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Noriko Funato, Hiromi Yanagisawa
OBJECTIVE: We examined the function of the T-box transcription factor 1 (TBX1) in palatogenesis. DESIGN: Tbx1-knockout mice were histologically examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Next, secondary palatal shelves dissected from wild type or Tbx1-knockout mice embryos at embryonic day 13.5 were investigated with microarray analysis, gene ontology analysis, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We performed gene profiling of developing palatal shelves from wild type and Tbx1-knockout embryos...
August 9, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Mingguang Wang, Tian Jing, Xuan Wang, Dan Yao
Amyloid-β proteins deposition and aggregation occur in extracellular space and form neuritic plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1)/ β-secretase and γ-secretase Presenilin 1 (PSEN1) conduct sequential cleavage of amyloid- β precursor protein (APP) and yield amyloid- β proteins. However the details of the interactions of APP with the enzymes and transportation of catalytic products are unclear. Here we reveal distinctive targeting patterns of the proteins in subcellular organelles in N2 A cells...
August 15, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Michele M Comerota, Batbayar Tumurbaatar, Balaji Krishnan, Rakez Kayed, Giulio Taglialatela
Tau oligomers are emerging as a key contributor to the synaptic dysfunction that drives cognitive decline associated with the clinical manifestation and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accordingly, there is ample consensus that interventions that target tau oligomers may slow or halt the progression of AD. With this ultimate goal in mind, in the present study, we investigated tau oligomer accumulation and its synaptic and behavioral consequences after an in vivo treatment with near infrared (NIR) light (600-1000 nm) in two transgenic mouse models, overexpressing human tau either alone (hTau mice) or in combination with amyloid beta (3xTgAD mice)...
August 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Emily Grman, Chad R Zirbel, Tyler Bassett, Lars A Brudvig
The loss of biodiversity at local and larger scales has potentially dramatic effects on ecosystem functioning. Many studies have shown that ecosystem functioning depends on biodiversity, but the role of beta diversity, spatial variation in community composition, is less clear than that of local-scale (alpha) diversity. To test the hypothesis that beta diversity would increase ecosystem multifunctionality through variation in species functional traits, we gathered data on plant community composition, plant functional traits, and seven ecosystem functions across 29 restored prairies...
August 17, 2018: Oecologia
Yasuaki Tohma, Ryohei Takeuchi, Yasuhito Tanaka
Recently, many facilities perform open wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) using artificial bone as a gap filler. However, there are many cases in which artificial bone is used without a clear purpose. We recommend a surgical technique to promote early synostosis between artificial bone and recipient bone due to mechanical support especially in the early stage after OWHTO. At our hospital, beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) with 60% porosity is used in OWHTO. Initially, a wedge-shaped block-type β-TCP, as large as possible, was inserted into the gap...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Feitong Wu, Valentina Ho, Brooklyn J Fraser, Michael D Schmidt, Terence Dwyer, Alison J Venn, Costan G Magnussen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Childhood body mass index (BMI) predicts adult glucose homeostasis measures and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but little is known about the predictive utility of other anthropometric measures in childhood. We aimed to identify the anthropometric measure in childhood that best predicts adult glucose homeostasis measures and examine if the combination of additional anthropometric measures further improves predictive utility. METHODS: A 20-year follow-up of children participating in the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study (n = 2345, aged 7-15 years at baseline)...
August 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Bradley R Nullmeyer, Jae W Kwon, J David Robertson, Alexander Y Garnov
Radiation damage in solid-state semiconductors has, until now, placed strict limitations on the acceptable decay energies of radioisotopes in radiovoltaic cells. Relegation to low-energy beta-emitting isotopes has minimized the power output from these devices and limited the technology's ability to deliver greater energy densities and longer lifetimes than conventional batteries. We demonstrate the self-healing abilities of a liquid-phase semiconducting alloy which can withstand high-energy alpha radiation...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Matthew J Simon, Marie X Wang, Charles F Murchison, Natalie E Roese, Erin L Boespflug, Randall L Woltjer, Jeffrey J Iliff
The deposition of misfolded proteins, including amyloid beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles is the histopathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The glymphatic system, a brain-wide network of perivascular pathways that supports interstitial solute clearance, is dependent upon expression of the perivascular astroglial water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). Impairment of glymphatic function in the aging rodent brain is associated with reduced perivascular AQP4 localization, and in human subjects, reduced perivascular AQP4 localization is associated with AD diagnosis and pathology...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kun Wang, Sen Zhao, Bowen Liu, Qianqian Zhang, Yaqi Li, Jiaqi Liu, Yan Shen, Xinghuan Ding, Jiachen Lin, Yong Wu, Zihui Yan, Jia Chen, Xiaoxin Li, Xiaofei Song, Yuchen Niu, Jian Liu, Weisheng Chen, Yue Ming, Renqian Du, Cong Chen, Bo Long, Yisen Zhang, Xiangjun Tong, Shuyang Zhang, Jennifer E Posey, Bo Zhang, Zhihong Wu, Joshua D Wythe, Pengfei Liu, James R Lupski, Xinjian Yang, Nan Wu
BACKGROUND: Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM) represent a congenital anomaly of the cerebral vessels with a prevalence of 10-18/100 000. BAVM is the leading aetiology of intracranial haemorrhage in children. Our objective was to identify gene variants potentially contributing to disease and to better define the molecular aetiology underlying non-syndromic sporadic BAVM. METHODS: We performed whole-exome trio sequencing of 100 unrelated families with a clinically uniform BAVM phenotype...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Blanca E Ruiz-Medina, Denisse A Cadena-Medina, Edmundo Esparza, Amy J Arrieta, Robert A Kirken
Regulation of intracellular signaling pathways in lymphocytes is critical for cell homeostasis and immune response. Interleukin 2 (IL-2), a key regulator of lymphocytes, signals following receptor-ligand engagement and subsequent recruitment and activation of effector proteins including JAKs and STATs. Lymphocytes can also be regulated by the central nervous system through the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) pathway which can affect cell trafficking, proliferation, differentiation, and cytokine production. The crosstalk between these two signaling pathways represents an important mechanism that has yet to be fully elucidated...
August 17, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Amy Ferguson, Laura M Lyall, Joey Ward, Rona J Strawbridge, Breda Cullen, Nicholas Graham, Claire L Niedzwiedz, Keira J A Johnston, Daniel MacKay, Stephany M Biello, Jill P Pell, Jonathan Cavanagh, Andrew M McIntosh, Aiden Doherty, Mark E S Bailey, Donald M Lyall, Cathy A Wyse, Daniel J Smith
BACKGROUND: Circadian rhythms are fundamental to health and are particularly important for mental wellbeing. Disrupted rhythms of rest and activity are recognised as risk factors for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of low relative amplitude (RA), an objective measure of rest-activity cycles derived from the accelerometer data of 71,500 UK Biobank participants. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for low RA were used to investigate potential associations with psychiatric phenotypes...
August 14, 2018: EBioMedicine
Kwesi Marshall, Sharon Howell, Asha Badaloo, Marvin Reid, Norma McFarlane-Anderson, Colin McKenzie
Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) display puzzling inter-individual phenotypic heterogeneity, conceivably related to inherent differences in antioxidant protection, hemoglobin binding, bilirubin catabolism and methyl group handling. Therefore, we explored putative associations between clinically important phenotypic measures and functional polymorphisms within specific candidate genes encoding glutathione S-transferase, haptoglobin, uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1, methyl tetrahydrofolate reductase, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase, and cystathionine beta-synthase...
August 2, 2018: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
Britta Wilms, Rahel Keppler, Barbara Ernst, Sebastian M Schmid, Martin Thurnheer, Bernd Schultes
BACKGROUND: Even subjects with severe obesity show a wide range of metabolic health states, with some showing marked alterations in glucose and lipid metabolism whereas others do not. In severely obese women, we could recently show that the degree of cardiorespiratory fitness is, independently of body mass and age, associated with several markers of glucose and lipid metabolism. AIMS: In our retrospective study on a clinical data set, we questioned whether such an association also exists in severely obese men...
August 17, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Huilong Yuan, Shuai Ouyang, Runan Yang, Shunhua Li, Yingxin Gong, Lifang Zou, Tianyu Jia, Shanhong Zhao, Bing Wu, Zhihua Yi, Hui Liu, Liran Shi, Lin Li, Yun Gao, Guilin Li, Hong Xu, Shuangmei Liu, Chunping Zhang, Shangdong Liang
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered the primary cause of neuropathic pain. Osthole (7-methoxy-8[3-methylpent 2-enyl]coumarin) is a component extracted from Cnidium monnieri (L.) cusson plant seeds and has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of osthole on diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) involving the P2X4 receptor on satellite glial cells (SGCs) in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of type 2 diabetic rats. These data showed that the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) in DM rats were lower than those in control rats...
August 14, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
L Tedesco Triccas, Sarah Meyer, Dante Mantini, Kenneth Camilleri, Owen Falzon, Tracey Camilleri, Geert Verheyden
BACKGROUND: Predicting sensorimotor upper limb outcome receives continued attention. Measures by electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) could be neurophysiological predictors for sensorimotor upper limb recovery. NEW METHOD: The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the current evidence for EEG/MEG-based measures to index neural activity after stroke and the relationship between abnormal neural activity and sensorimotor upper limb impairment...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Emily Marsh, Sylvia M Verhoven, Joseph J Groszek, William H Fissell, Guohua An, Pratish Patel, Buddy Creech, Matthew Shotwell
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic drug monitoring is used for aminoglycosides and vancomycin, and has been proposed for β-lactam antibiotics. Clinical blood samples in the ICU are often obtained via an existing vascular catheter rather than fresh needle phlebotomy. If antibiotics had previously been infused through a vascular catheter then used for blood sampling, carryover of antibiotic from the infusion to the sample might result in misleading assessments of target attainment. To address this concern we conducted a series of in vitro measurements of carryover for three commonly used antibiotics...
August 14, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Bruna Bellincanta Nicoletto, Roberta Aguiar Sarmento, Elis Forcellini Pedrollo, Thaiana Cirino Krolikowski, Luis Henrique Canani
INTRODUCTION: Progranulin (PGRN) is secreted by adipose tissue and has been linked to obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is evidence that a high fat diet increases PGRN expression in rodent adipose tissue. In humans, the relationship between diet composition and concentration of PGRN is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between dietary intake and serum PGRN levels. METHODS: This is an exploratory cross-sectional study including 85 subjects...
2018: PloS One
Akitsu Kawabe, Shinichi Matsumoto, Masayuki Shimoda
BACKGROUND: New methods of beta-cell replacement have been developed to maintain excellent glycemic control, improve quality of life, and even eliminate insulin injections in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Previously, we demonstrated that being insulin-free is the strongest motivation for accepting a newly developed therapy. Multiple allogeneic islet transplantations with immunosuppression using a human donor is the best option to be insulin-free, but the necessity for immunosuppression and donor shortage are major issues...
August 17, 2018: Islets
Naharuthai Inthasin, Patimaporn Wongprompitak, Chawikan Boonwong, Pattama Ekpo
BACKGROUND: Pathogenic Leptospira spp. is the causative agent of leptospirosis. Oral mucosal cavity is one of portal entry for this bacterium. Oral mucosal epithelium provides a physical barrier and secretes cytokines, chemokines and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in response to microbial infection. Human β-defensins (hBDs); hBD1, hBD2, and hBD3 are predominantly AMPs expressed in the oral cavity. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been reported in hBD regulation. TLR2 recognizes leptospiral lipopolysaccharide, and plays a key role in the early control of leptospirosis...
August 13, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
Katarzyna Nowicka-Sauer, Krzysztof Jarmoszewicz, Bartosz Trzeciak, Krzysztof Roszak, Adam Zemła, Sebastian Beta, Piotr Gutknecht, Janusz Siebert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Kardiologia Polska
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