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Amir Jalali, Bistoun Shabrandi, Rostam Jalali, Nader Salari
BACKGROUND: Psychoactive substance abuse is a psychosocial disorder, whose emergence, continuation, and treatment are associated with personality factors, spiritual well-being, and social support. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of personality traits with spiritual well-being and perceived social support in methamphetamine users who were undergoing treatment in 2016 in the clinics of Kermanshah, Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 117 methamphetamine users who were undergoing treatment in addiction clinics of Kermanshah, Iran...
October 17, 2018: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Alexander James Hamilton, Fergus J Caskey, Anna Casula, Carol D Inward, Yoav Ben-Shlomo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Young adults receiving kidney replacement therapy (KRT) have impaired quality of life and may exhibit low medication adherence. We tested the hypothesis that wellbeing and medication adherence are associated with psychosocial factors. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey for young adults on KRT. Additional clinical information was obtained from the UK Renal Registry. We compared outcomes by treatment modality using age- and sex-adjusted regression models, having applied survey weights to account for response bias by sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status...
October 16, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Roberto Viviani, Jacqueline S Mahler, Julia E Bosch, Lisa Dommes, Julia Eberhardt, Petra Beschoner, Zrinka Sosic-Vasic
BACKGROUND: Increasing recognition is being given to the importance of cognitions observed in posttraumatic conditions. These cognitions may reflect the activation of negative schemas. The aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of the scrambled-sentences task (SST) to assess individual differences in attributions commonly observed after traumas. Originally developed to assess the tendency to activate negative cognitions in individuals predisposed to depression, the SST is a laboratory task the outcome of which has been shown to predict depression relapse and is associated with depressiveness...
October 16, 2018: Psychopathology
Tjitte Verbeek, Loes Quittner, Paul de Cock, Nynke de Groot, Claudi L H Bockting, Huibert Burger
BACKGROUND: Although personality as well as anxiety and depression are recognized as predictors for breastfeeding initiation, evidence of an association of these factors with 6 months' exclusive breastfeeding as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) is sparse. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of personality and symptoms of anxiety and depression during and after pregnancy with meeting the WHO recommendation of 6 months' exclusive breastfeeding...
October 15, 2018: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Gülbin Şengül-İnal, Fulya Kirimer-Aydinli, Nebi Sümer
This study examined the interplay between behavioral inhibition/activation systems (BIS/BAS) sensitivity, attachment insecurity (i.e., anxiety and avoidance), and Big Five personality traits in predicting sensory processing sensitivity (SPS). We have specifically tested three alternative theoretical models to explain the process through which BIS/BAS sensitivity link to SPS; unique effects of attachment dimensions and personality traits, as well as moderating and mediating role of these variables. Participants (N = 494) completed the highly sensitive Person scale, BIS/BAS scales, experiences in close relationships-revised scale, and big five inventory...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Psychology
Lisa A Marchiondo, Benjamin Biermeier-Hanson, Daniel R Krenn, Dana Kabat-Farr
Target meaning-making of incivility (i.e., the ways targets assess uncivil events) has received attention as an important mediating mechanism in explaining the varied outcomes of incivility. The present study draws on person-environment (PE) fit theory, as well as the similarity-attraction paradigm and repulsion hypothesis, to uncover how perceived personality (dis)similarity affects both cognitive (i.e., attribution, negative appraisal) and emotional reactions (i.e., hostility) to incivility. Specifically, we examine whether incongruence between target personality and perceived perpetrator personality worsens target meaning-making (vice versa for personality congruence)...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Psychology
Bita Bahrami, Behrooz Dolatshahi, Abbas Pourshahbaz, Parvaneh Mohammadkhani
Objective: Mothers have an important role in child- rearing, and maternal personality has theoretically been considered as the most influential factor determining the parenting style, because it is thought to affect parental behavior. However, the influence of personality on parenting styles has received surprisingly little attention. The aim of the present study was to compare personality components among mothers with authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Method : Using a multistage random cluster sampling method, we selected 8 kindergartens in Tehran...
July 2018: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
Renato Zambrano-Cruz, Gina Paula Cuartas-Montoya, Rosa Martha Meda-Lara, Andrés Palomera-Chávez, William Tamayo-Agudelo
Background: This research article addresses the relationships among personality, risk perception, and health perception. The personality construct has been one of the main topics of research in psychology throughout history and is understood as the set of traits or cognitive, affective and behavioral characteristics that an individual possesses. Important relationships have been found that show the impact of personality on people's health as well as the impact of health conditions on the configuration of personality...
2018: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
M Dugué, C Garncarzyk, F Dosseville
BACKGROUND: Student nurses have perceived stress higher than students taking other training courses. The objective of this work was to investigate psychological characteristics of nursing students in an attempt to understand why they are more subject to stress than others. METHODS: We carried out a self-administered questionnaire survey to compare students taking various training courses (i.e., sport sciences, psychology, medicine, and nursing). Perceived stress and health, high-risk behaviors, different psychological determinants of stress (i...
October 11, 2018: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
Nicola Toschi, Luca Passamonti
OBJECTIVE: Differences in myelination across the cortical mantle are important neurobiological mediators of variability in cognitive, emotional, and behavioural functioning. Past studies have found that personality traits reflecting such variability are linked to neuroanatomical and functional changes in prefrontal and temporo-parietal cortices. Whether these effects are partially mediated by differences in intra-cortical myelin remains to be established. METHOD: To test this hypothesis, we employed vertex-wise intra-cortical myelin maps in n=1,003 people from the Human Connectome Project...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Personality
A Vinciguerra, C Réveillère, C Potard, B Lyant, L Cornu, R Courtois
INTRODUCTION: Preventing students from dropping out of higher education, and particularly university, requires understanding the different factors that can lead to individuals failing to complete their studies. The role of personality in academic success or failure remains poorly understood. Block's personality profile model (Resilients, Overcontrollers, Undercontrollers) has been used to link personality traits to academic performance. The objective of this study is to apply this model to the risk factors of dropping out of higher education courses, including psychological vulnerability, level of autonomy, and the feeling of not being able to keep up...
October 9, 2018: L'Encéphale
Anthony C Ruocco, Alexander R Daros, Jie Chang, Achala H Rodrigo, Jaeger Lam, Justine Ledochowski, Shelley F McMain
BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by a heterogeneous clinical phenotype that emerges from interactions among genetic, biological, neurodevelopmental, and psychosocial factors. In the present family study, we evaluated the familial aggregation of key clinical, personality, and neurodevelopmental phenotypes in probands with BPD (n = 103), first-degree biological relatives (n = 74; 43% without a history of psychiatric disorder), and non-psychiatric controls (n = 99)...
October 10, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Steven Gazal, Po-Ru Loh, Hilary K Finucane, Andrea Ganna, Armin Schoech, Shamil Sunyaev, Alkes L Price
Common variant heritability has been widely reported to be concentrated in variants within cell-type-specific non-coding functional annotations, but little is known about low-frequency variant functional architectures. We partitioned the heritability of both low-frequency (0.5%≤ minor allele frequency <5%) and common (minor allele frequency ≥5%) variants in 40 UK Biobank traits across a broad set of functional annotations. We determined that non-synonymous coding variants explain 17 ± 1% of low-frequency variant heritability ([Formula: see text]) versus 2...
October 8, 2018: Nature Genetics
Drew M Altschul, William D Hopkins, Elizabeth S Herrelko, Miho Inoue-Murayama, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, James E King, Stephen R Ross, Alexander Weiss
Life history strategies for optimizing individual fitness fall on a spectrum between maximizing reproductive efforts and maintaining physical health over time. Strategies across this spectrum are viable and different suites of personality traits evolved to support these strategies. Using data from 538 captive chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) we tested whether any of the dimensions of chimpanzee personality - agreeableness, conscientiousness, dominance, extraversion, neuroticism, and openness - were associated with longevity, an attribute of slow life history strategies that is especially important in primates given their relatively long lives...
October 9, 2018: ELife
Leah R Kling, Katie L Bessette, Sophie R DelDonno, Kelly A Ryan, Wayne C Drevets, Melvin G McInnis, Mary L Phillips, Scott A Langenecker
OBJECTIVES: Delays in the diagnosis and detection of bipolar disorder can lead to adverse consequences, including improper treatment and increased suicide risk. The Mood Spectrum Self-Report Measure (MOODS-SR) was designed to capture the full spectrum of lifetime mood symptomology with factor scores for depression and mania symptom constellations. The utility of the MOODS-SR as a tool to investigate homogeneous subgroups was examined, with particular focus on a possible bipolar risk subgroup...
October 7, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
N Toschi, R Riccelli, I Indovina, A Terracciano, L Passamonti
A key objective of the emerging field of personality neuroscience is to link the great variety of the enduring dispositions of human behaviour with reliable markers of brain function. This can be achieved by analyzing large sets of data with methods that model whole-brain connectivity patterns. To meet these expectations, we exploited a large repository of personality and neuroimaging measures made publicly available via the Human Connectome Project. Using connectomic analyses based on graph theory, we computed global and local indices of functional connectivity (e...
2018: Personality neuroscience
Colin E Vize, Katherine L Collison, Joshua D Miller, Donald R Lynam
The Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality is the dominant hierarchical model of personality. Previous work has demonstrated the importance of the FFM domains and facets in understanding a variety of antisocial behaviors ranging from non-violent antisocial behavior to a variety of aggression outcomes. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to quantitatively summarize the empirical work that has examined these relations, as well as update and expand previous work in this area using Bayesian meta-analytic methods...
September 13, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
Joshua B Grubbs, Heather Chapman, Kathrine A Shepherd
Individuals with gambling disorder (GD) report much higher rates of post-traumatic stress symptoms and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSS/D) than the general population, and individuals with both PTSS/D and GD often report much greater distress and impairment in daily life in comparison to individuals with GD alone (Grubbs, Chapman, Milner, Gutierrez, & Bradley, 2018). Despite these associations, little is known about the specific ways in which PTSS/D and GD might influence each other. To address this gap in research, the present work sought to examine how PTSD might be related to the expression and experience of gambling related cognitions...
September 28, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Heather L Gainforth, Sarita Y Aujla, Emma Beard, Emma Croghan, Robert West
Introduction: There is wide variation in the success rates of practitioners employed to help smokers to stop, even once a range of potential confounding factors has been taken into account. Aim: This paper examined whether personality characteristics of practitioners might play a role success rates. Methods: Data from 1,958 stop-smoking treatment episodes in two stop-smoking services (SSS) involving 19 stop-smoking practitioners were used in the analysis. The outcome measure was clients' biochemically verified quit status 4 weeks after the target quit date...
June 2018: Journal of Smoking Cessation
Ginevra Fiori, Tessa Marzi, Francesca Bartoli, Cosimo Bruni, Carlo Ciceroni, Michela Palomba, Michela Zolferino, Elena Corsi, Marcello Galimberti, Alberto Moggi Pignone, Maria Pia Viggiano, Serena Guiducci, Monica Calamai, Marco Matucci-Cerinic
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of animal-assisted intervention (AAI), a complementary support to traditional therapies focused on the interaction between animals and human beings, in improving psychological trait, anxiety and pain in a cohort of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. METHODS: 42 SSc patients, undergoing iloprost intravenous infusion, were divided in three groups: 1) 14 patients submitted to 20 AAI sessions; 2) 14 patients engaged in alternative social activity (control group 1 - C1); and 3) 14 patients without any alternative activity (control group 2 - C2)...
July 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
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