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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447981/evaluation-of-in-vitro-in-vivo-anti-diabetic-effects-and-identification-of-compounds-from-physalis-alkekengi
#1
Xiao-Fang Hu, Qiang Zhang, Pan-Pan Zhang, Li-Juan Sun, Ji-Chao Liang, Susan L Morris-Natschke, Yong Chen, Kuo-Hsiung Lee
The aims of the present study were to assess the anti-diabetic effects of Physalis alkekengi L. (PA) in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cells and HepG2-GFP-CYP2E1 (E47) cells and in a pre-diabetic rat model, as well as to identify the active chemical constituents. The in vitro results showed that PA has a strong anti-diabetic capacity to relieve oxidative stress and inhibit α-glucosidase activity. Mechanistic analysis also showed that ethyl acetate extracts of aerial parts and fruit of PA (PAG-EA and PAF-EA) enhanced glucose transporter 4 expression and function as well as enhanced insulin sensitivity by inhibiting the expression of cytochrome P450-2E1 (CYP2E1) mRNA and protein...
February 12, 2018: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440761/intimate-partner-violence-correlates-with-a-higher-hiv-incidence-among-msm-a-12-month-prospective-cohort-study-in-shenyang-china
#2
Hong-Yi Wang, Ning Wang, Zhen-Xing Chu, Jing Zhang, Xiang Mao, Wen-Qing Geng, Yong-Jun Jiang, Hong Shang, Jun-Jie Xu
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV are highly prevalent worldwide among MSM. However, the association between IPV and HIV seroconversion is virtually unknown. This 12-month prospective cohort study was conducted among MSM in Shenyang, China to explore the causality between IPV and the incidence of HIV. Adjusted Hazard Ratios (aHRs) of HIV acquisition were derived from a multivariate time-dependent Cox model and applied to calculate population attributable fractions (PAFs). Among 476 HIV-negative MSM subjects, 89(18...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439193/cardiovascular-health-among-the-czech-population-at-the-beginning-of-the-21st-century-a-12-year-follow-up-study
#3
Michala Lustigova, Dagmar Dzurova, Hynek Pikhart, Ruzena Kubinova, Martin Bobak
BACKGROUND: In the late 1980s, Czechia was among the countries which had the highest cardiovascular mortality in the world. In spite of enormous improvements since that time, there are still large opportunities in further improving cardiovascular health. METHODS: Based on the Czech Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe sample (n=8449 at baseline, 12 years of follow-up, 494 cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths up to 2015-events), the impact of selected covariates such as education, smoking habits, high blood pressure, blood cholesterol level, diabetes, obesity, physical activity and binge drinking and their multifactorial effects on cardiovascular mortality was evaluated by Cox regression...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438637/population-attributable-fractions-of-perinatal-outcomes-for-nulliparous-women-associated-with-overweight-and-obesity-1990-2014
#4
Kate Cheney, Rachel Farber, Alexandra L Barratt, Kevin McGeechan, Bradley de Vries, Robert Ogle, Kirsten I Black
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence across 25 years of overweight and obesity among nulliparous Australian women during early pregnancy; to estimate the proportions of adverse perinatal outcomes attributable to overweight and obesity in this population. DESIGN: Cohort study; retrospective analysis of electronic maternity data. Setting, participants: 42 582 nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies giving birth at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, an urban teaching hospital in Sydney, January 1990 - December 2014...
February 19, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436587/hypoxia-induces-pulmonary-arterial-fibroblast-proliferation-migration-differentiation-and-vascular-remodeling-via-the-pi3k-akt-p70s6k-signaling-pathway
#5
Xiaoyu Chai, Dan Sun, Qian Han, Liang Yi, Yanping Wu, Xinmin Liu
The present study was designed to examine whether hypoxia induces the proliferation, migration and differentiation of pulmonary arterial fibroblasts (PAFs) via the PI3K/Akt/p70S6K signaling pathway. PAFs were subjected to normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (1% O2). The proliferation, migration, differentiation and cellular p110α, p‑Akt, and p‑p70S6K expression levels of the PAFs were examined in vitro. In addition, rats were maintained under hypoxic conditions, and the right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI) and right ventricular weight/body weight ratio (RV/BW) were examined...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436067/identification-and-functional-analyses-of-differentially-expressed-metabolites-in-early-stage-endometrial-carcinoma
#6
Kun Shi, Qiong Wang, Yao Su, Xingcui Xuan, Yaqiong Liu, Weiwei Chen, Yuanmin Qian, Gendie E Lash
Diagnosis of endometrial cancer is primarily based on symptoms and imaging, with early-stage disease being difficult to diagnose. Therefore, development of potential diagnostic biomarkers is required. Metabolomics, a quantitative measurement of the dynamic metabolism in living systems, can be applied to determine metabolite profiles in different disease states. Here, serum metabolomics was performed in forty-six early stage endometrial cancer patients and forty-six healthy volunteers. In addition, the effect of identified metabolites on tumour cell behavior (invasion, migration, proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy), was examined in endometrial cancer cell lines...
February 12, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433487/development-and-validation-of-a-questionnaire-to-evaluate-the-factors-influencing-training-transfer-among-nursing-professionals
#7
Yangjing Bai, Jiping Li, Yangjuan Bai, Weiguang Ma, Xiangyu Yang, Fang Ma
BACKGROUND: Most organizations invest in people for training to improve human capital and maximize profitability. Yet it is reported in industry and nursing as well that training effectiveness is constrained because of inadequate transfer of training and the underlying reasons for the transfer problem remain unknown. And there is lack of tool to measure transfer problem. METHODS: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire to evaluate the scores of factors influencing training transfer (FITT) among nursing professionals...
February 13, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427679/met117-oxidation-leads-to-enhanced-flexibility-of-cardiovascular-biomarker-lipoprotein-associated-phospholipase-a2-and-reduced-substrate-binding-affinity-with-platelet-activating-factor
#8
Arun Bahadur Gurung, Atanu Bhattacharjee
Human Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an important biomarker for cardiovascular diseases and a therapeutically important drug target against Atherosclerosis. It has the ability to hydrolyze various oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDL) and generates potent pro-inflammatory signaling molecules. Both physiological and non-physiological oxidants have been reported to inhibit Lp-PLA2 activity. The mechanism of the enzyme inhibition due to oxidation of surface exposed Met117 at the structural level is not clearly understood...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426474/assessment-of-anthelmintic-activity-and-bio-guided-chemical-analysis-of-persea-americana-seed-extracts
#9
Andressa Soldera-Silva, Melina Seyfried, Luciano Henrique Campestrini, Selma Faria Zawadzki-Baggio, Alessandro Pelegrine Minho, Marcelo Beltrão Molento, Juliana Bello Baron Maurer
The aim of this study was to characterize the extracts and fractions of Persea americana Mill. (Avocado) seeds and to determine the composition and the in vitro anthelmintic activity against third-stage larvae (L3) of Haemonchus contortus. The fresh (F) and dried (H) avocado seeds (PA) were subjected to extraction with hot water (W-PAF, W-PAH), ethanol (E-PAF, E-PAH) or methanol 70% (v/v), and partition with solvents of increasing polarity [n-hexane (H-PAF, H-PAH), chloroform (C-PAF, C-PAH), ethyl acetate (Ea-PAF, Ea-PAH), and n-butanol (B-PAF, B-PAH)], yielding a total of 14 extracts/fractions...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423535/the-population-impact-of-rheumatic-and-musculoskeletal-diseases-in-relation-to-other-non-communicable-disorders-comparing-two-estimation-approaches
#10
Daniela Simões, Fábio Azevedo Araújo, Teresa Monjardino, Milton Severo, Ivo Cruz, Loreto Carmona, Raquel Lucas
The aim of this study was to quantify the population impact of rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) with other non-communicable diseases (NCDs), using two complementary strategies: standard multivariate models based on global burden of disease (GBD)-defined groups vs. empirical mutually exclusive patterns of NCDs. We used cross-sectional data from the Portuguese Fourth National Health Survey (n = 23,752). Six GBD-defined groups were included: RMDs, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma, cancer, depression, diabetes or renal failure, and stroke or myocardial infarction...
February 8, 2018: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415081/auditory-steady-state-responses-in-primary-and-non-primary-regions-of-the-auditory-cortex-in-neonatal-ventral-hippocampal-lesion-rats
#11
Sibin Li, Lanlan Ma, Yuchen Wang, Xuejiao Wang, Yingzhuo Li, Ling Qin
Auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) represent the electrophysiological activity of the auditory nervous system in response to a periodic acoustic stimulus. Spectrogram analysis can reveal the frequency and phase information entrained in ASSRs. Clinically, the ASSR is used to detect abnormalities in electroencephalographs obtained from schizophrenia patients, who show reduced power and phase locking of ASSRs. The neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (NVHL) rat is a widely used model to investigate the neurodevelopmental mechanisms of schizophrenia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412230/protective-effect-of-dexmedetomidine-against-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rabbits
#12
Jianjun Ren, Changfa Li, Yan Liu, Haitao Liu, Zhenming Dong
PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of dexmedetomidine on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in rabbits. METHODS: Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two equal-sized groups: IRI group (group IR) and dexmedetomidine group (group D). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), left ventricular diastolic pressure (LVDP), +dp/dtmax, -dp/dtmax, and t-dp/dtmax were recorded and calculated at the following time points: before (T0) and after (T1) dexmedetomidine infusion, after 30-min ischemia (T2), and after 120-min reperfusion (T3)...
January 2018: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396794/spectrum-of-abnormalities-of-sympathetic-tyrosine-hydroxylase-and-alpha-synuclein-in-chronic-autonomic-failure
#13
Risa Isonaka, Patti Sullivan, Yunden Jinsmaa, Abraham Corrales, David S Goldstein
OBJECTIVE: Lewy body forms of primary chronic autonomic failure (CAF) such as incidental Lewy body disease (ILBD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and pure autonomic failure evolving into dementia with Lewy bodies (PAF+DLB) feature cardiac sympathetic denervation, whereas multiple system atrophy (MSA) in most cases does not. What links Lewy bodies with cardiac sympathetic denervation in CAF? In familial PD, abnormalities of the alpha-synuclein (AS) gene cause CAF and cardiac sympathetic denervation; and in sporadic PD, brainstem Lewy bodies contain AS co-localized with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a marker of catecholaminergic neurons...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384054/toll-like-receptor-4-a-new-target-for-preterm-labour-pharmacotherapies
#14
Sarah A Robertson, Hanan H Wahid, Peck Yin Chin, Mark R Hutchinson, Lachlan M Moldenhauer, Jeffrey A Keelan
Inflammatory activation, a major driver of preterm birth and subsequent neonatal morbidity, is an attractive pharmacological target for new preterm birth therapeutics. Inflammation elicited by intraamniotic infection is causally associated with preterm birth, particularly in infants delivered ≤34 weeks' gestation. However, sterile triggers of PTB, including placental ischaemic injury, uterine distention, cervical disease, or imbalance in the immune response, also act through inflammatory mediators released in response to tissue damage...
January 30, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379111/new-antimicrobial-potential-and-structural-properties-of-pafb-a-cationic-cysteine-rich-protein-from-penicillium-chrysogenum-q176
#15
Anna Huber, Dorottya Hajdu, Doris Bratschun-Khan, Zoltán Gáspári, Mihayl Varbanov, Stéphanie Philippot, Ádám Fizil, András Czajlik, Zoltán Kele, Christoph Sonderegger, László Galgóczy, Andrea Bodor, Florentine Marx, Gyula Batta
Small, cysteine-rich and cationic proteins with antimicrobial activity are produced by diverse organisms of all kingdoms and represent promising molecules for drug development. The ancestor of all industrial penicillin producing strains, the ascomycete Penicillium chryosgenum Q176, secretes the extensively studied antifungal protein PAF. However, the genome of this strain harbours at least two more genes that code for other small, cysteine-rich and cationic proteins with potential antifungal activity. In this study, we characterized the pafB gene product that shows high similarity to PgAFP from P...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376138/attributable-risk-and-potential-impact-of-interventions-to-reduce-household-air-pollution-associated-with-under-five-mortality-in-south-asia
#16
Sabrina Naz, Andrew Page, Kingsley Emwinyore Agho
Background: Solid fuel use is the major source of household air pollution (HAP) and accounts for a substantial burden of morbidity and mortality in low and middle income countries. To evaluate and compare childhood mortality attributable to HAP in four South Asian countries. Methods: A series of Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) datasets for Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan were used for analysis. Estimates of relative risk and exposure prevalence relating to use of cooking fuel and under-five mortality were used to calculate population attributable fractions (PAFs) for each country...
2018: Global Health Research and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364570/geographic-and-racial-representation-and-reported-success-rates-of-studies-of-catheter-ablation-for-atrial-fibrillation-findings-from-the-smash-af-meta-analysis-study-cohort
#17
George C Leef, Alexander C Perino, Andrew Cluckey, Fahd N Yunus, Mariam Askari, Paul A Heidenreich, Sanjiv M Narayan, Paul J Wang, Mintu P Turakhia
INTRODUCTION: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of geographic and racial representation and reported success rates of studies of catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Databases from 1/1/1990 to 8/1/2016 for trials and observational studies reporting AF ablation outcomes. Major exclusion criteria were insufficient reporting of outcomes, non-English language articles, and ablation strategies that were not prespecified and uniform...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357113/toward-a-reliable-automated-method-of-individual-alpha-frequency-iaf-quantification
#18
Andrew W Corcoran, Phillip M Alday, Matthias Schlesewsky, Ina Bornkessel-Schlesewsky
Individual alpha frequency (IAF) is a promising electrophysiological marker of interindividual differences in cognitive function. IAF has been linked with trait-like differences in information processing and general intelligence, and provides an empirical basis for the definition of individualized frequency bands. Despite its widespread application, however, there is little consensus on the optimal method for estimating IAF, and many common approaches are prone to bias and inconsistency. Here, we describe an automated strategy for deriving two of the most prevalent IAF estimators in the literature: peak alpha frequency (PAF) and center of gravity (CoG)...
January 21, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349257/the-tyranny-of-the-averages-and-the-indiscriminate-use-of-risk-factors-in-public-health-the-case-of-coronary-heart-disease
#19
Juan Merlo, Shai Mulinari, Maria Wemrell, S V Subramanian, Bo Hedblad
Modern medicine is overwhelmed by a plethora of both established risk factors and novel biomarkers for diseases. The majority of this information is expressed by probabilistic measures of association such as the odds ratio (OR) obtained by calculating differences in average "risk" between exposed and unexposed groups. However, recent research demonstrates that even ORs of considerable magnitude are insufficient for assessing the ability of risk factors or biomarkers to distinguish the individuals who will develop the disease from those who will not...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340595/clinical-impact-of-rotor-ablation-in-atrial-fibrillation-a-systematic-review
#20
Ramanathan Parameswaran, Aleksandr Voskoboinik, Alexandra Gorelik, Geoffrey Lee, Peter M Kistler, Prashanthan Sanders, Jonathan M Kalman
Aims: Rotor mapping and ablation have gained favour over the recent years as an emerging ablation strategy targeting drivers of atrial fibrillation (AF). Their efficacy, however, has been a topic of great debate with variable outcomes across centres. The aim of this study was to systematically review the recent medical literature to determine the medium-term outcomes of rotor ablation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) and persistent atrial fibrillation (PeAF). Methods and results: A systematic search of the contemporary scientific literature (PubMed and EMBASE) was performed in August 2017...
January 11, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
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