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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214044/enhancement-of-antigen-specific-cd4-and-cd8-t-cell-responses-using-a-self-assembled-biologic-nanolipoprotein-particle-vaccine
#1
Dina Weilhammer, Alexis D Dunkle, Craig D Blanchette, Nicholas O Fischer, Michele Corzett, Doerte Lehmann, Tyler Boone, Paul Hoeprich, Adam Driks, Amy Rasley
To address the need for vaccine platforms that induce robust cell-mediated immunity, we investigated the potential of utilizing self-assembling biologic nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) as an antigen and adjuvant delivery system to induce antigen-specific murine T cell responses. We utilized OT-I and OT-II TCR-transgenic mice to investigate the effects of NLP-mediated delivery of the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) on T cell activation. Delivery of OVA with the TLR4 agonist monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) in the context of NLPs significantly enhanced the activation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in vitro compared to co-administration of free OVA and MPLA...
February 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212613/porphyromonas-gingivalis-can-invade-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells
#2
Chunling Pan, Junchao Liu, Hongyan Wang, Jia Song, Lisi Tan, Haijiao Zhao
BACKGROUND: Porphyromonas gingivalis is strongly associated with the development, progression, severity and recurrence of periodontitis. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) play an important role in the maintenance of periodontal tissue self-renewal and repair. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of P. gingivalis to infect PDLSCs using an in vitro monolayer model. METHODS: We separated and cultured primary PDLSCs using the tissue block with limiting dilution method...
February 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207486/particle-based-delivery-of-the-hiv-envelope-protein
#3
Benedikt Asbach, Ralf Wagner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A major focus in HIV vaccine research is the development of suitable antigens that elicit broadly neutralizing antibody responses targeting HIV's envelope protein (Env). Delivery of Env in a repetitive manner on particle-based carriers allows higher avidity interactions and is therefore expected to efficiently engage B cells, thus leading to affinity maturation that results in superior antibody responses characterized by improved breadth, potency, and durability. This review summarizes current work that is evaluating diverse types of such particulate carriers for Env delivery...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205558/plant-based-vaccines-for-oral-delivery-of-type-1-diabetes-related-autoantigens-evaluating-oral-tolerance-mechanisms-and-disease-prevention-in-nod-mice
#4
Amanda L Posgai, Clive H Wasserfall, Kwang-Chul Kwon, Henry Daniell, Desmond A Schatz, Mark A Atkinson
Autoantigen-specific immunological tolerance represents a central objective for prevention of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Previous studies demonstrated mucosal antigen administration results in expansion of Foxp3(+) and LAP(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), suggesting oral delivery of self-antigens might represent an effective means for modulating autoimmune disease. Early preclinical experiments using the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model reported mucosal administration of T1D-related autoantigens [proinsulin or glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD)] delayed T1D onset, but published data are conflicting regarding dose, treatment duration, requirement for combinatorial agents, and extent of efficacy...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205451/sialylation-of-porphyromonas-gingivalis-lps-and-its-effect-on-bacterial-host-interactions
#5
Svetislav S Zaric, Mark J Lappin, Catherine R Fulton, Fionnuala T Lundy, Wilson A Coulter, Christopher R Irwin
Porphyromonas gingivalis produces different LPS isoforms with significant structural variations of their lipid A and O-antigen moieties that can affect its pro-inflammatory and bone-resorbing potential. We show here, for the first time, that P. gingivalis LPS isolated from W83 strain is highly sialylated and possesses significantly reduced inflammatory potential compared with less sialylated ATCC 33277 strain LPS. Nevertheless, the reduction in the endotoxin activity is not mediated by the presence of sialic acid LPS moieties as the sialic acid-free LPS produced by the mutant W83 strain exhibits a similar inflammatory potential to the wild type strain...
January 1, 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202751/superiority-in-rhesus-macaques-of-targeting-hiv-1-env-gp140-to-cd40-versus-lox-1-in-combination-with-replication-competent-nyvac-kc-for-induction-of-env-specific-antibody-and-t-cell-responses
#6
Gerard Zurawski, Xiaoying Shen, Sandra Zurawski, Georgia D Tomaras, David C Montefiori, Mario Roederer, Guido Ferrari, Christine Lacabaratz, Peter Klucar, Zhiqing Wang, Kathryn E Foulds, Shing-Fen Kao, Xuesong Yu, Alicia Sato, Nicole L Yates, Celia LaBranche, Sherry Stanfield-Oakley, Karen Kibler, Bertram Jacobs, Andres Salazar, Steve Self, Jimmy Fulp, Raphael Gottardo, Lindsey Galmin, Deborah Weiss, Anthony Cristillo, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Yves Levy
We compared the HIV-1-specific immune responses generated by targeting HIV-1 envelope protein (Env gp140) to either CD40 or LOX-1, two endocytic receptors on dendritic cells (DCs), in Rhesus macaques primed with a poxvirus vector (NYVAC-KC) expressing Env gp140. The DC-targeting vaccines, humanized recombinant monoclonal antibodies fused to Env gp140, were administered as a boost with poly ICLC adjuvant either alone or co-administered with the NYVAC-KC vector. All the DC-targeting vaccine administrations with poly ICLC increased the low-level serum anti-Env IgG responses elicited by NYVAC-KC priming significantly more (up to P =0...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199836/bcr-and-endosomal-tlr-signals-synergize-to-increase-aid-expression-and-establish-central-b-cell-tolerance
#7
Masayuki Kuraoka, Pilar B Snowden, Takuya Nojima, Laurent Verkoczy, Barton F Haynes, Daisuke Kitamura, Garnett Kelsoe
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required to purge autoreactive immature and transitional-1 (immature/T1) B cells at the first tolerance checkpoint, but how AID selectively removes self-reactive B cells is unclear. We now show that B cell antigen receptor (BCR) and endosomal Toll-like receptor (TLR) signals synergize to elicit high levels of AID expression in immature/T1 B cells. This synergy is restricted to ligands for endocytic TLR and requires phospholipase-D activation, endosomal acidification, and MyD88...
February 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199204/the-crossroads-between-cancer-immunity-and-autoimmunity-antibodies-to-self-antigens
#8
Monica Benvenuto, Rosanna Mattera, Laura Masuelli, Ilaria Tresoldi, Maria Gabriella Giganti, Giovanni Vanni Frajese, Vittorio Manzari, Andrea Modesti, Roberto Bei
The production of autoantibodies to self antigens is dependent on the failure of immune tolerance. Cancer cells express antigens which elicit a spontaneous immune response in cancer patients. The repertoire of autoantibodies found in cancer patients partly covers that of patients with autoimmune diseases. Biological activities of autoantibodies to self antigens may induce paraneoplastic syndromes which reflect the attempt of cancer patients to counteract tumor growth. Autoantibodies with similar specificities may have different effects in cancer and autoimmune disease patients due to different immunological microenvironments...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197317/comparison-of-fluorinated-and-nonfluorinated-lipids-in-self-adjuvanting-delivery-systems-for-peptide-based-vaccines
#9
Waleed M Hussein, Saori Mukaida, Fazren Azmi, Stacey Bartlett, Celine Olivier, Michael R Batzloff, Michael F Good, Mariusz Skwarczynski, Istvan Toth
Safe immunostimulants (adjuvants) are essential for the development of highly potent peptide-based vaccines. This study examined for the first time whether fluorinated lipids could stimulate humoral immunity in vivo when conjugated to peptide antigen. The impact of fluorination on humoral immunity was tested using a library of peptide-based vaccine candidates against the group A streptococcus (GAS). The fluorinated constructs stimulated similar mouse IgG titers to those elicited by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) and were higher than those produced in mice that received the nonfluorinated constructs...
February 9, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195200/dynamical-footprint-of-cross-reactivity-in-a-human-autoimmune-t-cell-receptor
#10
Amit Kumar, Francesco Delogu
The present work focuses on the dynamical aspects of cross-reactivity between myelin based protein (MBP) self-peptide and two microbial peptides (UL15, PMM) for Hy.1B11 T-cell receptor (TCR). This same TCR was isolated from a patient suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS). The study aims at highlighting the chemical interactions underlying recognition mechanisms between TCR and the peptides presented by Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) proteins, which form a crucial component in adaptive immune response against foreign antigens...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192953/attomole-antigen-detection-using-self-electrochemiluminous-graphene-oxide-capped-au-l012-nanocomposite
#11
Chen Cui, Ying Chen, Dechen Jiang, Jun-Jie Zhu, Hong-Yuan Chen
In this work, a self-electrochemiluminous graphene oxide-capped Au@L012 nanocomposite was prepared as the label at carcinoembryonic (CEA) antibody to detect attomole CEA antigen. To maximize the luminescence intensity, L012 molecules (luminol analogue) were linked with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) to form positive charged PDDA&L012 pairs, which were modified on negative charged Au@nafion nanoparticles to construct a Au@nafion@PDDA&L012 (Au@L012) complex. Graphene oxide with carboxyl groups was capped at Au@L012 complex through electrostatic interaction to serve as an effective matrix for the covalent attachment of CEA antibody...
February 9, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188592/redirecting-reproductive-immunology-research-toward-pregnancy-as-a-period-of-temporary-immune-tolerance
#12
Norbert Gleicher, Vitaly A Kushnir, David H Barad
Referring to two recent publications, we here propose that clinical reproductive immunology has for decades stagnated because reproductive medicine, including assisted reproduction (AR), has failed to accept embryo implantation as an immune system-driven process, dependent on establishment of maternal tolerance toward the implanting fetal semi-allograft (and complete allograft in cases of oocyte donation). Pregnancy represents a biologically unique period of temporary (to the period of gestation restricted) tolerance, otherwise only known in association with parasitic infections...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185717/biomarker-validation-of-self-reported-sex-among-middle-aged-female-sex-workers-in-china
#13
Jennifer Guida, Ami Fukunaga, Hongjie Liu
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to examine information bias arising from self-reported sexual activity and its association with syphilitic infections among female sex workers (FSWs) aged 35 years and older in China. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to 1245 middle-aged FSWs. Respondents self-reported sexual intercourse in the past 48 hours. The prostate-specific antigen test was used to verify self-reported sexual activity. FSWs were considered discordant if they indicated no sexual intercourse in the past 48 hours on the questionnaire and had a positive prostate-specific antigen test...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184223/fc-engineering-for-developing-therapeutic-bispecific-antibodies-and-novel-scaffolds
#14
REVIEW
Hongyan Liu, Abhishek Saxena, Sachdev S Sidhu, Donghui Wu
Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have become molecules of choice to treat autoimmune disorders, inflammatory diseases, and cancer. Moreover, bispecific/multispecific antibodies that target more than one antigen or epitope on a target cell or recruit effector cells (T cell, natural killer cell, or macrophage cell) toward target cells have shown great potential to maximize the benefits of antibody therapy. In the past decade, many novel concepts to generate bispecific and multispecific antibodies have evolved successfully into a range of formats from full bispecific immunoglobulin gammas to antibody fragments...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181470/controlled-release-of-antigen-and-toll-like-receptor-ligands-from-plga-nanoparticles-enhances-immunogenicity
#15
Luis J Cruz, Paul J Tacken, Christina Eich, Felix Rueda, Ruurd Torensma, Carl G Figdor
AIM: Dendritic cells rapidly capture nanoparticles and induce a potent cellular immune response. It is yet unknown whether the immunological response induced by slow release of encapsulated versus soluble antigen and adjuvant is superior. MATERIALS & METHODS: The kinetics of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) PLGA nanoparticles antigen release was studied by the DQ-bovine serum albumin (BSA) self-quenching antigen model. The immunological response induced was evaluated by means of dendritic cell activation/maturation markers, cytokine production and their ability to drive antigen-specific T-cell proliferation...
February 9, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181151/update-on-potential-therapies-for-ige-mediated-food-allergy
#16
REVIEW
Andrew MacGinnite
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Food allergy is common, affecting up to 8% of children in the USA. Currently, therapy is limited to avoidance of the implicated allergen and availability of self-injectable epinephrine. However, several new approaches to food allergy are under investigation. This article reviews the published data on these new approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: Oral immunotherapy, in which allergic subjects are exposed to increasing amounts of antigen, can be accomplished in the majority of allergic individuals...
January 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179536/hiv-aids-vaccine-candidates-based-on-replication-competent-recombinant-poxvirus-nyvac-c-kc-expressing-trimeric-gp140-and-gag-derived-vlps-or-lacking-the-viral-molecule-b19-that-inhibits-type-i-interferon-activate-relevant-hiv-1-specific-b-and-t-cell-immune
#17
Juan García-Arriaza, Beatriz Perdiguero, Jonathan L Heeney, Michael S Seaman, David C Montefiori, Nicole L Yates, Georgia D Tomaras, Guido Ferrari, Kathryn E Foulds, Mario Roederer, Steven G Self, Bhavesh Borate, Raphael Gottardo, Sanjay Phogat, Jim Tartaglia, Susan W Barnett, Brian Burke, Anthony D Cristillo, Deborah E Weiss, Carter Lee, Karen V Kibler, Bertram L Jacobs, Ralf Wagner, Song Ding, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Mariano Esteban
The non-replicating attenuated poxvirus vector NYVAC expressing clade C(CN54) HIV-1 Env(gp120), Gag-Pol-Nef antigens (NYVAC-C) showed in phase I clinical trials limited immunogenicity. To enhance the capacity of the NYVAC vector to trigger broad humoral responses and a more balanced activation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, here we compared the HIV-1-specific immunogenicity elicited in non-human primates immunized with two replicating NYVAC vectors that have been modified by the insertion of K1L and C7L vaccinia viral host-range genes and express clade C(ZM96) trimeric HIV-1 gp140 protein or a Gag(ZM96)-Pol-Nef(CN54) polyprotein as Gag-derived virus-like particles (termed NYVAC-C-KC)...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179404/a-plasmodium-vivax-plasmid-dna-and-adenovirus-vectored-malaria-vaccine-encoding-blood-stage-antigens-ama1-and-msp142-in-a-prime-boost-heterologous-immunization-regimen-partially-protects-aotus-monkeys-against-blood-stage-challenge
#18
Nicanor Obaldia, Michael G Stockelman, William Otero, Jennifer A Cockrill, Harini Ganeshan, Esteban N Abot, Jianfeng Zhang, Keith Limbach, Yupin Charoenvit, Denise L Doolan, De-Chu C Tang, Thomas L Richie
Malaria is caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium that are transmitted to humans by the bites of Anopheles mosquitoes. After the elimination of P. falciparum it is predicted that Plasmodium vivax will remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality outside of Africa, stressing the importance of developing a vaccine against malaria. In this study we assess the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of two P. vivax antigens, AMA1 and MSP142 in a recombinant DNA plasmid prime/adenoviral vector (Ad) boost regimen in Aotus monkeys...
February 8, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176139/lower-prostate-cancer-risk-in-swedish-men-with-the-androgen-receptor-e213-a-allele
#19
Magdalena Bentmar Holgersson, Yasir Ruhayel, Magnus Karlsson, Aleksander Giwercman, Anders Bjartell, Claes Ohlsson, Dan Mellström, Östen Ljunggren, Mohammad-Ali Haghsheno, Jan-Erik Damber, Yvonne Lundberg Giwercman
BACKGROUND: In a previous population-based study on 3369 European men with self-reported prostate cancer (PCa), it was shown that androgen receptor (AR) haplotype designated H2 was associated with high levels of serum PSA (prostate-specific antigen) concentration, and, at the same time, with low risk for PCa. The aim of this study was to replicate this finding in other cohorts, with registry-based cancer diagnosis. METHODS: Using data from two population-based cohorts; the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS, n = 12,121) and the Swedish Osteoporotic fractures in men study (MrOS, n = 1,120), 628 men with PCa and 1,374 controls were identified and genotyped...
February 7, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170374/corrigendum-analysis-of-self-antigen-specificity-of-islet-infiltrating-t-cells-from-human-donors-with-type-1-diabetes
#20
Jenny Aurielle B Babon, Megan E DeNicola, David M Blodgett, Inne Crèvecoeur, Thomas S Buttrick, René Maehr, Rita Bottino, Ali Naji, John Kaddis, Wassim Elyaman, Eddie A James, Rachana Haliyur, Marcela Brissova, Lut Overbergh, Chantal Mathieu, Thomas Delong, Kathryn Haskins, Alberto Pugliese, Martha Campbell-Thompson, Clayton Mathews, Mark A Atkinson, Alvin C Powers, David M Harlan, Sally C Kent
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Nature Medicine
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