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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741728/ebi2-contributes-to-the-induction-of-thymic-central-tolerance-in-mice-by-promoting-rapid-motility-of-medullary-thymocytes
#1
Sanghee Ki, Hiran M Thyagarajan, Zicheng Hu, Jessica N Lancaster, Lauren I R Ehrlich
Maturing thymocytes enter the thymic medulla, where they encounter numerous self-antigens presented by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Those thymocytes that are strongly self-reactive undergo either negative selection or diversion into the regulatory T cell lineage. Although the majority of the proteome is expressed in the medulla, many self-antigens are expressed by only a minor fraction of medullary APCs; thus, thymocytes must efficiently enter the medulla and scan APCs to ensure central tolerance. Chemokine receptors promote lymphocyte migration, organization within tissues, and interactions with APCs in lymphoid organs...
July 25, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737980/nitration-of-h2b-histone-elicits-an-immune-response-in-experimental-animals
#2
Md Asad Khan, Khursheed Alam, Syed Mehdi Hassan, M Moshahid A Rizvi
Histone H2B is an autoantigen that appears in circulation due to altered apoptosis/or insufficient clearance and is likely to be involved in the induction and progression of autoimmune diseases since modified-H2B is immunogenic. Our studies demonstrate that tyrosines of H2B histone spontaneously converts to free and nitrotyrosine bound protein in vivo. Commercially available H2B histone was modified with peroxynitrite in vitro. Modified H2B was found to be more immunogenic than native form in experimental animals...
July 24, 2017: Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734763/uncleaved-2a-peptide-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-can-display-foreign-epitope-tag-at-the-virion-surface
#3
Jitendra K Biswal, Saravanan Subramaniam, Rajeev Ranjan, Bramhadev Pattnaik
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid precursor protein P1-2A is cleaved by viral-encoded 3C protease (3C(pro)) to generate VP0, VP3, VP1 and 2A proteins. It was reported earlier that substitution of a single amino acid residue within the 2A peptide sequence (L2P) blocked the 3C(pro) mediated VP1/2A cleavage and produced 'self-tagged' FMDV particles containing uncleaved 2A-peptide. To determine whether the uncleaved 2A-peptide can function as a target structure to harbour and display exogenous epitope on FMDV particles, a full-length FMDV cDNA clone containing a HA-tag within the uncleaved 2A-peptide sequence was constructed...
July 19, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733878/role-of-tgf-%C3%AE-in-self-peptide-regulation-of-autoimmunity
#4
REVIEW
Bhagirath Singh, Michael D Krawetz, Rachel M De Lima, Rinee Mukherjee, Pratibha Chaturvedi, Edwin Lee-Chan, Edward H Leiter, Kelly L Summers
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β has been implicated in regulation of the immune system, including autoimmunity. We have found that TGF-β is readily produced by T cells following immunization with self-peptide epitopes that downregulate autoimmune responses in type 1 diabetes (T1D) prone nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. These include multiple peptide epitopes derived from the islet β-cell antigens GAD65 (GAD65 p202-221, GAD65 p217-236), GAD67 (GAD67 p210-229, GAD67 p225-244), IGRP (IGRP p123-145, IGRP p195-214) and insulin B-chain (Ins...
July 21, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731903/hepatitis-transmission-risk-in-kidney-transplantation-the-hint-study-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-transplant-clinicians-in-australian-and-new-zealand
#5
Karen M J Waller, Kate R Wyburn, Nicholas A Shackel, Michael J O'Leary, Patrick J Kelly, Angela C Webster
BACKGROUND: Interpreting hepatitis serology and virus transmission risk in transplantation can be challenging. Decisions must balance opportunity to transplant against potential infection transmission. We aimed to survey understanding among the Australian and New Zealand medical transplant workforce of hepatitis risk in kidney donors and recipients. METHODS: An anonymous, self-completed, cross-sectional survey was distributed via electronic mailing lists to Australian and New Zealand clinicians involved in kidney transplantation (2014-2015)...
July 21, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731588/human-leukocyte-antigen-distribution-and-genomic-ancestry-in-brazilian-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#6
M C F da Silva-Malta, P S Rodrigues, L W Zuccherato, F C B de Souza, E M F L Domingues, V R Souza, E Tarazona-Santos, M L Martins
Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently the only established curative treatment for sickle cell disease (SCD), but is limited by donor availability. Ethnicity is thought to have an impact on the complications experienced by patients that undergo HSCT and on the likelihood of identifying an HLA matched donor. In the present study, we investigated the genomic ancestry and the distribution of HLA allele groups in Brazilian patients with SCD, compared these HLA profiles to worldwide populations and evaluate the availability of HLA-matched donors...
July 21, 2017: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726727/in-vitro-quantified-determination-of-%C3%AE-amyloid-42-peptides-a-biomarker-of-neuro-degenerative-disorders-in-pbs-and-human-serum-using-a-simple-cost-effective-thin-gold-film-biosensor
#7
Yifan Dai, Alireza Molazemhosseini, Chung Chiun Liu
A simple in vitro biosensor for the detection of β-amyloid 42 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and undiluted human serum was fabricated and tested based on our platform sensor technology. The bio-recognition mechanism of this biosensor was based on the effect of the interaction between antibody and antigen of β-amyloid 42 to the redox couple probe of K₄Fe(CN)₆ and K₃Fe(CN)₆. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) served as the transduction mechanism measuring the current output derived from the redox coupling reaction...
July 20, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726424/self-encapsulating-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-plga-microspheres-for-intranasal-vaccine-delivery
#8
Brittany A Bailey, Kashappa-Goud H Desai, Lukasz J Ochyl, Susan M Ciotti, James J Moon, Steven P Schwendeman
Herein we describe a formulation of self-encapsulating poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres for vaccine delivery. Self-healing encapsulation is a novel encapsulation method developed by our group that enables the aqueous loading of large molecules into pre-made PLGA microspheres. Calcium phosphate (CaHPO4) adjuvant gel was incorporated into the microspheres as a protein-trapping agent for improved encapsulation of antigen. Microspheres were found to have a median size of 7.05 ± 0.31 µm, with a w/w loading of 0...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725447/anti-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-antibodies-asca-are-associated-with-body-fat-mass-and-systemic-inflammation-but-not-with-dietary-yeast-consumption-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Anne Stine Kvehaugen, Martin Aasbrenn, Per G Farup
BACKGROUND: Baker's/brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been used as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters to improve growth performance in animals. In humans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is among the most commonly detected fungi in fecal samples and likely originates from food. Recently, an association between anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) and obesity in humans was suggested, but the cause of the elevated ASCA levels is not clear. Our aim was to study ASCA in morbidly obese subjects and explore potential associations with anthropometrics, diet, co-morbidities and biomarkers of inflammation and gut permeability...
2017: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725044/cord-blood-nk-cells-engineered-to-express-il-15-and-a-cd19-targeted-car-show-long-term-persistence-and-potent-anti-tumor-activity
#10
E Liu, Y Tong, G Dotti, H Shaim, B Savoldo, M Mukherjee, J Orange, X Wan, X Lu, A Reynolds, M Gagea, P Banerjee, R Cai, M H Bdaiwi, R Basar, M Muftuoglu, L Li, D Marin, W Wierda, M Keating, R Champlin, E Shpall, K Rezvani
Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have been used to redirect the specificity of autologous T-cells against leukemia and lymphoma with promising clinical results.(1-3) Extending this approach to allogeneic T-cells is problematic as they carry a significant risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Natural killer (NK) cells are highly cytotoxic effectors, killing their targets in a non-antigen specific manner without causing GVHD. Cord blood (CB) offers an attractive, allogeneic, off-the-self source of NK cells for immunotherapy...
July 20, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724801/tcr-ligand-dissociation-rate-is-a-robust-and-stable-biomarker-of-cd8-t-cell-potency
#11
Mathilde Allard, Barbara Couturaud, Laura Carretero-Iglesia, Minh Ngoc Duong, Julien Schmidt, Gwennaëlle C Monnot, Pedro Romero, Daniel E Speiser, Michael Hebeisen, Nathalie Rufer
Despite influencing many aspects of T cell biology, the kinetics of T cell receptor (TCR) binding to peptide-major histocompatibility molecules (pMHC) remain infrequently determined in patient monitoring or for adoptive T cell therapy. Using specifically designed reversible fluorescent pMHC multimeric complexes, we performed a comprehensive study of TCR-pMHC off-rates combined with various functional assays on large libraries of self/tumor- and virus-specific CD8+ T cell clones from melanoma patients and healthy donors...
July 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722107/the-peritoneum-healing-immunity-and-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Annalisa Capobianco, Lucia Cottone, Antonella Monno, Angelo A Manfredi, Patrizia Rovere-Querini
The peritoneum defines a confined microenvironment, which is stable under normal conditions, but is exposed to the damaging effect of infections, surgical injuries, and other neoplastic and non-neoplastic events. Its response to damage includes the recruitment, proliferation and activation of a variety of haematopoietic and stromal cells. In physiologic conditions, effective responses to injuries are organized, inflammatory triggers are eliminated, inflammation quickly abates, and the normal tissue architecture is restored...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721731/self-assembled-injectable-peptide-hydrogels-capable-of-triggering-antitumor-immune-response
#13
Ruirui Xing, Shukun Li, Ning Zhang, Guizhi Shen, Helmuth Möhwald, Xuehai Yan
Self-assembled peptide hydrogels are particularly appealing for drug delivery, tissue engineering, and anti-tumor therapy due to various advantageous features including excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability, defined molecular and higher organized structures and easy availability. However, the poor mechanical and rheological properties of assembled peptide hydrogels cause difficulties in injection, thus limiting further applications. Herein, injectable peptide-based hydrogels with tunable mechanical and rheological properties were obtained by combination with a positively charged poly-peptide (poly-L-lysine, PLL)...
July 19, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720851/microneedle-patch-delivery-of-influenza-vaccine-during-pregnancy-enhances-maternal-immune-responses-promoting-survival-and-long-lasting-passive-immunity-to-offspring
#14
E Stein Esser, Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Haripriya Kalluri, Devin McAllister, Elena V Vassilieva, Elizabeth Q Littauer, Nadia Lelutiu, Mark R Prausnitz, Richard W Compans, Ioanna Skountzou
Influenza virus causes life-threatening infections in pregnant women and their newborns. Immunization during pregnancy is the most effective means of preventing maternal and infant mortality/morbidity; however, influenza vaccination rates of pregnant women remain under 50%. Furthermore, the availability of vaccines in low-resource populations is limited. Skin immunization with microneedle patches (MN) is a novel and safe vaccination platform featuring thermostable vaccine formulations. Cold-chain independence and the potential for self-administration can expand influenza vaccination coverage in developing countries...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720426/langerhans-cells-the-macrophage-in-dendritic-cell-clothing
#15
REVIEW
Thomas Doebel, Benjamin Voisin, Keisuke Nagao
Our assumptions on the identity and functions of Langerhans cells (LCs) of the epidermis have undergone considerable changes. Once thought to be prototypic representatives of the dendritic cell (DC) lineage, they are now considered to be a specialized subset of tissue-resident macrophages. Despite this, LCs display a remarkable mixture of properties. Like many tissue macrophages, they self-maintain locally. However, unlike tissue macrophages and similar to DCs, they homeostatically migrate to lymph nodes and present antigen to antigen-specific T cells...
July 15, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720097/a-versatile-papaya-mosaic-virus-papmv-vaccine-platform-based-on-sortase-mediated-antigen-coupling
#16
Ariane Thérien, Mikaël Bédard, Damien Carignan, Gervais Rioux, Louis Gauthier-Landry, Marie-Ève Laliberté-Gagné, Marilène Bolduc, Pierre Savard, Denis Leclerc
BACKGROUND: Flexuous rod-shaped nanoparticles made of the coat protein (CP) of papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) have been shown to trigger innate immunity through engagement of toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7). PapMV nanoparticles can also serve as a vaccine platform as they can increase the immune response to fused peptide antigens. Although this approach shows great potential, fusion of antigens directly to the CP open reading frame (ORF) is challenging because the fused peptides can alter the structure of the CP and its capacity to self assemble into nanoparticles-a property essential for triggering an efficient immune response to the peptide...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718379/expression-of-embryonic-stem-cell-markers-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#17
Tiphanie Picot, Carmen Mariana Aanei, Amandine Fayard, Pascale Flandrin-Gresta, Sylvie Tondeur, Marina Gouttenoire, Emmanuelle Tavernier-Tardy, Eric Wattel, Denis Guyotat, Lydia Campos
Acute myeloid leukemia is driven by leukemic stem cells which can be identified by cross lineage expression or arrest of differentiation compared to normal hematopoietic stem cells. Self-renewal and lack of differentiation are also features of stem cells and have been associated with the expression of embryonic genes. The aim of our study was to evaluate the expression of embryonic antigens (OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, SSEA1, SSEA3) in hematopoietic stem cell subsets (CD34(+)CD38(-) and CD34(+)CD38(+)) from normal bone marrows and in samples from acute myeloid leukemia patients...
July 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716125/mercury-alters-endogenous-phosphorylation-profiles-of-syk-in-murine-b-cells
#18
Joseph A Caruso, Nicholas Carruthers, Namhee Shin, Randal Gill, Paul M Stemmer, Allen Rosenspire
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence and animal models suggest that exposure to low and non-neurotoxic concentrations of mercury may contribute to idiosyncratic autoimmune disease. Since defects in function and signaling in B cells are often associated with autoimmunity, we investigated whether mercury exposure might alter B cell responsiveness to self-antigens by interfering with B cell receptor (BCR) signal transduction. In this study we determined the effects of mercury on the protein tyrosine kinase SYK, a critical protein involved in regulation of the BCR signaling pathway...
July 17, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715455/synthetic-melanin-bound-to-subunit-vaccine-antigens-significantly-enhances-cd8-t-cell-responses
#19
Antoine F Carpentier, Frédéric Geinguenaud, Thi Tran, Floraly Sejalon, Antoine Martin, Laurence Motte, Eric Tartour, Claire Banissi
Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) play a key role in immunity against cancer; however, the induction of CTL responses with currently available vaccines remains difficult. Because several reports have suggested that pigmentation and immunity might be functionally linked, we investigated whether melanin can act as an adjuvant in vaccines. Short synthetic peptides (8-35 amino acids long) containing T-cell epitopes were mixed with a solution of L-Dopa, a precursor of melanin. The mixture was then oxidized to generate nanoparticles of melanin-bound peptides...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714192/secreted-tumor-antigens-immune-biomarkers-for-diagnosis-and-therapy
#20
REVIEW
Els N Meeusen, Elgene Lim, Suresh Mathivanan
With the advent of immunotherapies for cancer, there is growing interest in the identification of tumor antigens. Tumor antigens are self-molecules altered through genetic mutations (neoantigens), protein truncation, protein misfolding or abnormal post translational modifications. To induce an immune response, tumor antigens need to be secreted into the tumor environment and presented to the immune system in the draining lymph nodes, resulting in the generation of tumor-specific effector cells and antibodies...
July 17, 2017: Proteomics
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