEM/F12∶BEGM culture medium was used for each packing material extraction, DMEM/F12∶BEGM culture medium was used as control...
December 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30549210/biomaterial-induced-multinucleated-giant-cells-express-proinflammatory-signaling-molecules-a-histological-study-in-humans
#16
Yunxin Zhang, Sarah Al-Maawi, Xuejiu Wang, Robert Sader, C James Kirkpatrick, Shahram Ghanaati
The biomaterials physicochemical characteristics influence their cellular reaction, degradation and regenerative capacities. Macrophages and multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) are observed in the augmentation area of biomaterials. This study, for the first time, evaluated the polarization pattern of macrophages and MNGCs in response to two different bone substitute materials (synthetic bone substitute material (SBSM) = NanoBone® vs. xenogeneic bone substitute material (XBSM) = Bio-Oss®) in human bone biopsies compared to non-augmented bone (control)...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30548688/a-universal-strategy-for-constructing-seamless-graphdiyne-on-metal-oxides-to-stabilize-the-electrochemical-structure-and-interface
#17
Fan Wang, Zicheng Zuo, Liang Li, Feng He, Fushen Lu, Yuliang Li
The structural and interfacial stabilities of metal oxides (MOs) are key issues while facing the volumetric variation and intensive interfacial polarization in electrochemical applications, including lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), supercapacitors, and catalysts. The growth of a seamless all-carbon interfacial layer on MOs with complex dimensions is not only a scientific problem, but also a practical challenge in these fields. Here, the growth of graphdiyne under ultramild condition is successfully implemented in situ for coating MOs of complex dimensions...
December 13, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30546268/-floating-cathode-for-efficient-h-2-o-2-electrogeneration-applied-to-degradation-of-ibuprofen-as-a-model-pollutant
#18
Wei Zhou, Xiaoxiao Meng, Ljiljana Rajic, Yunfei Xue, Shuai Chen, Yani Ding, Kaikai Kou, Yan Wang, Jihui Gao, Yukun Qin, Akram N Alshawabkeh
The performance of the Electro-Fenton (EF) process for contaminant degradation depends on the rate of H2 O2 production at the cathode via 2-electron dissolved O2 reduction. However, the low solubility of O2 (≈1×10-3 mol dm-3 ) limits H2 O2 production. Herein, a novel and practical strategy that enables the synergistic utilization of O2 from the bulk electrolyte and ambient air for efficient H2 O2 production is proposed. Compared with a conventional "submerged" cathode, the H2 O2 concentration obtained using the "floating" cathode is 4...
November 2018: Electrochemistry Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30546075/post-translational-modifications-of-beclin-1-provide-multiple-strategies-for-autophagy-regulation
#19
REVIEW
Sandra M Hill, Lidia Wrobel, David C Rubinsztein
Autophagy is a conserved intracellular degradation pathway essential for protein homeostasis, survival and development. Defects in autophagic pathways have been connected to a variety of human diseases, including cancer and neurodegeneration. In the process of macroautophagy, cytoplasmic cargo is enclosed in a double-membrane structure and fused to the lysosome to allow for digestion and recycling of material. Autophagosome formation is primed by the ULK complex, which enables the downstream production of PI(3)P, a key lipid signalling molecule, on the phagophore membrane...
December 13, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30545136/bioactive-glasses-and-glass-ceramics-for-healthcare-applications-in-bone-regeneration-and-tissue-engineering
#20
REVIEW
Hugo R Fernandes, Anuraag Gaddam, Avito Rebelo, Daniela Brazete, George E Stan, José M F Ferreira
The discovery of bioactive glasses (BGs) in the late 1960s by Larry Hench et al. was driven by the need for implant materials with an ability to bond to living tissues, which were intended to replace inert metal and plastic implants that were not well tolerated by the body. Among a number of tested compositions, the one that later became designated by the well-known trademark of 45S5 Bioglass® excelled in its ability to bond to bone and soft tissues. Bonding to living tissues was mediated through the formation of an interfacial bone-like hydroxyapatite layer when the bioglass was put in contact with biological fluids in vivo...
December 12, 2018: Materials
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