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Mohammad Heidari, Mansureh Ghodusi Borujeni, Mansour Ghafourifard, Rahim Ali Sheikhi
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of various diseases in the elderly has increased the use of drugs, which is coupled with age-related physiological changes and places the elderly at risk for multiple side effects. The present study aimed to determine awareness, attitudes and practices of elderly towards self-medication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample included 300 participants over 60 years under any of the health centers in urban and rural areas of Abadeh city, who were selected based on stratified random sampling method...
March 20, 2018: Drug Research
Tiffany L Hutchins, Patricia A Prelock
Episodic memory (EM) and scene construction are critical for organizing and understanding personally experienced events and for developing several aspects of social cognition including self-concept, identity, introspection, future thinking, counterfactual reasoning, theory of mind, self-regulation, flexible problem-solving, and socially adaptive behavior. This article challenges the reader to think differently about EM in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as we expand our understanding of autobiographical memory that requires an ability to travel back in time and re-experience an event...
April 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Münteha Nur Sonuç Karaboğa, Mustafa Kemal Sezgintürk
This paper illustrates a new and sensitive electrochemical immunosensor for the analysis of C-reactive protein. Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) disposable sheets were modified by using 3-cyanopropyltrimethoxysilane (CPTMS) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for the first time for immobilizing the anti-CRP antibody via covalent interactions without the need for any cross-linking agent. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), as well as square wave voltammetry (SWV) methods were applied to characterize immobilization steps of anti-CRP and to determine the CRP concentration...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Anomitra Dey, Aditya Kamat, Sonal Nayak, Dganit Danino, Ellina Kesselman, Prajakta Dandekar, Ratnesh Jain
Researchers have explored the ability of chitosan to form nanoparticles, to suit varying applications, ranging from wound-healing to gene delivery. Ionic gelation is a widely used method for formulating chitosan nanoparticles, where self-assembly plays a crucial role. This self-assembly is initially promoted by hydrophilic-hydrophobic parity amongst individual chitosan residues, along with electrostatic and Van der Waals interactions with the cross-linker. However, until now the intrinsic ability of chitosan to self-assemble is not widely studied; hence, we investigate the self-assembly of chitosan, based on proton balance between its protonated and deprotonated residues, to promote facile nanoparticle synthesis...
March 14, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
É Duvelle, K J Jeffery
How does the brain represent the location of others? Recordings in rats and bats show that, along with representing self-location in an environment, some hippocampal neurons are modulated by the position of another individual.
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
David C Grossman, Susan J Curry, Douglas K Owens, Michael J Barry, Aaron B Caughey, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Martha Kubik, Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in the United States. Although invasive melanoma accounts for only 2% of all skin cancer cases, it is responsible for 80% of skin cancer deaths. Basal and squamous cell carcinoma, the 2 predominant types of nonmelanoma skin cancer, represent the vast majority of skin cancer cases. Objective: To update the 2012 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on behavioral counseling for the primary prevention of skin cancer and the 2009 recommendation on screening for skin cancer with skin self-examination...
March 20, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Nora B Henrikson, Caitlin C Morrison, Paula R Blasi, Matt Nguyen, Kendall C Shibuya, Carrie D Patnode
Importance: Exposure to UV radiation, especially in childhood, increases skin cancer risk. Objective: To systematically review the evidence on the benefits and harms of behavioral counseling for skin cancer prevention to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). Data Sources: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and PubMed were searched for studies published from January 2009 to March 31, 2016, for skin cancer prevention and from August 2005 to March 31, 2016, for skin self-examination...
March 20, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
June K Robinson, Nina G Jablonski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Ross J Thomson, Nay Aung, Mihir M Sanghvi, Jose Miguel Paiva, Aaron M Lee, Filip Zemrak, Kenneth Fung, Paul E Pfeffer, Alexander J Mackay, Tricia M McKeever, Elena Lukaschuk, Valentina Carapella, Young Jin Kim, Charlotte E Bolton, Stefan K Piechnik, Stefan Neubauer, Steffen E Petersen
BACKGROUND: Reduced lung function is common and associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, even in asymptomatic individuals without diagnosed respiratory disease. Previous studies have identified relationships between lung function and cardiovascular structure in individuals with pulmonary disease, but the relationships in those free from diagnosed cardiorespiratory disease have not been fully explored. METHODS: UK Biobank is a prospective cohort study of community participants in the United Kingdom...
2018: PloS One
Mohammad Reza Miri, Mitra Moodi, Gholam-Reza Sharif-Zadeh, Hakimeh Malaki Moghadam, Maryam Miri, Ensiyeh Norozi
INTRODUCTION: The uptake of Pap smear among Iranian women is low, resulting in a high rate of casualties from cervical cancer in Iran. The present study used the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Stages of Change theory as theoretical frameworks for understanding the predictors of the behaviour of Iranian Women Health Volunteers (WHVs) with respect to cervical cancer screening. METHODS: Data from the 1,253 WHVs were analyzed using path analysis to assess the effects of cognitive factors (including knowledge, perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, perceived severity of cervical cancer, Pap smear benefits, Pap smear barriers, and Pap smear self-efficacy) on the stages of change for Pap-smear behaviour...
2018: PloS One
Laura Sanvicente-Añorve, Jorge Zavala-Hidalgo, Eugenia Allende-Arandía, Margarita Hermoso-Salazar
Most coral-associated decapod species have non-migratory adult populations and depend on their planktonic larvae for dispersal. This study examined the metapopulation structure of three decapod species with different pelagic larval duration (PLD) from twelve coral reef complexes of the Gulf of Mexico. The dispersion of larvae was analyzed through the use of a realistic numerical simulation of the Gulf of Mexico with the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model. To study the transport and dispersion of particles in near-surface waters, a particle-tracking subroutine was run using as input the currents from the model...
2018: PloS One
Manuel Luna, Juan J Delgado, M L Almoraima Gil, María J Mosquera
The high pollution levels in our cities are producing a significant increase of dust on buildings. An application of photoactive coatings on building materials can produce buildings with self-cleaning surfaces. In this study, we have developed a simple sol-gel route for producing Au-TiO₂/SiO₂ photocatalysts with application on buildings. The gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) improved the TiO₂ photoactivity under solar radiation because they promoted absorption in the visible range. We varied the content of AuNPs in the sols under study, in order to investigate their effect on self-cleaning properties...
March 20, 2018: Nanomaterials
Florian Junne, Martina Michaelis, Eva Rothermund, Felicitas Stuber, Harald Gündel, Stephan Zipfel, Monika A Rieger
Objectives : This study analyses the perceived relevance of stress-dimensions in work-settings from the differential views of Human Resource Managers (HRM), Occupational Physicians (OP), Primary Care Physicians (PCP) and Psychotherapists (PT) in Germany. Methods : Cross-sectional study design, using a self-report questionnaire. Descriptive measures and explorative bivariate methods were applied for group-comparisons. Results are presented as rankings of perceived importance and as polarity profiles of contrasting views...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yi Lu, Zhonghua Gou, Yang Xiao, Chinmoy Sarkar, John Zacharias
A sharp drop in physical activity and skyrocketing obesity rate has accompanied rapid urbanization in China. The urban planning concept of transit-oriented development (TOD) has been widely advocated in China to promote physical activity, especially walking. Indeed, many design features thought to promote walking-e.g., mixed land use, densification, and well-connected street network-often characterize both TODs and established urban neighborhoods. Thus, it is often assumed that TODs have similar physical activity benefits as established urban neighborhoods...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Louis B Jones, Sameer Goel, Leroy Y Hung, Matthew L Graves, Clay A Spitler, George V Russell, Patrick F Bergin
The mission of any academic orthopaedic training program can be divided into 3 general areas of focus: clinical care, academic performance, and research. Clinical care is evaluated on clinical volume, patient outcomes, patient satisfaction, and becoming increasingly focused on data-driven quality metrics. Academic performance of a department can be used to motivate individual surgeons, but objective measures are used to define a residency program. Annual in-service examinations serve as a marker of resident knowledge base, and board pass rates are clearly scrutinized...
April 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Chunxue Hao, Bochong Wang, Fusheng Wen, Congpu Mu, Jianyong Xiang, Lei Li, Zhongyuan Liu
Through a facile self-assembled process, an ultralight reduced graphene oxide/black phosphorus (rGO/BP) composite aerogel was successfully fabricated. The BP nanosheets were homogeneously distributed throughout the rGO 3D framework, and the interfaces between rGO and BP possessed four kinds of interconnections, such as wrapping, wearing, bridging and weak linking. As an ultralight composite, the rGO/BP aerogel could easily stand on the stamen of a flower. Compared with pure rGO aerogel, the rGO/BP composite aerogel exhibited enhanced microwave absorption ability...
March 20, 2018: Nanotechnology
Bożena Targońska-Stępniak
The available data indicate that seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) develops as a result of systemic, autoimmune reaction directed against a range of "self" peptides/proteins that have undergone specific forms of post-translational modification. The development and progress of autoimmunity may be triggered by non-specific, local inflammatory processes outside the joints, for example in the oral or respiratory mucous membrane. The disease occurs in genetically susceptible individuals under the influence of environmental risk factors that promote autoimmunity and consequently the inflammatory process...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Kevin J Mahoney, Ellen K Mahoney, Carmen Morano, Andrew DeVellis
Unmet need for long-term services and supports has been linked to a variety of harmful health outcomes. One suggested strategy for ameliorating unmet need is to give participants control of a budget and let them construct individualized plans. The evaluation of the Cash and Counseling controlled experiment (CCDE) documented a marked reduction in unmet need when compared to traditional agency-based solutions, but it also showed significant unmet needs remained. This paper reanalyzes 76 case studies from the CCDE to, for the first time gain an understanding of what those unmet needs are, who sees them, and what participants, caregivers and support brokers think might reduce this problem...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
E K Hopper, L D Gonzalez
Human trafficking is a form of interpersonal trauma that has significant mental health impacts on survivors. This study examined psychological symptoms in 131 survivors of sex and labor trafficking, including people trafficked into or within the U.S. High rates of depression (71%) and PTSD (61%) were identified. Two thirds of survivors also met criteria for multiple categories of Complex PTSD (C-PTSD), including affect dysregulation and impulsivity; alterations in attention and consciousness; changes in interpersonal relationships; revictimization; somatic dysregulation; and alterations in self-perception...
March 20, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Cláudia Melo, Ana Fonseca, Mariana Moura-Ramos, Teresa Almeida-Santos, Maria Cristina Canavarro
PURPOSE: To assess female cancer patients' perceptions of the fertility preservation decision-making process and to examine the effect of clinicians' support on the decision quality. METHODS: A total of 71 patients participated in this longitudinal study with two assessment time points (before cancer therapy, after cancer therapy). Self-report measures assessed the decision-making process, the decision quality and the clinicians' support. RESULTS: A less positive experience in the decision-making process was associated with higher decisional regret and lower decisional satisfaction...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Oncology
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