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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912885/tetrandrine-an-alkaloid-from-s-tetrandra-exhibits-anti-hypertensive-and-sleep-enhancing-effects-in-shr-via-different-mechanisms
#1
Yuan-Li Huang, Su-Ying Cui, Xiang-Yu Cui, Qing Cao, Hui Ding, Jin-Zhi Song, Xiao Hu, Hui Ye, Bin Yu, Zhao-Fu Sheng, Zi-Jun Wang, Yong-He Zhang
BACKGROUND: Sleep disorders have been found to be associated with hypertension in both cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies. Tetrandrine, a major component of Stephania tetrandra, is well known as an antihypertensive agent. The anti-hypertension mechanism mainly relies on its L-type calcium channel blocking property. In the previous study, tetrandrine revealed both anti-hypertension and hypnotic effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). PURPOSE: This study aims to elucidate whether the antihypertensive mechanism of tetrandrine in SHRs is relevant to its hypnotic effect...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912882/tenuifolin-a-saponin-derived-from-radix-polygalae-exhibits-sleep-enhancing-effects-in-mice
#2
Qing Cao, Yong Jiang, Su-Ying Cui, Peng-Fei Tu, Yue-Mei Chen, Xiao-Li Ma, Xiang-Yu Cui, Yuan-Li Huang, Hui Ding, Jin-Zhi Song, Bin Yu, Zhao-Fu Sheng, Zi-Jun Wang, Ya-Ping Xu, Guang Yang, Hui Ye, Xiao Hu, Yong-He Zhang
BACKGROUND: Radix Polygalae, the dried root of Polygala tenuifolia, has been extensively used as a traditional Chinese medicine for promoting intelligence and tranquilization. Polygalasaponins extracted from the root of P. tenuifolia possess evident anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic activities. Previous studies have reported that tenuifolin was a major constituent of polygalasaponins. PURPOSE: The currently study aims to investigate the hypnotic effect and possible mechanism of tenuifolin in freely moving mice...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909987/orexin-ox2-receptor-antagonists-as-sleep-aids
#3
Laura H Jacobson, Sui Chen, Sanjida Mir, Daniel Hoyer
The discovery of the orexin system represents the single major progress in the sleep field of the last three to four decades. The two orexin peptides and their two receptors play a major role in arousal and sleep/wake cycles. Defects in the orexin system lead to narcolepsy with cataplexy in humans and dogs and can be experimentally reproduced in rodents. At least six orexin receptor antagonists have reached Phase II or Phase III clinical trials in insomnia, five of which are dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) that target both OX1 and OX2 receptors (OX2Rs)...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908262/sleep-alterations-in-non-demented-older-individuals-the-role-of-cortisol
#4
Ana Belén Castelló-Domenech, Vanessa Ibáñez Del Valle, Julio Fernández-Garrido, Mary Martínez-Martínez, Omar Cauli
BACKGROUND: Sleep alterations can impair quality of life and contribute to disease progression but they, and their features and contributing factors, are rarely analysed in institutionalised older individuals. In this study we investigated sleep alterations, the factors involved, and the role of cortisol in sleep-related problems in institutionalised individuals. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study in participants living in nursing homes in Valencia (Spain); sleep alterations were determined based on two validated tools: the Athens insomnia scale and Oviedo sleep questionnaire...
November 30, 2016: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896799/a-comparison-of-sex-differences-in-psychotropic-medication-use-in-older-people-with-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-us-and-finland
#5
Daniela C Moga, Heidi Taipale, Anna-Maija Tolppanen, Antti Tanskanen, Jari Tiihonen, Sirpa Hartikainen, Qishan Wu, Gregory A Jicha, Danijela Gnjidic
AIMS: Given the high prevalence of psychotropic medication use in people with dementia and the potential for different prescribing practices in men and women, our study aimed to investigate sex differences in psychotropic medication use in older adults with Alzheimer's disease (AD) living in the US and Finland. METHODS: We used data collected between 2005 and 2011 as part of the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC) in the US, and Medication use and Alzheimer's disease (MEDALZ) cohorts in Finland...
November 28, 2016: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885227/the-experience-of-dissolving-polypharmacy-by-reducing-the-prescription-of-anti-ulcer-drugs-in-residents-of-a-special-geriatric-nursing-home
#6
Kosuke Okada, Yumiko Yamaguch, Nanao Kamada, Masahiro Okada, Shigeko Katoh, Hidemi Sasaki
AIM: As part of a broader study on polypharmacy among elderly nursing home residents, we examined the impact of reducing or discontinuing the prescription of proton pump inhibitors and other anti-ulcer drugs. METHODS: We employed a strategy of reducing and discontinuing the prescription of drugs to 160 elderly residents of the Hiroshima Atomic Bomb survivors nursing home, Kandayama Yasuragien. The residents had entered the home between April 2012 and November 2015...
2016: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884475/frailty-kidney-function-and-polypharmacy-the%C3%A2-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-aric-study
#7
Shoshana H Ballew, Yan Chen, Natalie R Daya, Job G Godino, B Gwen Windham, Mara McAdams-DeMarco, Josef Coresh, Elizabeth Selvin, Morgan E Grams
BACKGROUND: Frail individuals are at increased risk for poor outcomes, including adverse drug events. Kidney function is often compromised in frailty and is a key consideration in medication choice and dosing; however, creatinine-based measures of kidney function may be biased in frail individuals. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 4,987 community-dwelling older men and women with complete data who participated in visit 5 of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (2011-2013)...
November 21, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882122/gan-dan-liang-yi-tang-alleviates-p-chlorophenylalanine-induced-insomnia-through-modification-of-the-serotonergic-and-immune-system
#8
Yuan Hu, Yu-Nin Wang, Gang-Qiang Zhang, Xian-Zhe Dong, Wan-Wan Liu, Ping Liu
Gan-Dan-Liang-Yi-Tang (GDLYT) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine that has been historically used for the treatment of insomnia. However, investigations into its pharmacological ingredients and the mechanism underlying its sedative and hypnotic effects remain limited. The present study reported the detailed mechanisms underlying the sedative and hypnotic effects of GDLYT. Kunming mice were administered GDLYT at various sub-hypnotic doses, which underwent sodium pentobarbital treatment test, pentetrazole induced convulsant studies and p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) induced insomnia model...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882039/pediatric-tooth-extractions-under-sedoanalgesia
#9
Ayse Hande Arpaci, Berrin Isik
OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to evaluate intravenous ketamine and inhalation sedation in children, their unwanted side-effects and surgeon satisfaction. METHODS: In this study, data of 922 children aged between 1-18 who underwent tooth extraction under sedoanalgesia in our department between September 2015-January 2016 were gathered and anesthesia approaches, unwanted side effects and surgical satisfaction was investigated. Postoperative recovery emergence agitation or delirium was evaluated with Watcha Behavior Scale (WBS)...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881185/melatonin-and-melatonin-agonists-to-prevent-and-treat-delirium-in-critical-illness-a-systematic-review-protocol
#10
Jennifer Foster, Lisa D Burry, Lehana Thabane, Karen Choong, Kusum Menon, Mark Duffett, Alexandra Cheung, Melanie Guenette, Timothy Chimunda, Louise Rose
BACKGROUND: Delirium is a syndrome characterized by acute fluctuations and alterations in attention and arousal. Critically ill patients are at particularly high risk, and those that develop delirium are more likely to experience poor clinical outcomes such as prolonged duration of ICU and hospital length of stay, and increased mortality. Melatonin and melatonin agonists (MMA) have the potential to decrease the incidence and severity of delirium through their hypnotic and sedative-sparing effects, thus improving health-related outcomes...
November 24, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875917/campania-region-italy-spontaneous-reporting-system-and-preventability-assessment-through-a-case-by-case-approach-a-pilot-study-on-psychotropic-drugs
#11
Maurizio Sessa, Concetta Rafaniello, Liberata Sportiello, Annamaria Mascolo, Cristina Scavone, Alessandra Maccariello, Teresa Iannaccone, Michele Fabrazzo, Liberato Berrino, Francesco Rossi, Annalisa Capuano
OBJECTIVE: We conducted the first pilot Italian study to assess the preventability of adverse drug reactions involving psychotropic drugs reported through spontaneous reporting system from 01/07/2012 to 31/12/2014 in Campania Region. METHODS: Preventability was assessed, case-by-case, using an adapted version of the P-method. The evaluation was performed only for those reports that had, as suspected drug, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, antidepressants, anxiolytic and/or sedative-hypnotic...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873285/prescription-drug-use-and-polypharmacy-among-medicaid-enrolled-adults-with-autism-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-analysis
#12
Rini Vohra, Suresh Madhavan, Usha Sambamoorthi, Claire StPeter, Susannah Poe, Nilanjana Dwibedi, Mayank Ajmera
BACKGROUND: A lack of gold standard treatment for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), no clear ASD management guidelines, and lack of evidence-based pharmacological interventions other than aripiprazole and risperidone elevate the risk of off-label prescribing and adverse effects among individuals with ASD, more so among adults. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify and compare the types of prescription drug use, rates of polypharmacy, and characteristics associated with polypharmacy among adults with and without ASD in a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of a three-state Medicaid Analytic eXtract database (2000-2008)...
December 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871556/an-analysis-of-green-discoloration-of-urine-caused-by-propofol-infusion
#13
Keiko Fujii-Abe, Hiroshi Kawahara, Haruhisa Fukayama
BACKGROUND: Propofol is a short-acting, intravenous sedative-hypnotic agent that is widely used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia and sedation. An uncommon adverse effect of propofol is green discoloration of the urine, which has been reported not only under general anesthesia but also with sedation. Although it is assumed that the phenolic derivatives of propofol can cause green discoloration of the urine, the actual origin remains unknown. The aim of this report was to identify the origin of the green discoloration of the urine using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871506/elective-cholecystectomy-performed-on-patient-with-variegate-porphyria-propofol-based-total-intravenous-anesthesia-with-target-controlled-infusion
#14
Adam Kuźmiński, Michał Aporowicz, Monika Brol, Anna Żołnowska, Maciej Masternak
Porphyria is caused by disorders of enzymes that synthetize porphyrins. Both elective and emergency surgical procedures on patient suffering from porphyria may provoke acute symptoms. These patients require special anesthetic management since some of commonly used anesthetic agents may also induce acute manifestation of porphyria. We present the case of 53-year-old woman previously diagnosed with porphyria who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia with target-controlled infusion was used...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862597/impact-of-an-opioid-risk-reduction-initiative-on-motor-vehicle-crash-risk-among-chronic-opioid-therapy-patients
#15
Ryan N Hansen, Rod L Walker, Susan M Shortreed, Sascha Dublin, Kathleen Saunders, Evette J Ludman, Michael Von Korff
PURPOSE: Although prescription opioids have been associated with higher motor vehicle crash (MVC) risk, it is unknown whether health system initiatives to better manage chronic opioid therapy (COT) can reduce MVC risk at the population level. METHODS: We conducted an interrupted time series population-level cohort study at Group Health (GH), between January 2006 and September 2014, comparing MVC risk among COT patients who were GH members receiving care in either group practice or contracted care settings...
November 14, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860286/trends-in-off-label-prescribing-of-sedatives-hypnotics-and-antidepressants-among-children-and-adolescents-a-danish-nationwide-register-based-study
#16
Eva Skovslund Nielsen, Lotte Rasmussen, Maja Hellfritzsch Poulsen, Per Hove Thomsen, Mette Nørgaard, Torben Laursen
In recent years, psychotropic drug use among children and adolescents in Europe and USA has increased. However, the majority of psychotropic drugs are not formally approved for use in children and adolescents, and consequently, use is often off-label. The objectives were to describe time trends in off-label prescribing rates and the most commonly used types of psychotropic drugs by age and gender in Danish children and adolescents. Using the Register of Medicinal Product Statistics, we identified all prescriptions for sedatives, hypnotics and antidepressants filled for children and adolescents in 2006-2012...
November 17, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855720/pharmacological-interventions-for-agitation-in-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
David R Williamson, Anne Julie Frenette, Lisa Burry, Marc M Perreault, Emmanuel Charbonney, François Lamontagne, Marie-Julie Potvin, Jean-François Giguère, Sangeeta Mehta, Francis Bernard
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a worldwide leading cause of mortality and disability. Among TBI complications, agitation is a frequent behavioural problem. Agitation causes potential harm to patients and caregivers, interferes with treatments, leads to unnecessary chemical and physical restraints, increases hospital length of stay, delays rehabilitation, and impedes functional independence. Pharmacological treatments are often considered for agitation management following TBI...
November 17, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851868/pharmacotherapies-for-sleep-disturbances-in-dementia
#18
REVIEW
Jenny McCleery, Daniel A Cohen, Ann L Sharpley
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances, including reduced nocturnal sleep time, sleep fragmentation, nocturnal wandering, and daytime sleepiness are common clinical problems in dementia, and are associated with significant caregiver distress, increased healthcare costs, and institutionalisation. Drug treatment is often sought to alleviate these problems, but there is significant uncertainty about the efficacy and adverse effects of the various hypnotic drugs in this vulnerable population. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects, including common adverse effects, of any drug treatment versus placebo for sleep disorders in people with dementia, through identification and analysis of all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs)...
November 16, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843463/the-comparison-between-effect-of-chloralhydrate-and-diphenhydramine-on-sedating-for-electroencephalography
#19
Afagh Hassanzadeh Rad, Vahid Aminzadeh
OBJECTIVE: Electroencephalography (EEG) is the most effective diagnostic tool in distinguishing epileptic seizure. Chloral hydrate (CH) is a sedative hypnotic drug, commonly used as a method of sedation in children aged<3 yr. Furthermore, diphenhydramine (DH) is a first generation antihistaminic drug (H1 receptor blocker) with anti-cholinergic effect. In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of CH and DH on sedating for EEG. MATERIALS & METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients' records of aged 15-72 months undergone an EEG and required sedation...
2016: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835717/high-rates-of-psychiatric-comorbidity-in-narcolepsy-findings-from-the-burden-of-narcolepsy-disease-bond-study-of-9-312-patients-in-the-united-states
#20
Chad M Ruoff, Nancy L Reaven, Susan E Funk, Karen J McGaughey, Maurice M Ohayon, Christian Guilleminault, Jed Black
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate psychiatric comorbidity patterns in patients with a narcolepsy diagnosis in the United States. METHODS: Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Research Databases were accessed to identify individuals ≥ 18 years of age with ≥ 1 ICD-9 diagnosis code(s) for narcolepsy continuously insured between 2006 and 2010 and non-narcolepsy controls matched 5:1 (age, gender, region, payer). Extensive subanalyses were conducted to confirm the validity of narcolepsy definitions...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
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