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Nathan S Teuscher, Carolyn R Sikes, Russ McMahen, Dorothy Engelking
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: A methylphenidate (MPH) extended-release orally disintegrating tablet (MPH XR-ODT) formulation was recently approved for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment in children 6 to 17 years of age. This analysis sought to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) model to describe MPH XR-ODT PD-response data in a classroom study and use the model to simulate PD responses for a range of body weights and doses. METHODS/PROCEDURES: The MPH XR-ODT PK/PD model was developed with pediatric and adult PK data from prior studies and efficacy data from a laboratory classroom study in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Xiaoyu Wang, Ning Huang, Jing Shao, Mingzhong Hu, Yan Zhao, Mingxin Huo
The potential for bioremoval of copper ions was investigated by a novel strain of bacterium Citrobacter freundii JPG1, which was newly isolated from gold mining tailing in China and grew either aerobically or anaerobically. The strain cross-tolerated heavy metals of Ag+ , Cd2+ , Co2+ , Cr6+ , Cu2+ and Ni2+ and removed copper under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions with the stress of copper. Under aerobic conditions, the cells grew rapidly and exhibited higher biomass at low copper concentrations (<1 mmol L-1 ), while the growth of cells was almost completely inhibited at high copper concentrations (2 mmol L-1 )...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Ran Li, Jiang Yang, Jie Pan, Li Zhang, Wenlong Qin
In this paper, fracturing flowback fluids were biologically treated by immobilized chlorella. The individual and interactive effects of three variables (sodium alginate concentration, CaCl2 concentration, and crosslinking time) on growth of immobilized algal were optimized by response surface methodology combined with Box-Behnken design. The results showed that the SA (sodium alginate) concentration most significantly affected algal density and treatment efficiency. The interaction between SA concentration and crosslinking time was weak, the interaction between CaCl2 concentration and crosslinking time was modest, while the interaction between SA concentration and CaCl2 concentration was significant...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Kai Xu, Chiyuan Ma, Langhai Xu, Jisheng Ran, Lifeng Jiang, Yuzhe He, Safwat Adel Abdo Moqbel, Zhan Wang, Lidong Wu
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease that has been shown to be closely related to the over expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Polygalacic acid is a triterpene isolated from the root of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effect of polygalacic acid in OA was investigated as well as its in vitro and in vivo mechanism. In vitro, rat chondrocytes were induced with interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and treated with different concentrations of polygalacic acid; real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to evaluate the expressions of MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-13, and COX-2...
August 13, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Majken Elley Nielsen, Peter Roslev
Fluoxetine and propranolol are neuroactive human pharmaceuticals that occur frequently as pollutants in surface waters. The potential effects of these pharmaceuticals on aquatic organisms have raised concern but many adverse effects are not well characterized for a broad range of concentrations and endpoints. In this study, 6 biological parameters in the freshwater Cladoceran Daphnia magna were compared for their responses to fluoxetine or propranolol exposure: mobility (dichotomous response), active swimming time, swimming distance, swimming velocity, swimming acceleration speed, and survival in the absence of food (starvation-survival)...
August 9, 2018: Chemosphere
Catherine Pirard, Corinne Charlier
Recent and reliable human biomonitoring data on brominated flame retardants (BFRs), either legacy or new BFRs, are still needed to assess human exposure. The aim of this work was therefore to develop and validate an accurate, fast and user-friendly analytical strategy for the determination of 15 legacy and novel BFRs in human serum namely 8 polybrominated diphenylethers (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, and -209), 1 hexabromobiphenyl (PBB-153), and 6 novel BFRs (pentabromotoluene, hexabromobenzene, pentabromoethylbenzene, 2-ethylhexy-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate, 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane, and decabromodiphenylethane)...
August 9, 2018: Chemosphere
Amine Ezzariai, David Riboul, Marlène Z Lacroix, Maialen Barret, Loubna El Fels, Georges Merlina, Alain Bousquet-Melou, Dominique Patureau, Eric Pinelli, Mohamed Hafidi
In this work a fast analytical method for the determination of macrolides, tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones in a compost originating from a mixture of sewage sludge, palm waste and grass was developed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (U-HPLC/MS). Antibiotics were extracted from compost by using the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The chromatographic separation was carried out on a T3 Cortecs C18 column using a mobile phase gradient mixture of water acidified with 1% of formic acid and acetonitrile...
August 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Ying Li, Chi Yao, Daoping Zha, Wen Yang, Guanghua Lu
A passive sampling device, a polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS), was used to monitor 13 pharmaceuticals and 8 transformation products in upstream and downstream wastewater treatment plant effluent. A POCIS laboratory calibration study was performed to determine uptake behavior and the effect of water flow on the sampling rate. Most compounds showed a linear accumulation, and the sampling rate values ranged from 0.031 to 0.559 L/day. The developed POCIS samplers were used in field experiments in a wastewater-impacted river...
July 31, 2018: Chemosphere
R PranavKumar Shadamarshan, Harini Balaji, Harsha Shrihari Rao, K Balagangadharan, S Viji Chandran, N Selvamurugan
Trans-anethole (TA) is a phenolic phytocompound widely used in the food and health sector because of its diverse biological properties. However, its role in the promotion of bone formation is not known. With the enhanced bioavailability of TA, we aimed to determine its effect on osteogenesis; TA at different concentrations (5, 10, and 20 μM) was loaded onto polycaprolactone (PCL)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) fibers by the electrospinning technique. The synthesized PCL/PVP + TA fibers were subjected to physiochemical and material characterization...
August 8, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Yimei Zhang, Fei Wang, Ping Ou, Hao Zhu, Yuxian Lai, Yalong Zhao, Weilin Shi, Zhuang Chen, Shuai Li, Tong Wang
In this research, a novel efficiency MnO2 @Nano hollow carbon sphere (MnO2 @NHCS) nanocomposite was prepared by one-pot hydrothermal reaction with KMnO4 solution. The adsorption and oxidization performance of MnO2 @NHCS were assessed by degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) at different conditions. The effect of dosage of MnO2 @NHCS, pH, initial concentration of BPA, temperature and humic acid were investigated systematically. Moreover, the characterizations of MnO2 @NHCS were measured by a series of techniques, such as XRD, FESEM, HRTEM, TGA and XPS...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Guowei Xing, Christopher J Miller, A Ninh Pham, Adele M Jones, T David Waite
The oxidation of hydroquinones is of interest both due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to the implications to trace metal redox state. Menadione (MNQ), a typical toxicant quinone used extensively for studying the mechanisms underlying oxidative stress, is known to be an effective source of exogenous ROS. In this study, the kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of menadiol (MNH2 Q, the reduced form of MNQ) in the absence and presence of copper (Cu) over the pH range 6.0-7.5 was examined...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Matthew Shupler, William Godwin, Joseph Frostad, Paul Gustafson, Raphael E Arku, Michael Brauer
BACKGROUND: Exposure to household air pollution (HAP) from cooking with dirty fuels is a leading health risk factor within Asia, Africa and Central/South America. The concentration of particulate matter of diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5 ) is an important metric to evaluate HAP risk, however epidemiological studies have demonstrated significant variation in HAP-PM2.5 concentrations at household, community and country levels. To quantify the global risk due to HAP exposure, novel estimation methods are needed, as financial and resource constraints render it difficult to monitor exposures in all relevant areas...
August 14, 2018: Environment International
Xiangqian Li, Yuhui Zheng, Yiping Tang, Qi Chen, Jinwei Gao, Qi Luo, Qianming Wang
An efficient strategy for the synthesis of excitation-independent carbon nanodots has been provided. This functional nano-scale particle has been assembled by using citric acid and urea as raw materials through a microwave irradiation process in the absence of further surface modifications. The achieved nanomaterial demonstrates intensive green emissions and can be dispersible in aqueous environment. In particular, cerium (III) ion is able to quench its fluorescence emission intensity selectively and an "on-off" change has been observed...
August 13, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Bianca Posocco, Mauro Buzzo, Luciana Giodini, Sara Crotti, Sara D'Aronco, Pietro Traldi, Marco Agostini, Elena Marangon, Giuseppe Toffoli
Sunitinib malate, an oral multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, has been identified as a potential candidate for therapeutic drug monitoring approach. Nevertheless, the development of an analytical assay suitable for clinical application for the quantification of the plasma concentration of sunitinib and its active metabolite, N-desethyl sunitinib, is limited by its Z/E isomerization when exposed to light...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Ali Nawaz, Witoon Purahong, Robert Lehmann, Martina Herrmann, Kai Uwe Totsche, Kirsten Küsel, Tesfaye Wubet, François Buscot
Although fungi play important roles in biogeochemical cycling in aquatic ecosystems and have received a great deal of attention, much remains unknown about the living fractions of fungal communities in aquifers of the terrestrial subsurface in terms of diversity, community dynamics, functional roles, the impact of environmental factors and presence of fungal pathogens. Here we address this gap in knowledge by using RNA-based high throughput pair-end illumina sequencing analysis of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene markers, to target the living fractions of groundwater fungal communities from fractured alternating carbonate-/siliciclastic-rock aquifers of the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory...
July 28, 2018: Water Research
Elise Asquith, Craig Evans, R Hugh Dunstan, Phillip Geary, Bruce Cole
While cyanobacteria have been widely recognised as the most common cause of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol related taste and odour (T&O) episodes in drinking water supplies, many reported occurrences could not be attributed to these organisms. The Streptomyces genus of soil bacteria also includes producers of these compounds, however their potential role in such occurrences is poorly understood and often disregarded on the basis that they are terrestrial rather than aquatic organisms, with their detection in water samples assumed to reflect the presence of dormant spores rather than metabolically active vegetative cells...
August 8, 2018: Water Research
Valentina Rey, Marcelo E Gramajo Feijoo, Rodrigo E Giménez, María E Tuttolomondo, Faustino E Morán Vieyra, Marcelo C Sosa Morales, Claudio D Borsarelli
A fast and single-step procedure is reported for the preparation of stable solutions of spherical-shaped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) coated with lysozyme (LZ). The preparation of the AgNP@LZ nanocomposites was based on the reduction of Ag+ with ketyl radicals photo-generated by the UVA-photolysis of the benzoin I-2959. Both reaction precursors bind to LZ, modifying its superficial charge and conformational structure. The photo-induced kinetics of formation of the AgNPs as a function of the LZ concentration was monitored in-situ by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy...
August 10, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Li Gao, Lanfang Han, Wenqi Peng, Bo Gao, Dongyu Xu, Xiaohong Wan
Source identification of trace metals in the water environment is important in understanding its environmental behavior and in the prevention and remediation of further pollution. Here, the regional geochemical baseline (RGB) and Pb isotopic ratios are combined to decipher the anthropogenic contribution rate, main anthropogenic source, and transport pathway of trace metals in sediments collected from the largest freshwater lake in northern China, Baiyangdian (BYD) Lake. The established RGB values of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb were 63...
August 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yuanxin Cao, Kai Lei, Xuan Zhang, Ling Xu, Chunye Lin, Yining Yang
Contamination of trace metals in urban rivers is a global problem. The objective of this study was to investigate the contamination and ecological risks of trace metals in the Hai River, which receives substantial effluents from the Beijing-Tianjin region. A total of 43 surface water and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for physiochemical properties and toxic elements. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu and Zn in the river water met the Chinese environmental quality grade I standards for surface water...
August 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Xueyuan Hu, Qianru Chi, Dongxu Wang, Xin Chi, Xiaohua Teng, Shu Li
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is widely accepted to be a signaling molecule that exhibits some potentially beneficial therapeutic effects at physiological concentrations. At elevated levels, H2 S is highly toxic and has a negative effect on human health and animal welfare. Studies have shown that H2 S exposure induces an immune function in mice, but there are few studies of the effect of continuous H2 S exposure on immune organs in poultry. In this study, one-day-old broilers were selected and exposed to 4 or 20 ppm of H2 S gas for 14, 28 and 42 days of age...
August 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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