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Amr Fadel, Mahmoud Mabrok, Salah Aly
The present study was investigating the clinical pictures, prevalence, as well as the ecological conditions associated with Pseudomonas anguilliseptica outbreaks in four cultured seabream (Sparus aurata) farms at different localities in Egypt during the winter season of 2016. The phenotypic and genotypic patterns of pseudomonas isolates were investigated. The existence of intraspecific heterogeneity among different isolates was analyzed using Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique. Attempts on disease control using antibiogram or dietary supplement were also considered...
April 16, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Tatsuro Nakamura, Takahisa Murata
Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening type I allergic reaction. Antigen-antibody complexes lead mast cells, basophils, and neutrophils to release large amounts of histamine and/or platelet activating factor (PAF). These mediators induce hypotension and vascular hyperpermeability and subsequent anaphylaxis dependent on the endothelial production of NO. Here, we have summarised previous studies reporting the mechanisms underlying the functional changes within the vasculature, specifically focusing on vascular permeability triggered by histamine or PAF...
April 19, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
E Yu Zemskova, M M Bordyukov, A V Kovalev, P L Ivanov
The authors report the results of the demonstrative study continuing the cycle of interactive discussions pertinent to the possibility of obtaining reliable genetic information from the analysis of burnt bone fragments. Special emphasis is placed on the worthiness of these materials for genotyping of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) with the use of the standard analytical methods employed for the purpose of forensic medical expertise to investigate into the length polymorphism of the amplified mtDNA fragments (PAF) by means of sequencing with fluorescent detection...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Kensuke Sakata, Yusuke Okuyama, Tomoya Ozawa, Ryo Haraguchi, Kazuo Nakazawa, Takeshi Tsuchiya, Minoru Horie, Takashi Ashihara
Background: Effects of nonparoxysmal atrial fibrillation (non-PAF) ablation targeting complex fractionated atrial electrogram (CFAE) areas and/or low voltage areas (LVAs) are still controversial. Methods and Results: A recently developed online real-time phase mapping system (ExTRa Mapping) was used to conduct LVA mapping and simultaneous ExTRa and CFAE mapping in 28 non-PAF patients after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). Nonpassively activated areas, in the form of meandering rotors and/or multiple wavelets assumed to contain non-PAF drivers, partly overlapped with CFAE/LVAs but not always coincided with them...
April 2018: Journal of Arrhythmia
Karen Domínguez Cancino, María Cristina Paredes Escobar
Background There is conflicting evidence regarding the role of salt intake in blood pressure (BP). Aim To estimate the impact of salt consumption on the BP level of a non-hypertensive population aged between 15 and 64 years. Material and Methods Analytical-observational study using data from the National Health Survey 2009-2010. A BP cut-off point at 120/80 mmHg BP was considered to determine risk. Salt consumption was divided into four strata. The prevalence ratios (PR) were determined using the Poisson model with robust variance...
December 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
Luke D Knibbs, Solomon Woldeyohannes, Guy B Marks, Christine T Cowie
OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of the national childhood asthma burden associated with exposure to dampness and gas stoves in Australian homes. DESIGN: Comparative risk assessment modelling study. Setting, participants: Australian children aged 14 years or less, 2011. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The population attributable fractions (PAFs) and number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for childhood asthma associated with exposure to damp housing and gas stoves...
April 16, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Shu Zhang, Yasutake Tomata, Roger B Newson, Yumi Sugawara, Ichiro Tsuji
BACKGROUND: The joint impact of healthy lifestyle behaviours (HLBs) on incident disability among elderly populations is still uncertain. This cohort study was conducted to estimate the population-attributable fraction (PAF) of combined HLBs for disability reduction in elderly Japanese. METHODS: We analysed 10-year follow-up data for 9910 community-dwelling elderly people (≥65 years) in a prospective cohort study. Information on lifestyle behaviours and food consumption was collected via a questionnaire in 2006...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Parveen Fathima, Thomas Laurence Snelling, Nicholas de Klerk, Deborah Lehmann, Christopher Charles Blyth, Claire Shelley Waddington, Hannah Catherine Moore
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteritis is a leading cause of childhood morbidity worldwide. We aimed to assess the maternal and infant characteristics and population attributable fractions (PAFs) associated with childhood gastroenteritis-related hospitalizations. METHODS: We conducted a whole-of-population retrospective birth cohort study of 367,476 children live-born in Western Australia (WA) 2000-2012. We identified hospital admissions up to age <15 years pertaining to these children, with a principal diagnosis code for infectious gastroenteritis...
March 31, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Antonio Vitarelli, Carlo Gaudio, Enrico Mangieri, Lidia Capotosto, Gaetano Tanzilli, Serafino Ricci, Nicola Viceconte, Attilio Placanica, Giuseppe Placanica, Rasul Ashurov
Our aim was to analyze atrial function with 2-D (2-D-STE) and 3-D (3-D-STE) speckle tracking echocardiography in patients with atrial septal devices and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). One hundred sixteen patients and a subgroup of 22 patients who developed PAF after device insertion were studied. Left atrial and right atrial peak longitudinal strain and standard deviations of time to peak strain (TPS) were calculated using 2-D-STE. The left atrial/right atrial emptying fraction and expansion index were determined using 3-D-STE...
March 30, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Leandro Fórnias Machado de Rezende, Melina Arnold, Fabiana Maluf Rabacow, Renata Bertazzi Levy, Rafael Moreira Claro, Edward Giovannucci, José Eluf-Neto
BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) has been constantly increasing over the last decades in most parts of the world, most notably in transitioning nations such as Brazil. High BMI (>22 kg/m2 ) is associated with an increased risk of 14 types of cancer. We estimated the extent to which reducing high BMI could lower cancer incidence in Brazil, nationally as well as at regional and state levels. METHODS: We calculated fractions of cancer incidence in 2012 attributable to high BMI as well as projections for attributable cases in 2025 using BMI data from representative national surveys and relative risks published in meta-analyses...
March 28, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Song-Nan Li, Lu Wang, Jian-Zeng Dong, Rong-Hui Yu, De-Yong Long, Ri-Bo Tang, Cai-Hua Sang, Chen-Xi Jiang, Nian Liu, Rong Bai, Xin Du, Chang-Sheng Ma
AIMS: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent predictor of new-onset atrial fibrillation. Whether LVH can predict the recurrence of arrhythmia after radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) remains unclear. METHODS: A total of 436 patients with PAF undergoing first RFCA were consecutively enrolled and clustered into 2 groups based on electrocardiogram (ECG) findings: non ECG LVH (218 patients), ECG LVH (218 patients)...
March 31, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
Wenchang Wang, Zhi Li, Wenjin Wang, Lihong Zhang, Shuaihua Zhang, Chun Wang, Zhi Wang
A porous aromatic framework of type PAF-6 was synthesized and explored as a coating onto a steel wire for using in solid-phase microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate plasticizers, and n-alkanes. The extraction temperature, extraction time, salt concentration, agitation speed, desorption temperature, and desorption time were optimized. This method for SPME resulted in the enrichment factors ranging from 122 to 1090 for PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene), from 122 to 271 for plasticizers (diisobutyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate), and from 9 to 113 for n-alkanes (n-undecane, n-dodecane, n-tridecane, n-tetradecane, n-pentadecane, n-hexadecane, n-octadecane and n-eicosane)...
December 5, 2017: Mikrochimica Acta
Craig Osborne, Ewan West, Clive Bate
The cellular prion protein (PrPC ) acts as a scaffold protein that organises signalling complexes. In synaptosomes, the aggregation of PrPC by amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers attracts and activates cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2 ) leading to synapse degeneration. The signalling platform is dependent upon cholesterol released from cholesterol esters by cholesterol ester hydrolases (CEH)s. The activation of CEHs depends upon activated cPLA2 and platelet activating factor (PAF) demonstrating a positive feedback system, activated cPLA2 increased cholesterol concentrations, which in turn facilitated cPLA2 activation...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
F J León Díaz, J L Fernández Aguilar, S Nicolás de Cabo, M Pérez Reyes, B Sánchez Pérez, C Montiel Casado, J A Pérez Daga, J M Aranda Narváez, M A Suárez Muñoz, F Arenas González, M M Florez Rías, J L Pelaez Angulo, J Santoyo Santoyo
INTRODUCTION: Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is the main cause of early allograft dysfunction (EAD) and subsequent primary allograft failure (PAF). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to compare IRI, EAD, and PAF in liver transplantation in a cohort of patients perfused with histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) solution and University of Wisconsin (UW) solution versus HTK alone. METHODS: A randomized trial was performed to compare outcomes in liver recipients who underwent transplantation surgery in the University Regional Hospital of Malaga, Spain...
March 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Katrina F Brown, Harriet Rumgay, Casey Dunlop, Margaret Ryan, Frances Quartly, Alison Cox, Andrew Deas, Lucy Elliss-Brookes, Anna Gavin, Luke Hounsome, Dyfed Huws, Nick Ormiston-Smith, Jon Shelton, Ceri White, D Max Parkin
BACKGROUND: Changing population-level exposure to modifiable risk factors is a key driver of changing cancer incidence. Understanding these changes is therefore vital when prioritising risk-reduction policies, in order to have the biggest impact on reducing cancer incidence. UK figures on the number of risk factor-attributable cancers are updated here to reflect changing behaviour as assessed in representative national surveys, and new epidemiological evidence. Figures are also presented by UK constituent country because prevalence of risk factor exposure varies between them...
March 23, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Marie-Isabel Murray, Ahran Arnold, Murad Younis, Swaroop Varghese, Andreas Michael Zeiher
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety outcomes of the treatment with cryoballoon (CB) compared to the treatment with traditional irrigated radiofrequency ablation (RF) for pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (pAF) and refractory to antiarrhythmic drug therapy (AAD). DESIGN: We conducted a systemic review to find and include more than two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with at least 20 patients in each of the CB and RF groups...
March 21, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Zhi-Hui Zou, Dong Liu, Hong-Dong Li, Dan-Ping Zhu, Yu He, Ting Hou, Jia-Lin Yu
BACKGROUND: To explore the influences of prenatal antibiotic exposure, the intensity of prenatal and postnatal antibiotic exposure on gut microbiota of preterm infants and whether gut microbiota and drug resistant strains in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) over a defined period are related. METHODS: Among 28 preterm infants, there were two groups, the PAT (prenatal antibiotic therapy) group (12 cases), and the PAF (prenatal antibiotic free) group (12 cases)...
March 19, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Saki Yamaura, Shin-Ichi Sakasegawa, Emisa Koguma, Shigeru Ueda, Yuzo Kayamori, Daisuke Sugimori, Ken Karasawa
BACKGROUND: Measurement of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 ) can be used as an adjunct to traditional cardiovascular risk factors for identifying individuals at higher risk of cardiovascular events. This can be performed by quantification of the protein concentration using an ELISA platform or by measuring Lp-PLA2 activity using platelet-activating factor (PAF) analog as substrate. Here, an enzymatic Lp-PLA2 activity assay method using 1-O-Hexadecyl-2-acetyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (rac C16 PAF) was developed...
March 14, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Md Moniruzzaman, Young-Won Chin, Jungsook Cho
Physalis alkekengi var. francheti is an indigenous herb well known for its anti-inflammatory, sedative, antipyretic, and expectorant properties. However, the information regarding the impacts of P. alkekengi fruits (PAF) in modulation of oxidative stress and learning memory are still unknown. This study therefore evaluated the antioxidant properties of ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of PAF and its impacts on learning and memory. The antioxidant activities of PAF were evaluated in LPS-induced BV2 microglial cells...
March 15, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Michał Orczykowski, Karolina Borowiec, Elzbieta Biernacka, Robert Bodalski, Piotr Urbanek, Pawel Derejko, Katarzyna Kodziszewska, Olgierd Wozniak, Aneta Fronczak, Kamil Marcinkiewicz, Krystyna Guzek, Agnieszka Fil, Grzegorz Warminski, Piotr Hoffman, Maria Bilinska, Lukasz Szumowski
BACKGROUND: After the surgical correction of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), surgical scars and natural obstacles form pathways capable of supporting an atrial tachyarrhythmia (AT). Radiofrequency ablation is effective, although the few studies to date on this topic had relatively short follow-up periods. AIM: The aims of the study were to evaluate the acute and long-term effects of RF ablation of AT and examine the characteristics of arrhythmia recurrence. METHODS: Tetralogy of Fallot patients (N 16, age 44...
March 14, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
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