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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517978/glucose-homeostasis-in-statin-users-the-lifestat-study
#1
Thomas Morville, Tine Dohlmann, Anja B Kuhlman, Tine Monberg, Mimmi Torp, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst, Steen Larsen, Jørn W Helge, Flemming Dela
Background Statins are widely used to lower cholesterol concentrations in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The treatment increases the risk of muscle pain (myalgia) and of type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms remain disputed. Methods We investigated whether statin induced myalgia is coupled to impaired glucose homeostasis using oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. We performed a cross-sectional study of statin users without CVD (primary prevention) stratified into a statin myalgic (M; n=25) and a non-myalgic (NM; n=39) group as well as a control group (C; n=20) consisting of non-statin users...
December 5, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517952/comparison-of-tissue-oxygenation-achieved-breathing-oxygen-from-a-demand-valve-with-four-different-mask-configurations
#2
Denise F Blake, Melissa Crowe, Daniel Lindsay, Annie Brouff, Simon J Mitchell, Neal W Pollock
INTRODUCTION: High concentration normobaric oxygen (O₂) is a priority in treating divers with suspected decompression illness. The effect of different O₂ mask configurations on tissue oxygenation when breathing with a demand valve was evaluated. METHODS: Sixteen divers had tissue oxygen partial pressure (PtcO₂) measured at six limb sites. Participants breathed O₂ from a demand valve using: an intraoral mask (IOM®) with and without a nose clip (NC), a pocket face mask and an oronasal mask...
December 24, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517937/mechanisms-of-etomidate-mediated-decrease-of-spontaneous-spike-activity-of-mouse-cerebellar-purkinje-cells-in-vivo
#3
Wen Pan, Wen-Yuan Wu, Yan-Hua Bing, Chun-Ping Chu, Ri Jin, De-Lai Qiu
Etomidate is an imidazole, nonbarbiturate hypnotic agent that is increasingly used in procedural sedation. However, the effects of etomidate on the spontaneous activity of cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) in living mouse have not been fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of etomidate on the spontaneous simple spike (SS) activity of PCs in urethane-anesthetized mice by cell-attached recording and pharmacological methods. Cerebellar surface application of etomidate (50 μmol\L) reduced the SS firing rate in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50: 43...
December 5, 2018: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517930/dialysate-calcium-levels-do-they-matter
#4
REVIEW
Frank M van der Sande, Karlien J A Ter Meulen, Peter Kotanko, Jeroen P Kooman
BACKGROUND: Calcium (Ca) is an essential element that plays a critical role in many biological processes. In dialysis patients, the regulation of Ca balance is highly complex, given the absence of kidney function, endocrine disturbances and the use of drugs such as phosphate binders, vitamin D analogues, and calcimimetics. Also, the use of different dialysate Ca (DCa) baths has profound effect on Ca balance, which depends both on the difference between the Ca concentration in the bath and the serum of the patients, as on the ultrafiltration volume...
December 5, 2018: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517904/magnetically-propelled-hydrogel-particle-motors-produced-by-ultrasound-assisted-hydrodynamic-electrospray-ionization-jetting
#5
Sven Rutkowski, Ling Mu, Tieyan Si, Meiyu Gai, Mengmeng Sun, Johannes Frueh, Qiang He
One of the most promising future applications of hydrogels is drug delivery. The hydrogels act as a biomedical cargo model to reach the target and release drugs to cure diseases. This application requires no side effects of the hydrogel and the ability to pass through porous media (e.g. membranes, interstitial tissue etc.) with nanoscaled channels. At the same time, the hydrogel must be mass-producible in an economic way. In this work, we show that hydrodynamic electrospray ionization jetting combined with ultrasound can fulfill these high requirements...
November 28, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517849/a-light-initiated-chemiluminescent-assay-for-rapid-quantitation-of-allergen-specific-igg-4-in-clinical-samples
#6
Junpu Li, Shaoshen Li, Lunhui Huang, Yaqiong Cui, Tiantian She, Ying Bian, Huiqiang Li
BACKGROUND: An increase in allergen-specific IgG4 (sIgG4 ), which serves as a blocking antibody, is associated with acquisition of immune tolerance after immunotherapy. In this study, we developed a rapid, sensitive, and homogeneous immunoassay based on the light-initiated chemiluminescent assay (LICA) technology for quantifying allergen sIgG4 in serum samples. METHODS: Allergen sIgG4 was measured in vitro by incubating the sample with biotinylated allergens and chemiluminescent beads coated with anti-human IgG4 antibody, followed by the addition of streptavidin-coated sensitizer beads...
December 2, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517842/dimerization-ability-denaturation-mechanism-and-the-stability-of-a-staphylococcal-phage-repressor-and-its-two-domains
#7
Anindya Biswas, Semanti Ghosh, Debabrata Sinha, Anindya Dutta, Soham Seal, Anshuman Bagchi, Subrata Sau
The lysogenic growth of phage ф11 in Staphylococcus aureus is controlled by a repressor (CI) that harbors an N-terminal domain (NTD), and a C-terminal domain (CTD). Previously, NTD, like CI, showed DNA binding activity and dimerized in the aqueous solution. To precisely understand the folding mechanism, function, and the stability of CI, NTD, and CTD, we have investigated their recombinant forms, rCI, rNTD, and rCTD, using various probes. The data reveal that rCTD, like rCI and rNTD, is a well-structured protein and produces dimers in the aqueous environment...
December 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517829/does-blood-contamination-of-urine-compromise-interpretation-of-the-urine-protein-to-creatinine-ratio-in-dogs
#8
Ekp Jillings, R A Squires, S Azarpeykan, N Lopez-Villalobos
AIMS: To determine the effect of contamination of urine with 0-5% blood, varying in haematocrit and protein concentrations, on the urine protein to creatinine ratio (UPC) in dogs, and to determine whether the colour of urine can be used to aid interpretation of UPC results. METHODS: Urine samples were collected by free catch from 18 dogs, all of which had UPC <0.2. Venous blood samples were also collected from each dog, and the blood from each dog was added to its own urine to produce serial concentrations of 0...
December 5, 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517825/colorimetric-detection-of-the-%C3%AE-agonist-ractopamine-in-animal-feed-tissue-and-urine-samples-using-gold-silver-alloy-nanoparticles-modified-with-sulfanilic-acid
#9
Xing Hu, Jiawei Du, Junhui Pan, Fengfeng Wang, Deming Gong, Guowen Zhang
A highly sensitive, selective and simple method was proposed for colorimetric detection of ractopamine on the basis of the interaction between ractopamine and sulfanilic acid-modified gold-silver alloy nanoparticles (AuAgNPs). The AuAgNPs were prepared by the reduction of HAuCl4 and AgNO3 with sodium citrate in aqueous medium and further modified by sulfanilic acid. The interaction of ractopamine with sulfanilic acid induced rapid aggregation of sulfanilic acid-modified AuAgNPs along with an optical colour change, leading to precise quantification which could be detected by absorptiometry...
December 5, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517815/vanishing-density-of-states-in-weakly-disordered-weyl-semimetals
#10
Michael Buchhold, Sebastian Diehl, Alexander Altland
The Brillouin zone of the clean Weyl semimetal contains points at which the density of states (DOS) vanishes. Previous work suggested that below a certain critical concentration of impurities this feature is preserved including in the presence of disorder. This result got criticized for its neglect of rare disorder fluctuations which might bind quantum states and hence generate a finite DOS. We here show that in spite of their existence these states are so fragile that their contribution effectively vanishes when averaged over continuous disorder distributions...
November 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517764/paradoxical-effects-of-emodin-on-anit-induced-intrahepatic-cholestasis-and-herb-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-mice
#11
Xue Wang, Lifeng Han, Yajuan Bi, Caiyu Li, Xiumei Gao, Guanwei Fan, Youcai Zhang
Emodin is an active ingredient in many herbal medicines and has a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities. The current data indicate that emodin exerts its beneficial effect on alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced intrahepatic cholestasis through its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Emodin has little effect on the concentrations of bile acids (BAs) in livers of ANIT-treated mice. Instead, emodin shows a potential pro-cholestatic effect by interfering with the crosstalk between AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and farnesoid X receptor (Fxr) in the liver, which leads to a suppression of bile salt export pump (Bsep)...
December 4, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517759/let-it-snow-winter-conditions-affect-growth-of-birch-seedlings-during-the-following-growing-season
#12
Timo Domisch, Françoise Martz, Tapani Repo, Pasi Rautio
Air temperatures and precipitation are predicted to increase in the future, especially at high latitudes and particularly so during winter. In contrast to air temperatures, changes in soil temperatures are more difficult to predict, as the fate of the insulating snow cover is crucial in this respect. Soil conditions can also be affected by rain-on-snow events and warm spells during winter, resulting in freeze-thaw cycles, compacted snow, ice encasement and local flooding. These adverse conditions during winter could counteract the otherwise positive effects of climate change on forest growth and productivity...
December 4, 2018: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517750/baseline-studies-on-radionuclide-concentration-in-food-materials-and-estimation-of-the-committed-radiation-dose-around-the-phosphate-industrial-area-of-south-tunisia
#13
Sonia Machraoui, M P Mohan, Karunakara Naregundi, Salam Labidi
The activity concentration of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides was determined in different vegetable samples, and foods derived from animal origin, from different locations in the four cities of Southern Tunisia, where large-scale phosphate industries are operating. The aim of the studies was to establish a baseline database on radionuclide concentration in food materials and to evaluate the radiation dose to the general population due to its ingestion through the food chain. The activity concentration of 40K, 210Pb, 226Ra, 228Ra and 137Cs was determined by gamma spectrometry using a HPGe detector, and from the measured activity concentration, the doses were estimated using the dose coefficients given by the ICRP...
December 4, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517735/increases-in-absolute-temperature-stimulate-free-calcium-concentration-elevations-in-the-chloroplast
#14
Gioia Lenzoni, Marc R Knight
Plants need to sense increases in temperature to be able to adapt their physiology and development to survive; however, the mechanisms of heat perception are currently relatively poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that in response to elevated temperature the free calcium concentration of the stroma of chloroplasts increases. This response is specific to the chloroplast, as no corresponding increase in calcium is seen in the cytosol. The chloroplast calcium response is dose-dependent above a threshold. The magnitude of this calcium response is dependent upon absolute temperature, not rate of heating...
December 4, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517728/sickle-cell-and-%C3%AE-thalassemia-traits-influence-the-association-between-ferritin-and-hepcidin-in-rural-kenyan-children-aged-14-26-months
#15
Kendra A Byrd, Thomas N Williams, Audrie Lin, Amy J Pickering, Benjamin F Arnold, Charles D Arnold, Marion Kiprotich, Holly N Dentz, Sammy M Njenga, Gouthami Rao, John M Colford, Clair Null, Christine P Stewart
Background: The relation between subclinical hemoglobinopathies and concentrations of the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin is not well characterized. Objective: We investigated the relation of hepcidin concentration with hemoglobinopathies among young children in Kenya. Methods: We quantified serum hepcidin and ferritin in 435 Kenyan children aged 14-20 mo in a subsample of the Water, Sanitation, and Handwashing (WASH) Benefits Trial. Blood samples were genotyped for α+-thalassemia and for sickle cell disorder...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517727/daily-consumption-of-oregon-hazelnuts-affects-%C3%AE-tocopherol-status-in-healthy-older-adults-a-pre-post-intervention-study
#16
Alexander J Michels, Scott W Leonard, Sandra L Uesugi, Gerd Bobe, Balz Frei, Maret G Traber
Background: Inadequate vitamin E and magnesium intakes are of concern for older adults owing to the associated incidence of age-related diseases. Objective: This study was designed to determine the extent to which a 16-wk intervention with hazelnuts alters vitamin E and magnesium status in a group of older men and women, and used a pre-post intervention design without a control group to adjust for temporal changes. Methods: Participants (n = 32 including 22 women; mean ± SD age: 63 ± 6 y) consumed hazelnuts (∼57 g/d) for 16 wk...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517726/concentrations-of-purine-metabolites-are-elevated-in-fluids-from-adults-and-infants-and-in-livers-from-mice-fed-diets-depleted-of-bovine-milk-exosomes-and-their-rna-cargos
#17
Ana Aguilar-Lozano, Scott Baier, Ryan Grove, Jiang Shu, David Giraud, Amy Leiferman, Kelly E Mercer, Juan Cui, Thomas M Badger, Jiri Adamec, Aline Andres, Janos Zempleni
Background: Humans and mice absorb bovine milk exosomes and their RNA cargos. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine whether milk exosome- and RNA-depleted (ERD) and exosome- and RNA-sufficient (ERS) diets alter the concentrations of purine metabolites in mouse livers, and to determine whether diets depleted of bovine milk alter the plasma concentration and urine excretion of purine metabolites in adults and infants, respectively. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were fed ERD (providing 2% of the microRNA cargos compared with ERS) and ERS diets starting at age 3 wk; livers were collected at age 7 wk...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517724/vitamin-a-supplementation-during-pregnancy-enhances-pandemic-h1n1-vaccine-response-in-mothers-but-enhancement-of-transplacental-antibody-transfer-may-depend-on-when-mothers-are-vaccinated-during-pregnancy
#18
Shaikh M Ahmad, Md J Alam, Afsana Khanam, Mamunur Rashid, Sharmin Islam, Yearul Kabir, Rubhana Raqib, Mark C Steinhoff
Background: In the growing embryo, the vitamin A requirement is tightly regulated. Maternal vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy may alter maternal immune function to accommodate the fetus. Objective: Our primary objective was to determine the effect of oral vitamin A supplementation (VAS) during pregnancy and until 6 mo postpartum on pandemic H1N1-vaccine responses in mothers and their infants at 6 mo of age. Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, pregnant women (n = 112) during the second trimester (mean ± SD: 14 ± 1 wk) were assigned to receive either an oral dose of 10,000 IU vitamin A or placebo weekly until 6 mo postpartum...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517712/an-experimental-study-of-diazepam-and-alprazolam-kinetics-in-urine-and-oral-fluid-following-single-oral-doses
#19
Vidar Temte, Kari Kjeldstadli, Lina Dorthea Bruun, Morris Birdal, Liliana Bachs, Ritva Karinen, Gerrit Middelkoop, Elisabeth Øiestad, Gudrun Høiseth
Benzodiazepines are commonly seen in samples submitted for drug testing of patients, people involved in child welfare cases, work-place drug testing, as well as in drug-facilitated assaults. Limited previous experimental studies are available regarding the excretion of benzodiazepines in urine and oral fluid. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of diazepam and alprazolam in oral fluid and urine for up to 2 weeks after ingestion of a single oral dose in healthy volunteers. A total of 11 healthy volunteers ingested 10 mg diazepam at the start of the study and 0...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517688/errors-in-estimating-usual-sodium-intake-by-the-kawasaki-formula-alter-its-relationship-with-mortality-implications-for-public-health
#20
Feng J He, Norm R C Campbell, Yuan Ma, Graham A MacGregor, Mary E Cogswell, Nancy R Cook
Background: Several cohort studies with inaccurate estimates of sodium reported a J-shaped relationship with mortality. We compared various estimated sodium intakes with that measured by the gold-standard method of multiple non-consecutive 24-h urine collections and assessed their relationship with mortality. Methods: We analysed the Trials of Hypertension Prevention follow-up data. Sodium intake was assessed in four ways: (i) average measured (gold standard): mean of three to seven 24-h urinary sodium measurements during the trial periods; (ii) average estimated: mean of three to seven estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretions from sodium concentration of 24-h urine using the Kawasaki formula; (iii) first measured: 24-h urinary sodium measured at the beginning of each trial; (iv) first estimated: 24-h urinary sodium estimated from sodium concentration of the first 24-h urine using the Kawasaki formula...
December 1, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
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