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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343892/first-two-bilateral-hand-transplantations-in-india-part-4-immediate-post-operative-care-immunosuppression-protocol-and-monitoring
#1
Subramania Iyer, Mohit Sharma, P Kishore, Jimmy Mathew, R Janarthanan, Raghuveer Reddy, Abhijeet Wakure, Sundeep Vijayaraghavan, S M Chetan Mali, Visakh Varma, Ashish Chaudhari, Swapnil Dhake, Akshay Omkumar, George Kurian, Rajesh Nair, Anil Mathew, Zachariah Paul, Malini Eapen, Lalitha Biswas
Introduction: Being able to counter immune-mediated rejection has for decades been the single largest obstacle for the progress of vascular composite allotransplantation (VCA). The human immune system performs the key role of differentiating the 'self ' from the 'non-self '. This, although is quintessential to eliminate or resist infections, also resists the acceptance of an allograft which it promptly recognises as 'non-self'. Materials and Methods: Pre-operative evaluation of the recipient evaluation included immunological assessment in the form of panel reactive antibodies (PRA), human leucocyte antigen (HLA) typing, donor-specific antibody detection assays (DSA) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity assays (CDC)...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342250/pneumococcal-community-acquired-pneumonia-detected-by-serotype-specific-urinary-antigen-detection-assays
#2
Richard G Wunderink, Wesley H Self, Evan J Anderson, Robert Balk, Sherene Fakhran, Daniel Mark Courtney, Chao Qi, Derek J Williams, Yuwei Zhu, Cynthia G Whitney, Matthew R Moore, Anna Bramley, Seema Jain, Kathryn M Edwards, Carlos G Grijalva
Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is considered the leading bacterial cause of pneumonia in adults. Yet, it was not commonly detected by traditional culture-based and conventional urinary testing in a recent multicenter etiology study of adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We used novel serotype-specific urinary antigen detection (SSUAD) assays to determine whether pneumococcal cases were missed by traditional testing. Methods: We studied adult patients hospitalized with CAP at 5 hospitals in Chicago and Nashville (2010-2012) and enrolled in the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) study...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341501/tadalafil-improves-symptoms-erectile-function-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-suggestive-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-kyu-pro-study
#3
Ryosuke Takahashi, Minoru Miyazato, Hisae Nishii, Yasuhiro Sumino, Kazuo Takayama, Masako Onzuka, Takuma Oshiro, Seiichi Saito, Naohiro Fujimoto, Hiromitsu Mimata, Masatoshi Eto
OBJECTIVES: Effect of tadalafil on lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), erectile function and quality of life (QoL) were prospectively evaluated in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) at multicenter. METHODS: Eligible men were ≥40 years who had no treatment with alpha-blocker for BPH, with total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) ≥8, IPSS-QOL ≥2 and prostate volume ≥20 mL. Data were collected on age, body mass index (BMI), and prostate specific antigen (PSA)...
January 2018: Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340708/molecular-recognition-of-microbial-lipid-based-antigens-by-t-cells
#4
REVIEW
Stephanie Gras, Ildiko Van Rhijn, Adam Shahine, Jérôme Le Nours
The immune system has evolved to protect hosts from pathogens. T cells represent a critical component of the immune system by their engagement in host defence mechanisms against microbial infections. Our knowledge of the molecular recognition by T cells of pathogen-derived peptidic antigens that are presented by the major histocompatibility complex glycoproteins is now well established. However, lipids represent an additional, distinct chemical class of molecules that when presented by the family of CD1 antigen-presenting molecules can serve as antigens, and be recognized by specialized subsets of T cells leading to antigen-specific activation...
January 16, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339782/loss-of-disease-tolerance-during-citrobacter-rodentium-infection-is-associated-with-impaired-epithelial-differentiation-and-hyperactivation-of-t-cell-responses
#5
Eugene Kang, Guangyan Zhou, Mitra Yousefi, Romain Cayrol, Jianguo Xia, Samantha Gruenheid
Citrobacter rodentium is an intestinal mouse pathogen widely used as a model to study the mucosal response to infection. Inbred mouse strains suffer one of two fates following infection: self-limiting colitis or fatal diarrheal disease. We previously reported that Rspo2 is a major genetic determinant of the outcome of C. rodentium infection; Rspo2 induction during infection of susceptible mice leads to loss of intestinal function and mortality. Rspo2 induction does not impact bacterial colonization, but rather, impedes the ability of the host to tolerate C...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335648/rapid-chromatin-repression-by-aire-provides-precise-control-of-immune-tolerance
#6
Andrew S Koh, Erik L Miller, Jason D Buenrostro, David M Moskowitz, Jing Wang, William J Greenleaf, Howard Y Chang, Gerald R Crabtree
Aire mediates the expression of tissue-specific antigens in thymic epithelial cells to promote tolerance against self-reactive T lymphocytes. However, the mechanism that allows expression of tissue-specific genes at levels that prevent harm is unknown. Here we show that Brg1 generates accessibility at tissue-specific loci to impose central tolerance. We found that Aire has an intrinsic repressive function that restricts chromatin accessibility and opposes Brg1 across the genome. Aire exerted this repressive influence within minutes after recruitment to chromatin and restrained the amplitude of active transcription...
January 15, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333023/nivolumab-pearls-of-evidence
#7
REVIEW
Pratishtha B Chaudhari
Purpose: Nivolumab is one of the most extensively studied immune checkpoint inhibitors across various tumor types. In this narrative review, the current clinical efficacy and safety data of anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) nivolumab for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and renal cell cancer (RCC) are elucidated. Methods: Systematic search was done on Pubmed, Medline, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Central through September 2016 for controlled prospective interventional studies of nivolumab across two indications - NSCLC and RCC...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330484/single-cell-rna-sequencing-resolves-self-antigen-expression-during-mtec-development
#8
Ricardo J Miragaia, Xiuwei Zhang, Tomás Gomes, Valentine Svensson, Tomislav Ilicic, Johan Henriksson, Gozde Kar, Tapio Lönnberg
The crucial capability of T cells for discrimination between self and non-self peptides is based on negative selection of developing thymocytes by medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). The mTECs purge autoreactive T cells by expression of cell-type specific genes referred to as tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs). Although the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein is known to promote the expression of a subset of TRAs, its mechanism of action is still not fully understood. The expression of TRAs that are not under the control of AIRE also needs further characterization...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324304/injectable-polypeptide-hydrogel-for-dual-delivery-of-antigen-and-tlr3-agonist-to-modulate-dendritic-cells-in%C3%A2-vivo-and-enhance-potent-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-response-against-melanoma
#9
Huijuan Song, Pingsheng Huang, Jinfeng Niu, Gaona Shi, Chuangnian Zhang, Deling Kong, Weiwei Wang
Transplantation of immune cells manipulated in vitro to dictate immune responses in the body is promising in cancer immunotherapy. However, this approach suffers from low cell survival after administration, insufficient cell homing to lymph nodes, and off-target. Here we demonstrate an injectable and self-assembled poly(l-valine) hydrogel as the delivery carrier of cargoes including antigen and immunopotentiator for DCs modulation. Our results indicate the vaccine formulation composed of tumor cell lysates (TCL), TLR3 agonist, poly(I:C) and polypeptide hydrogel can robustly recruit, activate and mature DCs in vitro and in vivo by sustained release of TCL and poly(I:C)...
January 3, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323337/regulatory-t-cells-as-a-new-therapeutic-target-for-atherosclerosis
#10
REVIEW
Han-Xiao Ou, Bing-Bing Guo, Qi Liu, Yu-Kun Li, Zhen Yang, Wen-Jie Feng, Zhong-Cheng Mo
Atherosclerosis is an autoimmune disease caused by self- and non-self-antigens contributing to excessive activation of T and B cell immune responses. These responses further aggravate vascular inflammation and promote progression of atherosclerosis and vulnerability to plaques via releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) as the major immunoregulatory cells, in particular, induce and maintain immune homeostasis and tolerance by suppressing the immune responses of various cells such as T and B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, monocytes, and dendritic cells (DCs), as well as by secreting inhibitory cytokines interleukin (IL)-10, IL-35 and transcription growth factor β (TGF-β) in both physiological and pathological states...
January 11, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321445/negative-regulation-of-b-cell-responses-and-self-tolerance-to-rna-related-lupus-self-antigen
#11
Takeshi Tsubata
The antibody response to RNA-related antigens such as Sm/RNP requires the endosomal RNA sensor TLR7, and this process is crucial in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus at least in animal models. The inhibitory B cell receptor CD72 is unique because it recognizes Sm/RNP and specifically inhibits the activation of Sm/RNP-reactive B cells by activating SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1). In the normal immune system, Sm/RNP-reactive B cells are tolerized by a unique mechanism that probably involves SHP-1...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317506/the-interplay-between-citrullination-and-hla-drb1-polymorphism-in-shaping-peptide-binding-hierarchies-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#12
Yi Tian Ting, Jan Petersen, Sri H Ramarathinam, Stephen W Scally, Khai L Loh, Ranjeny Thomas, Anish Suri, Daniel G Baker, Anthony W Purcell, Hugh H Reid, Jamie Rossjohn
The HLA-DRB1 locus is strongly associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility, whereupon citrullinated self-peptides bind to HLA-DR molecules bearing the shared epitope (SE) amino acid motif.  However, the differing propensity for citrullinated/non-citrullinated self-peptides to bind given HLA-DR allomorphs remains unclear.  Here, we used a fluorescence polarisation assay to determine a hierarchy of binding affinities of 34 self-peptides implicated in RA against three HLA-DRB1 allomorphs (HLA-DRB1*04:01/*04:04/*04:05) each possessing the SE motif...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317287/in-vivo-response-of-the-human-epigenome-to-vitamin-d-a-proof-of-principle-study
#13
Carsten Carlberg, Sabine Seuter, Tarja Nurmi, Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen, Jyrki K Virtanen, Antonio Neme
In vitro cell culture studies showed that the hormonal form of vitamin D3, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, significantly (p < 0.05) affects the human epigenome at thousands of genomic loci. Phase II of the VitDbol vitamin D intervention trial (NCT02063334) involved a proof-of-principle study of one individual, who was exposed three times every 28 days to an oral bolus (2,000 µg) of vitamin D3. Blood samples were taken directly before each supplementation as well as one and two days after, chromatin was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells without any further in vitro culture and at all nine time points epigenome-wide chromatin accessibility was assessed by applying FAIRE-seq (formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements sequencing)...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316217/exosomes-expressing-the-self-antigens-myosin-and-vimentin-play-an-important-role-in-syngeneic-cardiac-transplant-rejection-induced-by-antibodies-to-cardiac-myosin
#14
Monal Sharma, Wei Liu, Sudhir Perincheri, Muthukumar Gunasekaran, T Mohanakumar
Long-term success of heart transplantation is hindered by humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. We studied preexisting antibodies to two cardiac self-antigens, myosin and vimentin, and exosomes induced by antibodies to self-antigens in eliciting immune responses to cardiac grafts. After syngeneic heterotopic murine heart transplantation, rabbit anti-myosin or normal rabbit immunoglobulin was administered at days 0 or 7. Sera were collected after heartbeat cessation and cellular infiltration was analyzed, and exosomes were isolated from sera...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315388/galectin-3-and-cancer-stemness
#15
Pratima Nangia-Makker, Victor Hogan, Avraham Raz
Over the last few decades galectin-3, a carbohydrate binding protein, with affinity for N-acetyllactosamine residues, has been unique due to the regulatory roles it performs in processes associated with tumor progression and metastasis such as cell proliferation, homotypic/ heterotypic aggregation, dynamic cellular transformation, migration and invasion, survival and apoptosis. Structure-function association of galectin-3 reveals that it consists of a short amino terminal motif, which regulates its nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling; a collagen α-like domain, susceptible to cleavage by matrix metalloproteases and prostate specific antigen (PSA); accountable for its oligomerization and lattice formation, and a carbohydrate recognition/binding domain containing the anti-death motif of the Bcl2 protein family...
January 5, 2018: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313945/endocrine-dysfunction-induced-by-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-practical-recommendations-for-diagnosis-and-clinical-management
#16
REVIEW
Romualdo Barroso-Sousa, Patrick A Ott, F Stephen Hodi, Ursula B Kaiser, Sara M Tolaney, Le Min
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized cancer therapy. However, because ICIs block coinhibitory molecules on T cells and other immune cells, unleashing them to mediate tumor cell killing, they also can disrupt the maintenance of immunological tolerance to self-antigens. Compared with chemotherapy, ICIs have a different toxicity profile, especially the occurrence of autoimmune-like manifestations against multiple organ systems, including endocrine glands, commonly referred to as immune-related adverse events...
January 3, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310271/a-novel-peptide-fe3o4-sio2-au-nanocomposite-based-fluorescence-biosensor-for-the-highly-selective-and-sensitive-detection-of-prostate-specific-antigen
#17
Lanfang Yang, Nan Li, Ke Wang, Xiaoman Hai, Junxia Liu, Fuquan Dang
Highly selective and sensitive detection methods are very important for the early diagnosis of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Here, we present a novel peptide/Fe3O4@SiO2-Au nanocomposite-based fluorescence biosensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of PSA. The biosensor was made by self-organizing 5-FAM labeled peptides onto the surface of magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2-Au nanocomposites (MNCPs), resulting in efficient quenching of the FAM fluorescence. The PSA specifically recognized and cleaved the 5-FAM-labeled peptides, leading to the fluorescence recovery...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308310/a-novel-immunization-strategy-using-cytokine-chemokines-induces-new-effective-systemic-immune-responses-and-frequent-complete-regressions-of-human-metastatic-melanoma
#18
Fred T Valentine, Frederick M Golomb, Matthew Harris, Daniel F Roses
Immune responses have been elicited by a variety of cancer vaccines, but seldom induce regressions of established cancers in humans. As a novel therapeutic immunization strategy, we tested the hypothesis that multiple cytokines/chemokines secreted early in secondary responses ex-vivo might mimic the secretory environment guiding new immune responses. The early development of immune responses is regulated by multiple cytokines/chemokines acting together, which at physiologic concentrations act locally in concert with antigen to have non-specific effects on adjacent cells, including the maturation of dendritic cells, homing and retention of T cells at the site of antigen, and the differentiation and expansion of T cell clones with appropriate receptors...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307800/effect-of-ultra-high-pressure-on-molecular-structure-and-properties-of-bullfrog-skin-collagen
#19
Jie Nan, Meilian Zou, Haibo Wang, Chengzhi Xu, Juntao Zhang, Benmei Wei, Lang He, Yuling Xu
Ultra-high pressure technology has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years, and has been widely used in food science, medicine, and other fields. This study aimed to determine the effect of ultra-high pressure on the structure and properties of collagen. Native collagen extracted from bullfrog skin was processed under different ultra-high pressure treatment conditions (300, 400, and 500MPa). Then systematic analysis of the molecular structures and properties of the samples after ultra-high pressure treatment were performed...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305419/the-molecular-basis-of-immune-regulation-in-autoimmunity
#20
REVIEW
Shu-Han Yang, Cai-Yue Gao, Liang Li, Christopher Chang, Patrick S C Leung, M Eric Gershwin, Zhe-Xiong Lian
Autoimmune diseases can be triggered and modulated by various molecular and cellular characteristics. The mechanisms of autoimmunity and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases have been investigated for several decades. It is well accepted that autoimmunity is caused by dysregulated/dysfunctional immune susceptible genes and environmental factors. There are multiple physiological mechanisms that regulate and control self-reactivity, but which can also lead to tolerance breakdown when in defect. The majority of autoreactive T or B cells are eliminated during the development of central tolerance by negative selection...
January 16, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
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