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Imperatore Roberta, Coccia Elena, D'Angelo Livia, Varricchio Ettore, De Girolamo Paolo, Marina Paolucci
In this study, evidence for leptin receptor (LR) and gastric leptin immunoreactivity along the digestive tract of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), is reported. Besides this, the regulation of gastric leptin and its transcript by fatty acids was analyzed in vitro. LR was detected mainly in the cells of the stomach gastric glands and in the brush border of the epithelium of the anterior, middle and distal intestine. In the stomach LR was co-distributed with leptin. The regulation of gastric leptin and its transcript by fatty acids was analyzed by in vitro incubations...
August 13, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Angelica Hamilton, Jennifer Ly, Jasmine R Robinson, Keely R Corder, Kristen J DeMoranville, Paul J Schaeffer, Janice M Huss
Migratory birds undergo metabolic remodeling in tissues, including increased lipid storage in white adipose and fatty acid uptake and oxidation in skeletal muscle, to optimize energy substrate availability and utilization in preparation for long-distance flight. Different tissues undergo gene expression changes in keeping with their specialized functions and driven by tissue specific transcriptional pathways. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are lipid-activated nuclear receptors that regulate metabolic pathways involved in lipid and glucose utilization or storage in mammals...
August 13, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Menggang Li, Wenjuan Lei, Yongsheng Yu, Weiwei Yang, Ji Li, Dafa Chen, Shichong Xu, Ming Feng, Haibo Li
Monodisperse spherical MnO nanocrystals (NCs) with a size of 22.5 nm were synthesized by the thermal decomposition of manganese oleate in the presence of oleic acid and 1-octadecene. The as-synthesized MnO NCs show superior electrochemical performances with a specific capacitance of 736.4 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 and retain 93.3% of initial specific capacitance after 5000 cycles. The MnO NC electrode was successfully assembled in an asymmetric supercapacitor as the cathode with an activated carbon (AC) electrode as the anode...
August 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Cedric A D'Hue, Deepika Dhawan, Tyler Peat, José Ramos-Vara, Alan Jarmusch, Deborah W Knapp, R Graham Cooks
Background: In early work ambient ionization mass spectrometry (MS) revealed lipid patterns distinguishing muscle invasive bladder cancer (invasive urothelial carcinoma, InvUC) from normal urothelium. A new ambient ionization MS approach, touch spray MS (TS-MS) can rapidly generate mass spectra in real time, potentially in a point-of-care setting. A tissue sample removed from a patient is touched by a probe, and mass spectra generated within seconds. Objective: To validate TS-MS methods using specimens from naturally-occurring InvUC in dogs where the cancer closely mimics the human condition, and to demonstrate proof-of-concept that TS-MS can elucidate lipid patterns distinguishing InvUC from normal urothelium...
July 30, 2018: Bladder Cancer
Keisuke Kobayashi, Satoshi Ohte, Taichi Ohshiro, Narihiro Ugaki, Hiroshi Tomoda
Atropisomers with a biaryl dihydronaphthopyranone structure, dinapinones A1 (DPA1) (M position) and A2 (DPA2) (P position), were isolated from the fungus culture broth of Talaromyces pinophilus FKI-3864 as inhibitors of [14 C]neutral lipid ([14 C]triacylglycerol (TG) and [14 C]cholesteryl ester (CE)) synthesis from [14 C]oleic acid in Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO-K1) cells. DPA2 inhibited [14 C]TG and [14 C]CE synthesis (IC50 s, 0.65 and 5.6 μM, respectively), but DPA1 had no inhibitory activity on [14 C]TG and [14 C]CE synthesis even at 12 μM...
August 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Traci L Parry, Joseph W Starnes, Sara K O'Neal, James R Bain, Michael J Muehlbauer, Aubree Honcoop, Amro Ilaiwy, Peter Christopher, Cam Patterson, Monte S Willis
Introduction: The effects of exercise on the heart and its resistance to disease are well-documented. Recent studies have identified that exercise-induced resistance to arrhythmia is due to the preservation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Objectives: To identify novel metabolic changes that occur parallel to these mitochondrial alterations, we performed non-targeted metabolomics analysis on hearts from sedentary and exercise-trained rats challenged with isolated heart ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R)...
January 2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
S S Al-Ghannami, E Sedlak, I S Hussein, Y Min, S M Al-Shmmkhi, H S Al-Oufi, A Al-Mazroui, P Clough, K Ghebremeskel
Dietary habits of Omani population particularly of children and young adults have changed significantly. Consumption of imported calorie-dense foods, vegetable oils, milled and polished grains and carbonated beverages have become the norm. Concomitantly, there has been an exponential increase in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases. The impact of the westernisation of eating habits on children has not been evaluated. We have investigated blood fatty acid profile of male (n = 125) and female (n = 160) children aged 9 and 10 (9...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Bilal Houshaymi, Nadine Nasreddine, Mamdouh Kedees, Zeina Soayfane
The bioavailability of ivermectin is modulated by lipid-based formulations and membrane efflux transporters such as Breast Cancer Resistance Protein and P-glycoprotein (BCRP and P-gp). We have investigated the effect of oleic acid on the uptake of ivermectin in vitro using Caco-2 cells and in vivo in the intestines of wild-type mice. Complex micelles (M) with oleic acid induced a significant increase (e. g. for M3 was 7-fold, p≤0.001) in the uptake of the drug in a time-dependent manner with no involvement of cholesterol in the mechanism...
August 13, 2018: Drug Research
Camila O Souza, Carina A Valenzuela, Ella J Baker, Elizabeth A Miles, José C Rosa Neto, Philip C Calder
SCOPE: Fatty acids (FAs) may affect endothelial cell (EC) function, influencing atherogenesis and inflammatory processes. Palmitoleic acid (POA) has been described as an anti-inflammatory FA. However, its effects on ECs are underexplored. This study compared the effects of POA with those of palmitic acid (PA) and oleic acid (OA) on EC inflammatory responses. METHODS AND RESULTS: EAHy926 cells (EC lineage) were exposed to PA, OA or POA, and then stimulated with tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Richard Broughton, Noemi Ruíz-Lopez, Kirsty L Hassall, Enrique Martínez-Force, Rafael Garcés, Joaquín J Salas, Frédéric Beaudoin
Wax esters (WEs) and steryl esters (SEs) are minor components of sunflower oils formed by the esterification of long chain fatty alcohols and sterols to fatty acids. These compounds have similar carbon numbers and polarities making them difficult to separate using conventional chromatographic methods. In this study, electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) allowed the rapid and accurate profiling of WEs and SEs acyl moieties in total ester fractions of common and mutant sunflower oils with different fatty acid profiles...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Sang Mi Lee, Hyeon Ji Lim, Ji Won Chang, Byung-Serk Hurh, Young-Suk Kim
Volatile compounds, including γ-lactones, in brown and white rice fermented by Lactobacillus paracasei, were compared using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). The contents of most esters, alcohols, lactones and some aldehydes were higher in brown rice samples containing higher amount of free fatty acids after fermentation. In particular, the contents of γ-lactones increased more in fermented brown rice containing high amounts of fatty acids than in fermented white rice, suggesting that γ-decalactone and γ-nonalactone were formed from oleic acid and linoleic acid during rice fermentation...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Romee Jan, D C Saxena, Sukhcharn Singh
This study determined the effects of germination on the minerals, fatty acids, pasting, thermal, rheological and phytocomponents contents of Chenopodium album flour. The predominant fatty acids in raw flour were palmitic (0.83%), oleic (0.99%) and linoleic acids (1.96%), which increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with germination. Minerals (Na, Cu and Zn) and dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble) were increased with germination, while pasting and gelatinization properties were reduced significantly. Scanning electron micrographs showed destruction of the continuous composite structure of starch embedded in the dense protein matrix of flour following germination...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Tamene Milkessa Jiru, Laurinda Steyn, Carolina Pohl, Dawit Abate
BACKGROUND: Single cell oil has long been considered an alternative to conventional oil sources. The oil produced can also be used as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Oleaginous yeasts have relatively high growth and lipid production rates, can utilize a wide variety of cheap agro-industrial wastes such as molasses, and can accumulate lipids above 20% of their biomass when they are grown in a bioreactor under conditions of controlled excess carbon and nitrogen limitation. RESULTS: In this study, Rhodotorula kratochvilovae (syn, Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae) SY89 was cultivated in a nitrogen-limited medium containing cane molasses as a carbon source...
August 10, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Hae-Soon Lim, Ji-Eun Yeu, Sang-Phil Hong, Mi-Sun Kang
Recently, studies have explored the use of probiotics like the Weissella cibaria strain, CMU (oraCMU), for use as preventive dental medicine instead of chemical oral care methods. The present study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial properties of the cell-free supernatant (CFS) from this bacterium. Cell morphology using the scanning electron microscope, and the antibacterial effect of CFS under various growth conditions were evaluated. The production of hydrogen peroxide, organic acids, fatty acids, and secretory proteins was also studied...
August 9, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Asia Nosheen, Rabia Naz, Ayesha T Tahir, Humaira Yasmin, Rumana Keyani, Blagoj Mitrevski, Asghari Bano, Sung Tong Chin, Philip John Marriott, Ishtiaq Hussain
Safflower is an important industrial oil seed and bioenergy crop in semi-arid subtropical regions due to its potential to grow on marginal land and having good percentage of seed oil contents which is an important parameter for biofuel production. However, it is an ignored crop in Pakistan. In order to improve the crop productivity and reduce the use of agrochemicals for sustainable biodiesel feedstock production, an experiment was conducted for two years to improve the fatty acid composition and oil quality of Carthamus tinctorius L...
2018: PloS One
Lino Arisqueta, Hiart Navarro-Imaz, Ibone Labiano, Yuri Rueda, Olatz Fresnedo
High fat diet (HFD) feeding or leptin deficient mice are extensively used as models resembling features of human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The concurrence of experimental factors as fat content and source or total caloric intake leads to prominent differences in the development of the hepatic steatosis and related disturbances. In this work, we characterized the hepatic lipid accumulation induced by HFD in wild type (Wt) and ob/ob mice with the purpose of differentiating adaptations to HFD from those specific of increased overfeeding due to leptin deficiency-associated hyperphagia...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Ricardo J R Matos, Catarina I P Chaparro, Jorge C Silva, Manuel Almeida Valente, João Paulo Borges, Paula I P Soares
In the present work composite membranes were produced by combining magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) with cellulose acetate (CA) membranes for magnetic hyperthermia applications. The non-woven CA membranes were produced by electrospinning technique, and magnetic NPs were incorporated by adsorption at fibers surface or by addition to the electrospinning solution. Therefore, different designs of composite membranes were obtained. Superparamagnetic NPs synthesized by chemical precipitation were stabilized either with oleic acid (OA) or dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) to obtain stable suspensions at physiological pH...
October 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Jens Kamuf, Andreas Garcia-Bardon, Alexander Ziebart, Rainer Thomas, Konstantin Folkert, Katrin Frauenknecht, Serge C Thal, Erik K Hartmann
INTRODUCTION: The acute respiratory distress syndrome is not only associated with a high mortality, but also goes along with cognitive impairment in survivors. The cause for this cognitive impairment is still not clear. One possible mechanism could be cerebral inflammation as result of a "lung-brain-crosstalk". Even mechanical ventilation itself can induce cerebral inflammation. We hypothesized, that an acute lung injury aggravates the cerebral inflammation induced by mechanical ventilation itself and leads to neuronal damage...
2018: PloS One
Eman Alghamdi, Sergey Piletsky, Elena Piletska
A possibility of harvesting the physiologically-active compounds from the vegetable oils using bespoke resin and optimised solid-phase extraction (SPE) purification method is demonstrated. The paper describes the application of SPE protocol, which was originally developed, using sunflower oil as model biomass, for extraction of the valuable compounds from sesame, wheat germ, palm, olive and soybean oils. As a result, the extraction of three free fatty acids (palmitic, oleic and linoleic), α-tocopherol and three phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol) from six vegetable oils have been demonstrated...
November 1, 2018: Talanta
W Chankeaw, Y Z Guo, R Båge, A Svensson, G Andersson, P Humblot
Elevated non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) are associated with negative effects on bovine theca, granulosa and oviductal cells but the effects of NEFAs on bovine endometrial epithelial cells (bEECs) are not as well documented. The objective of this study was to define the effects of NEFAs on bEECs. Postprimary bEECs were treated with 150, 300 or 500µM of either palmitic acid (PA), stearic acid (SA) or oleic acid (OA) or a mixture of NEFAs (150µM of each FA) or 0.5% final concentration of vehicle ethanol (control)...
August 8, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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