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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785552/suppression-of-pupillary-unrest-by-general-anesthesia-and-propofol-sedation
#1
Matthias Behrends, Merlin D Larson, Andrew E Neice, Michael P Bokoch
The pupil undergoes irregular oscillations when exposed to light. These oscillations, known as pupillary unrest in ambient light, originate from oscillatory activity within the Edinger-Westphal nucleus in the midbrain. The midbrain and upper pons also contain nuclei known to be very sensitive to the effects of anesthetics that play a central role in maintaining wakefulness. We hypothesized that anesthetics may display similar effects on wakefulness and pupillary unrest. Repeat measurements of pupillary unrest using infrared pupillometry were performed in 16 patients undergoing general anesthesia and 8 patients undergoing propofol sedation...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778972/hypnotic-agents-for-induction-of-general-anesthesia-in-cesarean-section-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#2
Kavita Houthoff Khemlani, Stephanie Weibel, Peter Kranke, Jan-Uwe Schreiber
STUDY OBJECTIVE: An ideal induction drug for cesarean section (CS) must have quick action, with minimum side effects such as awareness, hemodynamic compromise, and neonatal depression. Thiopentone is frequently used; however, no reliable evidence is available to support its use as a dedicated hypnotic agent in this setting. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis, using PRISMA methodology, of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), comparing women undergoing CS using thiopentone with those undergoing CS with propofol, ketamine, or benzodiazepines as hypnotic agents...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771215/the-association-between-mindfulness-and-hypnotizability-clinical-and-theoretical-implications
#3
Michelle P Grover, Mark P Jensen, David R Patterson, Kevin J Gertz, Melissa A Day
Mindfulness-based interventions and hypnosis are efficacious treatments for addressing a large number of psychological and physical conditions, including chronic pain. However, there continues to be debate surrounding the relative uniqueness of the theorized mechanisms of these treatments-reflected by measures of mindfulness facets and hypnotizability-with some concern that there may be so much overlap as to make the mechanism constructs (and, therefore, the respective interventions) redundant. Given these considerations, the primary aim of the current study was to examine the degree of unique versus shared variance between two common measures of mindfulness facets and hypnotizability: the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and the Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale...
July 2018: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767825/-palliative-sedation-development-and-consensus-of-a-german-language-documentation-template
#4
C Klein, C Wittmann, K N Wendt, C Ostgathe, S Stiel
BACKGROUND: Palliative sedation (PS) serves as a therapeutic option in cases of otherwise intractable suffering. As the use of sedative and hypnotic medication in many diverse situations is a core competency of anesthesiology, anesthesiologists are confronted with questions of sedative therapy at the end of life in institutions for specialized palliative care, in intensive care units and intermediate care wards. In recent years a number of guidelines have been published internationally but so far no official guidelines exist in Germany...
May 16, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767640/burden-of-exposure-to-potential-interactions-between-antiretroviral-and-non-antiretroviral-medications-in-a-population-of-hiv-positive-patients-aged-50-years-or-older
#5
Alice Ranzani, Letizia Oreni, Massimiliano Agrò, Lorena van den Bogaart, Laura Milazzo, Andrea Giacomelli, Dario Cattaneo, Cristina Gervasoni, Anna Lisa Ridolfo
BACKGROUND: As HIV-infected patients aged 50 years or older are at increased risk of comorbidities and multidrug treatments, we examined their exposure to the potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs) of antiretroviral (ARV) and other medications. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved the patients aged 50 years or older receiving ARV and non-ARV medications at our clinic. PDDIs were identified using the University of Liverpool HIV Drug Interaction Checker...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765219/estimated-prevalence-and-incidence-of-diagnosed-adhd-and-health-care-utilization-in-adults-in-sweden-a-longitudinal-population-based-register-study
#6
Maria Polyzoi, Ewa Ahnemark, Emma Medin, Ylva Ginsberg
Background: Although the worldwide prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is estimated to be between 2% and 5%, it is considered to be underdiagnosed. This register study explored the prevalence of diagnosed ADHD and incidence of newly diagnosed ADHD in Swedish adults over time, and assessed comorbidities and pharmacologic treatment. Methods: National Patient Register data were used to estimate the overall prevalence of adults (≥18 years) with a registered ADHD diagnosis from 2006 to 2011, and the incidence of newly registered diagnoses from 2007 to 2011...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762764/insomnia-as-a-path-to-alcoholism-tolerance-development-and-dose-escalation
#7
Timothy Roehrs, Thomas Roth
Study Objectives: To assess the risks associated with the use of alcohol as a "sleep aid", we evaluated tolerance development to pre-sleep ethanol's sedative-hypnotic effects, subsequent ethanol dose escalation, and changes in mood and ethanol "liking". Methods: Volunteers, 21-55 yrs old, with insomnia in otherwise good medical and psychiatric health and no history of alcoholism or drug abuse participated. In experiment 1 (n=24) 0.0, 0.3, or 0...
May 12, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761577/polypharmacy-and-psychotropic-drug-loading-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-in-asian-countries-the-reap-ap4-study
#8
Shu-Yu Yang, Lian-Yu Chen, Eunice Najoan, Roy Abraham Kallivayalil, Kittisak Viboonma, Ruzita Jamaluddin, Afzal Javed, Duong Thi Quynh Hoa, Hitoshi Iida, Kang Sim, Thiha Swe, Yan-Ling He, Yongchon Park, Helal Uddin Ahmed, Angelo De Alwis, Helen Fung-Kum Chiu, Norman Sartorius, Chay-Hoon Tan, Mian-Yoon Chong, Naotaka Shinfuku, Shih-Ku Lin
AIM: The aim of the present study was to survey the prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy and combined medication use across 15 Asian countries and areas in 2016. METHODS: By using the results from the fourth survey of Research on Asian Prescription Patterns on antipsychotics (REAP-AP4), the rates of polypharmacy and combined medication use in each country were analyzed. Daily medications prescribed for the treatment of inpatients or outpatients with schizophrenia, including antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, anxiolytics, hypnotics, and antiparkinson agents, were collected...
May 14, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761479/antidepressants-for-insomnia-in-adults
#9
REVIEW
Hazel Everitt, David S Baldwin, Beth Stuart, Gosia Lipinska, Andrew Mayers, Andrea L Malizia, Christopher Cf Manson, Sue Wilson
BACKGROUND: Insomnia disorder is a subjective condition of unsatisfactory sleep (e.g. sleep onset, maintenance, early waking, impairment of daytime functioning). Insomnia disorder impairs quality of life and is associated with an increased risk of physical and mental health problems including anxiety, depression, drug and alcohol abuse, and increased health service use. hypnotic medications (e.g. benzodiazepines and 'Z' drugs) are licensed for sleep promotion, but can induce tolerance and dependence, although many people remain on long-term treatment...
May 14, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760857/retrospective-chart-review-of-synthetic-cannabinoid-intoxication-with-toxicologic-analysis
#10
Payal Sud, Miles Gordon, Laura Tortora, Matthew Stripp, Damon Borg, Adam Berman
Introduction: Use of synthetic cannabinoids (SC) has recently emerged as a new drug epidemic. Our emergency departments (EDs) received a surge of SC users presenting with lethargy and bradycardia, contrasting prior reports of SC-induced tachycardia and agitation. Our goal was to describe these novel presentations and characterize the compounds. Methods: We present a case series of patients with SC intoxication who presented to our toxicology service covering two tertiary care EDs between 2/11/2015 and 6/23/2015...
May 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760666/candyflipping-and-other-combinations-identifying-drug-drug-combinations-from-an-online-forum
#11
Michael Chary, David Yi, Alex F Manini
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) refer to synthetic compounds or derivatives of more widely known substances of abuse that have emerged over the last two decades. Case reports suggest that users combine substances to achieve desired psychotropic experiences while reducing dysphoria and unpleasant somatic effects. However, the pattern of combining NPS has not been studied on a large scale. Here, we show that posts discussing NPS describe combining nootropics with sedative-hypnotics and stimulants with plant hallucinogens or psychiatric medications...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759276/hypnotic-discontinuation-in-chronic-insomnia
#12
REVIEW
Jonathan P Hintze, Jack D Edinger
Patients with chronic insomnia are commonly prescribed hypnotic medications. The long-term effects of chronic hypnotics are not known and discontinuation is encouraged but often difficult to achieve. A gradual taper is preferred to abrupt cessation to avoid rebound insomnia and withdrawal symptoms. Written information provided to the patient about medication discontinuation may be helpful. Cognitive behavioral therapy or behavioral therapies alone can improve hypnotic discontinuation outcomes. There is limited evidence for adjunct medications to assist in hypnotic cessation for insomnia...
June 2018: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747656/maternal-drug-use-and-the-risk-of-anorectal-malformations-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Nadine Zwink, Ekkehart Jenetzky
BACKGROUND: Origin of anorectal malformations (ARM) are considered multifactorial. Several genetic and non-genetic risk factors are discussed in literature. Maternal periconceptional medical drug use as possible risk factor, however, has not been reviewed systematically. METHODS: Studies published between 1977 and April 2017 were reviewed through systematic search in PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases. Furthermore, related and cross-referencing publications were reviewed...
May 10, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745050/aquaporin-4-knockout-mice-exhibit-increased-hypnotic-susceptibility-to-ketamine
#14
Yunluo Lv, Wangshu Dai, Ai Ge, Yi Fan, Gang Hu, Yinming Zeng
PURPOSE: This study examines anesthetic/hypnotic effects of ketamine in AQP4 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice with the particular focus on neurotransmission. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ketamine (100 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected in 16 WT and 16 KO mice. The hypnotic potencies were evaluated by the loss of the righting reflex (LORR). The amino acids neurotransmitter levels in prefrontal cortex were measured by microdialysis. RESULTS: This study demonstrated that AQP4 knockout significantly shortened the latency compared with WT mice (98...
May 9, 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740901/self-reported-sleep-disturbances-and-prostate-cancer-morbidity-and-mortality-in-swedish-men-a-longitudinal-study-over-40-years
#15
Xiao Tan, Jonathan Cedernaes, Lars A Forsberg, Helgi B Schiöth, Christian Benedict
The present study, with an observational period of about 40 years, examined the association between self-reported sleep disturbances (i.e. problems with falling and staying asleep; use of hypnotics) and prostate cancer morbidity and mortality in initially 2322 men (all 50 years old at baseline). Self-reported sleep disturbances and established risk factors (e.g. age, lower urinary tract symptoms, smoking and family history of cancer) were measured at ages 50 and 70 years. Information about prostate cancer diagnosis and deaths as a result of prostate cancer was available from the National Cancer Registry and the Swedish Civil Registry of Morbidity...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739132/assessment-of-switching-to-suvorexant-versus-the-use-of-add-on-suvorexant-in-combination-with-benzodiazepine-receptor-agonists-in-insomnia-patients-a-retrospective-study
#16
Masakazu Hatano, Hiroyuki Kamei, Risa Inagaki, Haruna Matsuzaki, Manako Hanya, Shigeki Yamada, Nakao Iwata
Objective: Suvorexant is a novel hypnotic drug that does not interact with the conventional γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor. We investigated the method by which suvorexant was introduced in insomnia patients who were taking benzodiazepine receptor agonists (BzRA). Methods: This was a retrospective study. We extracted clinical data for patients who were prescribed suvorexant and were already using BzRA. The patients were assigned to two groups, the switching and add-on groups...
May 31, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728990/the-role-of-mindfulness-in-the-insomnia-severity-of-female-chronic-hypnotic-users
#17
Daniela Curado, Viviam Barros, Emérita Opaleye, Sarah Bowen, Helena Hachul, Ana Regina Noto
PURPOSE: To investigate dispositional mindfulness, psychiatric symptoms, and their relationship with insomnia severity among female chronic hypnotic users. METHODS: Observational, cross-sectional study, including 76 women with chronic hypnotic use. Participants completed several self-report questionnaires: sociodemographic characteristics, depressive symptoms (CES-D), anxiety levels (STAI-T), dispositional mindfulness (FFMQ), and insomnia severity (ISI). Exploratory linear regression models were used to identify factors related to insomnia severity...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728031/-advances-in-studies-on-steroidal-saponins-and-their-pharmacological-activities-in-genus-lilium
#18
REVIEW
Lin-Ming Luo, Li Qin, Gang Pei, Shao-Guo Huang, Xiao-Jiang Zhou, Nai-Hong Chen
Genus Lilium plants contain a variety of steroidal saponins, so far at least 82 steroidal saponins have been found in the bulbs of Lilium species, including 13 spirostanol saponins (1-13), 39 isospirostanol saponins (14-52), 7 pseudospirostanol saponins (53-59), and 23 furostanol saponins (60-82). Studies have showed that these steroidal saponins exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities, including antitumor, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antidepressant, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, sedative-hypnotic effect, and inhibition of cAMP phosphodiesterase and Na⁺-K⁺ ATP, et al...
April 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727299/correlation-between-plasma-concentrations-of-tramadol-and-its-metabolites-and-the-incidence-of-seizure-in-tramadol-intoxicated-patients
#19
Mahnaz Ahmadimanesh, Shahin Shadnia, Mohammad Reza Rouini, Behjat Sheikholeslami, Sara Ahsani Nasab, Mahmoud Ghazi-Khansari
BACKGROUND: Seizure is one of the important symptoms of tramadol poisoning, but its causes are still unknown. The aim of this study is to find a relationship between tramadol and the concentrations of its metabolites versus the incidence of seizures following the consumption of high doses of tramadol. METHODS: For this purpose, the blood samples of 120 tramadol-intoxicated patients were collected. The patients were divided in two groups (seizure and non-seizure)...
May 4, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726630/trends-in-the-long-term-use-of-benzodiazepine-anxiolytics-and-hypnotics-a-national-register-study-for-2006-to-2014
#20
Terhi Kurko, Leena K Saastamoinen, Annamari Tuulio-Henriksson, Tero Taiminen, Jari Tiihonen, Marja Airaksinen, Jarmo Hietala
PURPOSE: Long-term benzodiazepine (BZD) treatment continues to be a debated topic. Because individual BZDs have different clinical profiles, we assessed the nationwide trends of long-term BZD use at active substance level during years 2006 to 2014. METHODS: This study covered all reimbursed BZD purchases (n = 408 572-521 823 annually) for adults recorded in the Finnish Prescription Register. We assessed long-term use (annual cumulative purchase of ≥180 defined daily doses) in general, and at active substance level with the most commonly used BZD anxiolytics (oxazepam, diazepam, alprazolam, and clonazepam for nonepilepsy indications) and hypnotics (zopiclone, zolpidem, and temazepam) included...
May 4, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
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