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Cristian Ricci, Janet Carboo, Hannah Asare, Cornelius M Smuts, Robin Dolman, Martani Lombard
Child mortality is a major public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa and is influenced by nutritional status. A conceptual framework were proposed to explain factors related to under nutrition. Previously proposed conceptual frameworks for under nutrition do not consider child mortality and describe factors related to under nutrition from a qualitative viewpoint only. A structural equation modelling approach was applied to the data from World Bank and FAO databases collected from over 37 Sub-Saharan Countries from 2000 to the most recent update...
October 13, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Antonio Riccardo Buonomo, Francesco Saccà, Emanuela Zappulo, Federico De Zottis, Roberta Lanzillo, Ivan Gentile, Antonio Carotenuto, Guglielmo Borgia, Cinzia Valeria Russo
Alemtuzumab (a drug highly active in multiple sclerosis) is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the surface molecule CD52. It causes a rapid depletion of innate and adaptive immune cells with a peak during the first month after infusion. Infection rates in alemtuzumab-treated patients with multiple sclerosis in clinical trials were higher in than in interferon beta-treated patients. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) primary infections and reactivations have been reported in this setting of patients. We describe the case of a patient that developed both viral (CMV) and bacterial pneumonia one month after alemtuzumab infusion for multiple sclerosis...
October 2, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Philipp Stadler, Luke C Loken, John T Crawford, Paul J Schramm, Kirsti Sorsa, Catherine Kuhn, Domenico Savio, Robert G Striegl, David Butman, Emily H Stanley, Andreas H Farnleitner, Matthias Zessner
This study used automated enzymatic activity measurements conducted from a mobile research vessel to detect the spatial variability of beta‑d‑glucuronidase (GLUC) activity in large freshwater bodies. The ship-borne observations provided the first high-resolution spatial data of GLUC activity in large water bodies as rapid indication of fecal pollution and were used to identify associations with hydrological conditions and land use. The utility of this novel approach for water quality screening was evaluated by surveys of the Columbia River, the Mississippi River and the Yahara Lakes, covering up to a 500 km river course and 50 km2 lake area...
October 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Robert Q Thompson, Daniel Katz, Brendan Sheehan
The bark of Prunus africana may contain atranorin, atraric acid, beta-sitosterol and its esters, ferulic acid and its esters, and N-butylbenzene sulfonamide, compounds that have been shown to improve the conditions of benign prostatic hyperplasia, enlarged prostate. An analytical scheme, involving liquid-solid extractions, saponifications, and LC-APCI-MS (triple quadrupole) analysis, was developed, optimized, and validated to determine the compounds at μg/g levels. Limits of quantification were in the low ng/mL range except for beta-sitosterol...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Linyu Zhang, Hao Dong, Youwen Si, Nan Wu, Hao Cao, Bing Mei, Bo Meng
MicroRNAs, small noncoding RNAs, not only regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in a variety of physiological processes but also accompany the initiation and progression of a vast number of diseases, including dementia. While miR-125b has been shown to be aberrantly expressed in some dementia patients, its role in the pathological process remains ambiguous. Presenilin-1/2 conditional double knockout mice exhibit a range of symptoms, including impaired cognition and memory, increased tau phosphorylation, neuroinflammation, and apoptosis, and are therefore regarded as a useful dementia model...
September 18, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Laura Escolà-Vergé, Nuria Fernández-Hidalgo, Dolors Rodríguez-Pardo, Carlos Pigrau, Juan José González-López, Rosa Bartolomé, Benito Almirante
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of teicoplanin for treating enterococcal infective endocarditis (EIE). METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort of definite EIE patients treated with teicoplanin in a referral center (January 2000-September 2017). Primary outcome was mortality during treatment. Secondary outcomes were mortality during a 3-month follow-up, adverse effects, and relapse...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Lyndell L Lim, Diego G Silva, Tiffany C Lo, Ronald S Pimentel, Helmut Butzkueven, Anthony J Hall
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and prevalence of uveitis and its effect on multiple sclerosis (MS) disease activity and outcomes in patients with MS who participated in the fingolimod clinical trial program. DESIGN: Analysis of pooled data (N = 27 528) from patients enrolled in fingolimod clinical studies and their extensions. Patients were stratified into four cohorts based on the history of uveitis at baseline and uveitis events during the observation period: no history and no uveitis events ('no uveitis'); history and no uveitis events ('history'); no history and uveitis events ('first event'); history and uveitis events ('recurrent event')...
October 10, 2018: Ophthalmology
Ponsit Sathapondecha, Wilaiwan Chotigeat
In shrimp aquaculture, eyestalk ablation is the only technique that is widely used to accelerate ovarian development. Alternative methods for producing improved ovarian development in broodstock are currently being investigated. Several factors involved in the regulation of ovarian development in shrimp have been investigated. Among these factors, growth factors in the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily have been implicated as playing potential roles in the regulation of gonad development...
October 10, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Daniela Guarino, Diego Moriconi, Andrea Mari, Eleni Rebelos, Daria Colligiani, Simona Baldi, Marco Anselmino, Ele Ferrannini, Monica Nannipieri
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Postprandial hypoglycaemia (PPHG) is a complication of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery in normoglycaemic individuals. In type 2 diabetes, RYGB improves glucose metabolism, but whether this improvement is related to the later development of PPHG is not known. We investigated the presence and mechanisms of PPHG in individuals with type 2 diabetes undergoing RYGB. METHODS: A total of 35 obese individuals with type 2 diabetes underwent an OGTT before and 24 months after surgery...
October 12, 2018: Diabetologia
Alberto Vaiarelli, Danilo Cimadomo, Pasquale Patrizio, Roberta Venturella, Giovanna Orlando, Daria Soscia, Adriano Giancani, Antonio Capalbo, Laura Rienzi, Filippo Maria Ubaldi
RESEARCH QUESTION: Biochemical pregnancy loss (BPL), defined as serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin levels ≥50 IU/l in at least two pregnancy tests, not associated with any ultrasonographical evidence of pregnancy, is often attributed to chromosomal abnormalities; however, no hard evidence exists to support this hypothesis. Are any IVF cycle parameters associated with the occurrence of a BPL? DESIGN: Retrospective study aimed at evaluating the effect of embryo developmental stage at transfer and chromosomal assessment on the BPL rate in IVF after frozen embryo transfer (FET)...
September 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Takayoshi Kiba
OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 (Pdx-1) is a homeodomain-containing transcription factor essential for pancreatic development, beta-cell differentiation and the maintenance of mature beta cell function. To transfect the expression vectors of Pdx-1 in the mammalian cells, the complementary DNA (cDNA) of Pdx-1 was conducted. RESULTS: Novel codons and amino acids sequences were detected in rat Pdx-1 cDNA. Comparing the previous reports regarding rat Pdx-1 cDNA, 3 novel codons (ACA141CCA, AAG720CCG, GTT742GCT) were detected...
October 12, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Teresa Joy, Muddanna S Rao, Sampath Madhyastha
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), deposition of beta amyloid plaques, and consequent neuronal loss in the brain tissue. Oxidative stress to the neurons is often attributed to AD, but its link to NFT and β-amyloid protein (BAP) still remains unclear. In an animal model of AD, we boosted the oxidative defense by N -Acetyl cysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione, a powerful antioxidant and free radical scavenger, to understand the link between oxidative stress and NFT...
October 11, 2018: Brain Sciences
Abraham Said Arellano Buendía, Montserrat Tostado González, Omegar Sánchez Reyes, Fernando Enrique García Arroyo, Raúl Argüello García, Edilia Tapia, Laura Gabriela Sánchez Lozada, Horacio Osorio Alonso
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is presently the primary cause of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It has been suggested that inflammation and oxidative stress, in addition to or in concert with the metabolic changes, plays an important role in the maintenance and progression of the disease. Therefore, attenuating or blocking these mechanisms may be a therapeutic target to delay the progression of the disease. Diallyl thiosulfinate (allicin), a compound derived from garlic, inhibits free radical formation, increases glutathione synthesis and decreases the levels of proinflammatory molecules in vitro...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Guangying Pei, Jinglong Wu, Duanduan Chen, Guoxin Guo, Shuozhen Liu, Mingxuan Hong, Tianyi Yan
Electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback improves cognitive capacity and behaviors by regulating brain activity, which can lead to cognitive enhancement in healthy people and better rehabilitation in patients. The increased use of EEG neurofeedback highlights the urgent need to reduce the discomfort and preparation time and increase the stability and simplicity of the system's operation. Based on brain-computer interface technology and a multithreading design, we describe a neurofeedback system with an integrated design that incorporates wearable, multichannel, dry electrode EEG acquisition equipment and cognitive function assessment...
October 11, 2018: Sensors
Julie A Reisz, Travis Nemkov, Monika Dzieciatkowska, Rachel Culp-Hill, Davide Stefanoni, Ryan C Hill, Tatsuro Yoshida, Andrew Dunham, Tamir Kanias, Larry J Dumont, Michael Busch, Elan Z Eisenmesser, James C Zimring, Kirk C Hansen, Angelo D'Alessandro
BACKGROUND: Being devoid of de novo protein synthesis capacity, red blood cells (RBCs) have evolved to recycle oxidatively damaged proteins via mechanisms that involve methylation of dehydrated and deamidated aspartate and asparagine residues. Here we hypothesize that such mechanisms are relevant to routine storage in the blood bank. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Within the framework of the REDS-III RBC-Omics (Recipient Epidemiology Donor Evaluation Study III Red Blood Cell-Omics) study, packed RBC units (n = 599) were stored under blood bank conditions for 10, 23, and 42 days and profiled for oxidative hemolysis and time-dependent metabolic dysregulation of the trans-sulfuration pathway...
October 12, 2018: Transfusion
Bohong Cen, Yuanyi Wei, Wen Huang, Muzhou Teng, Shuai He, Jianlong Li, Wei Wang, Guolin He, Xin Bai, Xiaoxia Liu, Yawei Yuan, Xinghua Pan, Aimin Ji
The PI3K-AKT-mTOR-signaling pathway is frequently activated in glioblastoma (GBM). Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta (PIK3CB)/p110β (a PI3K catalytic isoform) by RNAi substantially suppresses GBM growth with less toxicity to normal astrocytes. However, insufficient and non-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery may limit the efficacy of RNAi-based therapies against GBM. Here we prepared a novel methoxy-modified PIK3CB siRNA molecule (siPIK3CB) that was covalently conjugated to a [cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Lys)-Ahx]2 -Glu-PEG-MAL (biRGD) peptide, which selectively binds to integrin αvβ3 receptors...
September 6, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Arnaud Delval, Aurore Braquet, Nauaman Dirhoussi, Madli Bayot, Philippe Derambure, Luc Defebvre, Céline Tard, Kathy Dujardin
Gait initiation can vary as a function of the available and engaged attentional resources. Conflict resolution can disrupt movement preparation and lead to "errors" in motor programming. These "errors" are physiologically useful by enabling us to adapt our motor behavior to situations with conflicting information. The objective of the present study was to analyze the patterns of cortical activation associated with motor programming errors and the corresponding error corrections. Incongruent flankers around a target arrow were used to trigger errors in anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) prior to gait initiation; i...
October 9, 2018: Neuroscience
Wan-Hua Ting, Ho-Hsiung Lin, Sheng-Mou Hsiao
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To identify factors predicting persistent ectopic pregnancy (PEP) in women who underwent laparoscopic salpingostomy or salpingotomy for tubal pregnancy. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force Classification Level II-2). SETTING: This study was performed in a tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Ninety-nine women who underwent laparoscopic tubal preservation surgery for ectopic pregnancy...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Q Raas, F-E Saih, C Gondcaille, D Trompier, Y Hamon, V Leoni, C Caccia, B Nasser, M Jadot, F Ménétrier, G Lizard, M Cherkaoui-Malki, P Andreoletti, S Savary
Acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOX1) deficiency is a rare and severe peroxisomal leukodystrophy associated with a very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) β-oxidation defect. This neurodegenerative disease lacks relevant cell models to further decipher the pathomechanisms in order to identify novel therapeutic targets. Since peroxisomal defects in microglia appear to be a key component of peroxisomal leukodystrophies, we targeted the Acox1 gene in the murine microglial BV-2 cell line. Using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing, we generated an Acox1-deficient cell line and validated the allelic mutations, which lead to the absence of ACOX1 protein and enzymatic activity...
October 9, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular and cell biology of lipids
Anna Adamska, Aleksandra Araszkiewicz, Stanislaw Pilacinski, Agnieszka Gandecka, Agata Grzelka, Katarzyna Kowalska, Agnieszka Malinska, Michal Nowicki, Dorota Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz
In patients with diabetes, functional changes in microcirculation and subclinical vascular pathology precede clinical manifestation of microangiopathic complications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between established vascular risk factors and density, maturity, and reactivity of dermal blood vessels in adults with type 1 diabetes (DM1). We included 148 DM1 patients (87 men) with a median (IQR) age of 40.5 (30.5-49) years and a median diabetes duration of 21 (17-29.5) years. The control group consisted of 13 healthy volunteers (6 men) with a median (IQR) age of 36 (31-43)...
October 9, 2018: Microvascular Research
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