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Marco Fazzari, Dario A Vitturi, Steven R Woodcock, Sonia R Salvatore, Bruce A Freeman, Francisco J Schopfer
Electrophilic nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FA) showed beneficial signaling actions in preclinical studies, and safety in Phase 1 clinical trials. Detailed understanding of the pharmacokinetics (PK) of NO2-FA is complicated by the capability of electrophilic fatty acids to alkylate thiols reversibly, become esterified in various complex lipids, and the instability of the nitroalkene moiety during enzymatic and base hydrolysis. Herein, we report the mechanism and kinetics of absorption, metabolism, and distribution of the endogenously-detectable and prototypical NO2-FA 10-nitro-oleic acid (10-NO2-OA) in dogs after oral administration...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Yara Faustino Pereira, Maria do Socorro Costa, Saulo Relison Tintino, Janaína Esmeraldo Rocha, Fábio Fernandes Galvão Rodrigues, Maria Karine de Sá Barreto Feitosa, Irwin Rose Alencar de Menezes, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho, José Galberto Martins da Costa, Erlânio Oliveira de Sousa
Mauritia flexuosa (buriti) is a typical Brazilian palm tree found in swampy regions with many plant forms. The fruit has various purposes with the pulps to the seeds being used for ice creams, sweets, creams, jellies, liqueurs, and vitamin production. A physicochemical characterization of the fixed pulp oil and its antibacterial and aminoglycoside antibiotic modifying activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative multiresistant bacterial strains were performed using broth microdilution assays. Physical properties, such as moisture, pH, acidity, peroxide index, relative density, and refractive index, indicated oil stability and chemical quality...
December 10, 2018: Pathogens
Gioele Capillo, Serena Savoca, Rosaria Costa, Marilena Sanfilippo, Carmen Rizzo, Angelina Lo Giudice, Ambrogina Albergamo, Rossana Rando, Giovanni Bartolomeo, Nunziacarla Spanò, Caterina Faggio
Enormous marine biodiversity offers an endless reservoir of chemicals for many applications. In this scenario, the extraction of seaweeds represents an interesting source of compounds displaying antimicrobial activity. In particular, among the different red algae, Gracilaria gracilis plays an important role due to the presence of important bioactives in its composition. In spite of these features, an efficient culture system is still absent. In the present study, a novel algal culture method was developed and compared to another more common cultural practice, widely reported in literature...
December 7, 2018: Marine Drugs
Pan Wu, Lingling Zhang, Tao Feng, Wenying Lu, Huayan Zhao, Jianzhong Li, Shiyou Lü
High amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in vegetable oil are not desirable for biodiesel or food oil due to their lower oxidative stability. The oil from Idesia polycarpa fruit contains 65⁻80% (mol%) linoleic acid (C18:2). Therefore, development of Idesia polycarpa cultivars with low PUFAs is highly desirable for Idesia polycarpa oil quality. Fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2) is the key enzyme converting oleic acid (C18:1) to C18:2. We isolated four FAD2 homologs from the fruit of Idesia polycarpa ...
December 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
María Aracely Calatayud-Pascual, María Sebastian-Morelló, Cristina Balaguer-Fernández, M Begoña Delgado-Charro, Alicia López-Castellano, Virginia Merino
The aims of this study were to assess, in vitro, the possibility of administering propranolol transdermally and to evaluate the usefulness of the dermatopharmacokinetic (DPK) method in assessing the transport of drugs through stratum corneum, using propranolol as a model compound. Four chemical enhancers (decenoic and oleic acid, laurocapram, and R-(+)-limonene) and iontophoresis at two current densities, 0.25 and 0.5 mA/cm² were tested. R-(+)-limonene, and iontophoresis at 0.5 mA/cm² were proven to be the most efficient in increasing propranolol transdermal flux, both doubled the original propranolol transdermal flux...
December 7, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Fernando Sánchez-Albarrán, Rafael Salgado-Garciglia, Jorge Molina-Torres, Rodolfo López-Gómez
Studies on avocado oil have focused on the most common commercial cultivars, Hass, Fuerte, and Bacon, rather than the less common varieties, P. americana var. drymifolia and P. americana var. americana, even though the drymifolia variety has a higher oil content and the americana variety is the most common avocado grown in the tropics. The most abundant storage structures for plant oils are the oleosomes, and the aim of this study was to determine the oleosome size, oil yield, and fatty acid composition of the americana and drymifolia varieties, using the Hass cultivar as a reference...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Sabeena Rizwan, Cinzia Benincasa, Khalid Mehmood, Shaista Anjum, Zahid Mehmood, Ghulam Hussain Alizai, Muhammad Azam, Enzo Perri, Ashif Sajjad
Mediterranean olive trees have been cultivated in Pakistan for decades to promote olive cultivation and use of olive oil. The qualitative characteristics of seven mono and one multi-varietal extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) extracted from Italian cultivars grown in different areas of Balochistan a southwestern province of Pakistan were evaluated. Present study aims to assess the impact of bioclimatological change on biochemical profile of exotic cultivars. The dominating fatty acids found in analyzed EVOOs were oleic (65-72%), linoleic (10...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Junmin Ji, Zhengfa Ge, Yeshen Feng, Xuede Wang
To develop and use the hazelnut, the main composition, and the physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid compositions, triacylglycerol (TAG) distribution and tocol contents of Hazelnut (Corylus mandshurica Maxim.) which growing in Changbai mountain of Jilin province (HO1) and Anshan city of Liaoning province (HO2) in China were investigated, and the comparative study between the two hazelnut oils and American hazelnut / Turkish hazelnut were also explored. The content of crude lipid and protein in HO1 and HO2 were approximately 54% and 17%, 55% and 16%, respectively...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Tenghao Shao, Jijia Bai, Xigang Ma
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2) on the expressions of chemokine FKN and tight junction protein claudin-5 in lung tissue of rats with acute lung injury (ALI). METHODS: Healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into normal saline (NS) control group, ALI model group and KGF-2 pretreatment group, with 10 rats in each group. The rat ALI model was reproduced by injection of 0.01 mL/kg oleic acid into the tail vein, and the rats in NS control group were injected with the same amount of NS...
November 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Amel Ismail, Leila Ktari, Yosr Ben Redjem Romdhane, Brahim Aoun, Saloua Sadok, Abdellatif Boudabous, Monia El Bour
This study deals with the antimicrobial potential assessment of Ulva rigida, in regard to collection period and sampling site. Besides, we assess the chemical composition of bioactive compounds. For this purpose, Ulva rigida was seasonally collected from two northern sites in Tunisia, Cap Zebib rocky shore (CZ) and Ghar El Melh lagoon (GEM). Crude organic extracts were prepared using dichloromethane and dichloromethane/methanol and tested against 19 indicator microorganisms using the disk diffusion method and microdilution technique to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)...
2018: BioMed Research International
Isabel Matos Medeiros-de-Moraes, Cassiano Felippe Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Angela R M Kurz, Flora Magno de Jesus Oliveira, Victor Hugo Pereira de Abreu, Rafael Carvalho Torres, Vinícius Frias Carvalho, Vanessa Estato, Patrícia Torres Bozza, Markus Sperandio, Hugo Caire de Castro-Faria-Neto, Adriana Ribeiro Silva
The Mediterranean diet, rich in olive oil, is beneficial, reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Olive oil is mostly composed of the monounsaturated fatty acid omega-9. We showed omega-9 protects septic mice modulating lipid metabolism. Sepsis is initiated by the host response to infection with organ damage, increased plasma free fatty acids, high levels of cortisol, massive cytokine production, leukocyte activation, and endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to analyze the effect of omega-9 supplementation on corticosteroid unbalance, inflammation, bacterial elimination, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma expression, an omega-9 receptor and inflammatory modulator...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Shuangyi Bai, Steven Engelen, Peter Denolf, James G Wallis, Katherine Lynch, Jesse D Bengtsson, Michel Van Thournout, Boris Haesendonckx, John Browse
Producing healthy, high-oleic oils and eliminating trans fatty acids from foods are two goals that can be addressed by reducing activity of the oleate desaturase, FAD2, in oilseeds. However, it is essential to understand the consequences of reducing FAD2 activity on the metabolism, cell biology and physiology of oilseed crop plants. Here, we translate knowledge from studies of fad2 mutants in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to investigate the limits of non-GMO approaches to maximize oleic acid in the seed oil of canola (Brassica napus), a species that expresses three active FAD2 isozymes...
December 11, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Ondulla T Toomer, Amanda M Hulse-Kemp, Lisa L Dean, Deborah L Boykin, Ramon Malheiros, Kenneth E Anderson
Previous studies have identified normal-oleic peanuts as a suitable and economical broiler feed ingredient. However, no studies to date have examined the use of high-oleic (HO) peanut cultivars as a feed ingredient for laying hens and determined the impact of feeding HO peanuts on performance and egg nutritive qualities. This project aimed to examine the use of HO peanuts as a feed ingredient for layer hens to determine the effect on performance, egg lipid chemistry, and quality of the eggs produced. Forty-eight 40-wk-old layer hens were fed a conventional soybean meal + corn control diet or a HO peanut + corn diet for 10 wk in conventional battery cages...
December 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Elaine A Yu, Peter J Hu, Saurabh Mehta
Background: Insulin regulates fatty acids (FAs) in the blood; conversely, FAs may mediate insulin sensitivity and are potentially modifiable risk factors of the diabetogenic state. Objective: The objective of our study was to examine the associations between plasma concentrations of FAs, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among individuals (n = 1433) in the NHANES (2003-2004). Design: Plasma concentrations of 24 individual FAs were considered individually and in subgroups, per chemical structure...
September 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Adrian Chrastina, Veronique T Baron, Parisa Abedinpour, Gaelle Rondeau, John Welsh, Per Borgström
Background: Plumbagin, a medicinal plant-derived 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, is an emerging drug with a variety of pharmacological effects, including potent anticancer activity. We have previously shown that plumbagin improves the efficacy of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer and it is now being evaluated in phase I clinical trial. However, the development of formulation of plumbagin as a compound with sparing solubility in water is challenging. Methods: We have formulated plumbagin-loaded nanoemulsion using pneumatically controlled high pressure homogenization of oleic acid dispersions with polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate as surfactant...
2018: BioMed Research International
Wen-Chung Huang, Ya-Ling Chen, Hui-Chia Liu, Shu-Ju Wu, Chian-Jiun Liou
Ginkgolide C, isolated from Ginkgo biloba , is a diterpene lactone that has multiple biological functions and can improve Alzheimer disease and platelet aggregation. Ginkgolide C also inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The present study evaluated whether ginkgolide C reduced lipid accumulation and regulated the molecular mechanism of lipogenesis in oleic acid-induced HepG2 hepatocytes. HepG2 cells were treated with 0.5 mM oleic acid for 48 h to induce a fatty liver cell model. Then, the cells were exposed to various concentrations of ginkgolide C for 24 h...
December 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Aws Alshamsan
STAT3 knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been described to inhibit carcinogenic growth in various types of tumors. Earlier we have reported delivery of siRNA by oleic acid- and stearic acid-modified-polyethylenimine and enhancement of silencing of STAT3 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) in B16.F10 melanoma cell lines and consequent tumor suppression. Present investigation mainly focused on the downstream events involved in B16.F10 melanoma cell death and consequent tumor suppression following knockdown of p-STAT3 by siRNA...
December 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Rahel Kluttig, Till Friedheim, Christoph Behem, Niko Zach, Rosannis Brown, Michael Graessler, Daniel Reuter, Christian Zöllner, Constantin Trepte
One of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure is right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, especially if it is due to pulmonary hypertension. For a better understanding and treatment of this disease, precise hemodynamic monitoring of left and right ventricular parameters is important. For this reason, it is essential to establish experimental pig models of cardiac hemodynamics and measurements for research purpose. This article shows the induction of ARDS by using oleic acid (OA) and consequent right ventricular dysfunction, as well as the instrumentation of the pigs and the data acquisition process that is needed to assess hemodynamic parameters...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Satoshi Tsuzuki, Shinhye Lee, Yusaku Kimoto, Tatsuya Sugawara, Yuki Manabe, Kazuo Inoue
Class B scavenger receptor family members, scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1) and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), are broadly expressed cell-surface proteins, both of which are believed to serve as multifaceted players in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in mammals. Because of its presence in the apical part of taste receptor cells within circumvallate taste buds and its ability to recognise long-chain fatty acids, CD36 has been believed to participate in the sensing of the lipid species within the oral cavity...
2018: Biomedical Research
J Saúl García-Pérez, Sara P Cuéllar-Bermúdez, Reynaldo de la Cruz-Quiroz, Alejandra Arévalo-Gallegos, Diego A Esquivel-Hernandez, José Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Rebeca García-García, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Roberto Parra-Saldivar
In this study, the supercritical CO2 -based extraction approach was used from the green technologies to extract Oregano oil (Origanum vulgare L.). A Taguchi experimental design was applied to evaluate the effect of pressure, temperature and ethanol as co-solvent. High yield of oregano oil (13.40%) was obtained at 40 °C, 100 bar and 8 g min-1 of co-solvent flow. Fatty acids profile include α-linolenic, palmitic, oleic and linoleic that contribute to 70.9-76.8% of total fatty acids. Volatile compounds including carvacrol (29...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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