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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316208/gene-expression-of-rnap-ii-jbp1-and-jbp2-in-leishmania-major-exposed-to-antimonials-amphotericin-b-and-paromomycin
#1
Vahid Ajamein, Gilda Eslami, Salman Ahmadian, Ali Khamesipour, Mourad Elloumi
Cutaneous leishmaniosis (CL) is treated with pentavalent antimony (SbV) as a first-line drug, while amphotericin B and paromomycin are potential alternatives in antimonial- resistant isolates. However, the mechanisms of drug resistance remain unclear. The present study analyses the gene expression of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) and J-binding protein 1 (JBP1), and J-binding protein 2 (JBP2) in Leishmania major after exposure to drugs in vitro. L. major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) promastigotes were exposed to various concentrations of glucantime, paromomycin and amphotericin B for 72 hours...
2018: Annals of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316198/two-tier-morpho-chemical-defense-tactic-in-aethionema-via-fruit-morph-plasticity-and-glucosinolates-allocation-in-diaspores
#2
Samik Bhattacharya, Sara Mayland-Quellhorst, Caroline Müller, Klaus Mummenhoff
Fruit dimorphism and the production of glucosinolates (GSLs) are two specific life-history traits found in the members of Brassicales, which aid to optimize seed dispersal and defense against antagonists, respectively. We hypothesized that the bipartite dispersal strategy demands a tight control over the production of fruit morphs with expectedly differential allocation of defensive anticipins (GSLs). In dimorphic Aethionema, herbivory by Plutella xylostella at a young stage triggered the production of more dehiscent (seeds released from fruit) than indehiscent fruit morphs (seeds enclosed within persistent pericarp) on the same plant upon maturity...
October 13, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316183/size-dependent-distribution-and-inhalation-exposure-characteristics-of-particle-bound-chlorinated-paraffins-in-indoor-air-in-guangzhou-china
#3
Wei Zhou, Mingjie Shen, James C W Lam, Mingshan Zhu, Liangying Liu, Hui Chen, Bibai Du, Lixi Zeng, Eddy Y Zeng
Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are now attracting special concerns worldwide as one type of new persistent toxic substances as classified by the Stockholm Convention. CPs are extensively applied in household goods and indoor decoration materials, but information on their occurrence and exposure risk in such environments is still very scarce. In this study, the current concentrations, particle size distributions, and inhalation exposure characteristics and risk of CPs were investigated in regard to indoor air particulate matter...
October 10, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316182/fluoride-exposure-and-thyroid-function-among-adults-living-in-canada-effect-modification-by-iodine-status
#4
Ashley J Malin, Julia Riddell, Hugh McCague, Christine Till
BACKGROUND: Fluoride exposure has the potential to disrupt thyroid functioning, though adequate iodine intake may mitigate this effect. This is the first population-based study to examine the impact of chronic low-level fluoride exposure on thyroid function, while considering iodine status. The objective of this study was to determine whether urinary iodine status modifies the effect of fluoride exposure on thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. METHODS: This cross-sectional study utilized weighted population-based data from Cycle 3 (2012-2013) of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS)...
October 10, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316179/socioeconomic-inequalities-in-exposure-to-environmental-tobacco-smoke-in-children-in-israel
#5
Tamar Berman, Zohar Barnett-Itzhaki, Rachel Axelrod, Lital Keinan-Boker, Tal Shimony, Rebecca Goldsmith, Thomas Göen, Haim Geva, Laura Rosen
BACKGROUND: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in infants and children causes more frequent and severe asthma attacks, respiratory infections, ear infections, and sudden infant death syndrome. The aim of this study was to measure ETS exposure in children in Israel (ages 4-11 years) using urinary cotinine measurements, in order to compare exposure levels to other international populations, and to assess predictors of ETS exposure in children in Israel. METHODS: A subset of children who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (RAV- MABAT) in 2015-2016 were invited to participate in the Second Israel Biomonitoring Survey...
October 10, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316178/kidney-damage-induced-by-sub-chronic-fine-particulate-matter-exposure
#6
Iván Tavera Busso, Ana Carolina Mateos, Luis Isaías Juncos, Norma Canals, Hebe Alejandra Carreras
According to the WHO, about 3 million people die each year due to ambient air pollution. Most of the in vivo studies on the PM2.5 effects have been done on respiratory and cardiovascular tissues. However, little is known about the effects on the tissues involved on xenobiotic removal, such as kidneys. In the present study we assess the harmful effects of sub-chronic exposure to PM2.5 on the kidney, by investigating histologic and serum alterations in healthy and hypertensive rat models. Mean PM2.5 concentrations during exposures were slightly above the daily WHO standard...
October 10, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316168/ceramic-membrane-fouling-by-dissolved-organic-matter-generated-during-on-line-chemical-cleaning-with-ozone-in-mbr
#7
Huifang Sun, Hang Liu, Siyu Wang, Fangqin Cheng, Yu Liu
Ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) has attracted increasing interest due to its high flux, long membrane life-span and excellent resistance to hash operation conditions. Although ozone has been used for chemical cleaning of ceramic membranes, it is still unclear about the role of dissolved organic matter (DOM) generated during on-line chemical cleaning with ozone in the development of membrane fouling in ceramic MBR. This study clearly revealed that the released DOM could considerably induce irreversible membrane fouling, and humic acid like-substances (HAL) with molecular weight (MW) of about 500 Da were mainly responsible for the observed membrane fouling...
September 7, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316161/emissions-of-2-3-7-8-substituted-and-non-2-3-7-8-substituted-polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins-and-dibenzofurans-from-secondary-aluminum-smelters
#8
Haifeng Li, Wenbin Liu, Chen Tang, Rongrong Lei, Xiaolin Wu, Lirong Gao, Guijin Su
The secondary aluminum smelting industry is an important source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). However, the formations and emissions of non-2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs have rarely been studied. Non-2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs may also be metabolically toxic to mammalians. In this study, four typical secondary aluminum smelters were selected as demonstration smelters and the composition of the raw material they used was adjusted to investigate the influence on PCDD/F emissions and profiles. In addition to 17 congeners of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs, 64 congeners of non-2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs were firstly reported...
October 5, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316157/quantification-of-selected-steroid-hormones-17%C3%AE-estradiol-and-17%C3%AE-ethynylestradiol-in-wastewater-treatment-plants-in-klang-valley-malaysia
#9
Ting Yien Fang, Sarva Mangala Praveena, Ahmad Zaharin Aris, Sharifah Norkhadijah Syed Ismail, Irniza Rasdi
Steroid estrogens, such as 17β-estradiol (E2 ) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2 ) are potent and were categorized as "Watch List" in Directive 2013/39/EU because of their potential risks to aquatic environment. Commercialized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits have been used to quantify steroid estrogens in wastewater samples due to their simplicity, rapid, cost-effectiveness, and validated assays. Hence, this study aims to determine the occurrence and removal of steroid hormones in Malaysian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) by ELISA, to identify the association of removal efficiency (E2 and EE2 ) with respect to WWTPs operating conditions, and to assess the potential risks of steroid estrogens to aquatic environment and human...
October 8, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316155/legacy-and-emerging-contaminants-in-coastal-surface-sediments-around-hainan-island-in-south-china
#10
Ling Mo, Jing Zheng, Ting Wang, Yun-Gang Shi, Biao-Juan Chen, Bin Liu, Yan-Hua Ma, Min Li, Li Zhuo, She-Jun Chen
Emerging and legacy hydrophobic pollutants, including halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), organophosphorus FRs (OPFRs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in coastal sediments of Hainan Island, southern China, where little information is known about their contamination. The HFRs were dominated by decabrominated diphenyl ethers (median = 1.32 ng/g) and novel decabromodiphenyl ethane (1.87 ng/g). HFR and PAH concentrations had similar spatial distributions, with higher levels in the river and near the estuary...
October 5, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316153/ectomycorrhizal-fungi-may-not-act-as-a-barrier-inhibiting-host-plant-absorption-of-heavy-metals
#11
Yangze Tang, Liang Shi, Kecheng Zhong, Zhenguo Shen, Yahua Chen
Whether the huge external hyphal system of ectomycorrhizae that promotes host plants' acquisition of water and nutrients can selectively inhibit their transport of heavy metals at the same time remains unclear. In this experiment, we designed and conducted two types of soil-pot test to clarify the effects of EMF on the absorption and transport of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) by host Pinus thunbergii seedlings. In the root-bag test, external hyphae took the initiative into the Cu/Cd-contaminated bulk soil, absorb and transport Cu and Cd to the rhizosphere soils and further transport it to the shoots of the host plants...
October 4, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316127/hormonal-mechanisms-regulating-follicular-wave-dynamics-i-comparison-of-follicle-growth-profiles-under-different-physiological-conditions-in-heifers
#12
V E Gomez-León, O J Ginther, E R Araujo, J D Guimarães, M C Wiltbank
Follicle diameter deviation has been identified as the pivotal morphological manifestation of follicle selection, however, many of the hormonal mechanisms leading to this key event and regulating variation between individual follicular waves remain undefined. This study compared circulating FSH, LH, and P4 with the follicular dynamics during three different physiological conditions. We hypothesized that these end-points would: 1) be similar for a spontaneous wave 2 vs one induced by follicular aspiration, 2) but would differ between wave 1 and 2, and 3) between conventional (F2 > 7...
September 11, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316124/preparation-of-polyacrylic-acid-palygorskite-composite-particles-via-inverse-suspension-polymerization-for-efficient-separation-of-ce-3-from-aqueous-solution
#13
Tianwei Song, Wenjun Luo, Jinlong Mu, Yang Cai, Jin Wei, Haifeng Li
A novel granular composite adsorbent made from palygorskite (PGS) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) (PAA@PGS) was prepared successfully by inverse-suspension polymerization. Acrylic acid (AA) molecules present in the PGS pores form PAA chains passing through the PGS channels after in situ polymerization, and bond to each other through hydrogen bonds. PAA@PGS was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG/TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316121/adhesion-of-silver-nano-wire-graphene-composite-film
#14
Yanxiao Li, Congjie Wei, Chenglin Wu
Silver nanowire graphene (AgNW-GN) composite, as an alternative transparent conductive film (TCF) to conventional indium tin oxide (ITO), has much improved mechanical and electrical properties. These advantages make AgNW-GN an ideal TCF for planar devices. The adhesion of AgNW-GN composite film plays a critical role in these applications. However, the effect of silver nanowire on the adhesion between AgNW-GN and copper substrate remains unexplored. In the present work, AgNW-GN composite films with different AgNW concentrations were prepared and their adhesion with copper substrates was characterized using the double cantilever beam (DCB) experiment and the digital image correlation (DIC)...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316116/niobium-doped-tungsten-oxide-mesoporous-film-with-enhanced-electrochromic-and-electrochemical-energy-storage-properties
#15
W Q Wang, Z J Yao, X L Wang, X H Xia, C D Gu, J P Tu
Exploring high performance cathode materials is of great means for the development of bi-functional electrochromic energy storage devices. Herein, Nb-doped WO3 mesoporous films as integrated high-quality cathode are successfully constructed via a facile sol-gel method. Chemical state and crystallinity of the WO3 based films are significantly influenced by doping concentration. Compared with the pure WO3 , the optimal Nb-doped film shows improved optical-electrochemical properties with high specific capacity (74...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316099/long-term-exposure-to-ambient-fine-particles-associated-with-asthma-a-cross-sectional-study-among-older-adults-in-six-low-and-middle-income-countries
#16
Siqi Ai, Zhengmin Min Qian, Yanfei Guo, Yin Yang, Craig A Rolling, Echu Liu, Fan Wu, Hualiang Lin
BACKGROUND: Ambient PM2.5 is considered harmful to the respiratory system. However, little has been shown about the long-term association between ambient PM2.5 and asthma. METHODS: A survey from 2007 to 2010 was conducted among adults over 50 years of age in six low- and middle- income countries (including China, India, Ghana, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa), which belonged to one part of a prospective cohort study - the Study on global AGEing and adult health...
September 24, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316098/nitrate-leaching-losses-during-pasture-renewal-effects-of-treading-urine-forages-and-tillage
#17
Stephen Trolove, Steve Thomas, Gina van der Klei, Mike Beare, Rogerio Cichota, Esther Meenken
Pasture renewal is a key component of intensive temperate grassland farming. This practice is performed to improve pasture yields, but it may increase nitrate (NO3 - ) leaching losses, which can impact on water quality. Farmers face many choices when renewing pasture, however, there is limited information to guide decisions to reduce leaching losses. An experiment was established to study how different management practices and grazing affect biomass production and NO3 - leaching during pasture renewal on a heavy soil...
September 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316097/assessment-of-34-dissolved-and-particulate-organic-and-metallic-micropollutants-discharged-at-the-outlet-of-two-contrasted-urban-catchments
#18
C Becouze-Lareure, A Dembélé, M Coquery, C Cren-Olivé, J-L Bertrand-Krajewski
The assessment of micropollutants in urban wet weather discharges is essential to improve the knowledge of the impact of such discharges on receiving waters. This study assessed the quality of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) in Ecully (residential catchment) and stormwater runoff in Chassieu (industrial catchment) during rain events by providing data on occurrence and total event mean concentrations (EMCt ) of 34 priority substances (PS) (9 metals, 13 pesticides, 6 PAHs, 4 alkylphenols and 2 chlorobenzenes) in dissolved and particulate fractions...
October 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316096/bioaccumulation-and-cycling-of-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-pbdes-and-dechlorane-plus-dp-in-three-natural-mangrove-ecosystems-of-south-china
#19
Yao-Wen Qiu, Han-Lin Qiu, Gan Zhang, Jun Li
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dechlorane plus (DP) in mangrove sediments and tissues of nine species from three Mangrove Reserves of Hainan Island were studied. The average concentrations of PBDEs and DP in mangrove leaves, branches, roots and fruits were 1048, 498, 546 and 364 pg g-1 dw, and 294, 181, 108 and 165 pg g-1 dw, respectively. The elevated PBDEs and DP concentrations in mangrove leaves may be caused by atmospheric sedimentation. The predominant PBDE congeners in sediments were BDE-209 and those in mangrove tissues were BDE-28...
October 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316094/global-warming-potential-and-total-material-requirement-in-metal-production-identification-of-changes-in-environmental-impact-through-metal-substitution
#20
Shoki Kosai, Eiji Yamasue
In view of the increasing demand for metal use, it is of significant importance to evaluate the environmental impact of metal production. The global warming potential (GWP) in the process of metal production has often been focused upon as a major indicator for evaluating the burden on the environment. Moreover, the environmental impact and mineral exploitation arising from metal ore mining activities, which generate unavoidable mine wastes and have an impact on the ecological biodiversity, cannot be ignored...
October 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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