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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437586/pathogenesis-of-vascular-leak-in-dengue-virus-infection
#1
REVIEW
Gathsaurie Neelika Malavige, Graham S Ogg
Endothelial dysfunction leading to vascular leak is the hallmark of severe dengue. Vascular leak typically becomes clinically evident during 3-6 days since the onset of illness, which is known as the critical phase. This critical phase follows the period of peak viraemia, and lasts for 24 to 48 hours and usually shows rapid and complete reversal, suggesting it is likely to occur as a result of inflammatory mediators, rather than infection of the endothelium. Cytokines such as TNFα, which are known to be elevated in the critical phase of dengue, are likely to be contributing factors...
April 24, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435982/-changes-in-biological-functions-of-high-density-lipoprotein-after-abnormal-modification
#2
Hang Qu, Yang Yu, Shu-Cun Qin, Guo-Hua Song
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is composed of apolipoproteins, lipids and functional proteins. HDL protects against atherosclerosis (AS) by reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). HDL inhibits the lipid oxidation, inflammation and restores endothelial function. During systemic inflammation or metabolic disorders, HDL can be modified abnormally and converted to a dysfunctional type, which results in the loss of anti-inflammatory factors including apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), paraoxonase (PON) and platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), and gains of pro-inflammatory factors such as serum amyloid A (SAA), triglyceride (TG) and oxidative lipid...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431610/duration-of-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-in-cryptogenic-stroke-is-not-associated-with-stroke-severity-and-early-outcomes
#3
Chrissoula Liantinioti, Konstantinos Tympas, Aristeidis H Katsanos, John Parissis, Maria Chondrogianni, Christina Zompola, Georgios Papadimitropoulos, Michael Ioakeimidis, Sokratis Triantafyllou, Andromaxi Roussopoulou, Konstantinos Voumvourakis, John Lekakis, Gerasimos Filippatos, Leonidas Stefanis, Georgios Tsivgoulis
The current definition of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) requires an arbitrary cut-off of >30s, but in clinical practice cryptogenic stroke (CS) patients with PAF duration of ≤30s are not usually excluded from anticoagulation therapy. We sought to evaluate the clinical relevance of short-duration (≤30s) PAF in CS. Consecutive CS patients with no prior AF history and sinus-rhythm on baseline electrocardiography (ECG) were prospectively evaluated over a three-year period. Baseline stroke severity was assessed by NIHSS-scores...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431065/cha2ds2-vasc-score-and-blood-biomarkers-to-identify-patients-with-atrial-high-rate-episodes-and-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation
#4
Paulina Wakula, Benjamin Neumann, Jens Kienemund, Eva Thon-Gutschi, Tatjana Stojakovic, Martin Manninger, Daniel Scherr, Hubert Scharnagl, Martin Kapl, Burkert Pieske, Frank R Heinzel
Aims: Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) is often asymptomatic but nonetheless harmful. We evaluated the performance of disease-related blood biomarkers and CHA2DS2-VASc score to discriminate for PAF in patients with continuous rhythm monitoring. Methods and Results: Clinical data and blood samples were obtained from patients with dual-chamber pacemakers selected according to the absence (no_AHRE) or presence of Atrial High-Rate Episodes (AHRE) >6 min in recent device history (case-control approach)...
April 1, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428776/mapping-and-identification-of-antifungal-peptides-in-the-putative-antifungal-protein-afpb-from-the-filamentous-fungus-penicillium-digitatum
#5
Sandra Garrigues, Mónica Gandía, Attila Borics, Florentine Marx, Paloma Manzanares, Jose F Marcos
Antifungal proteins (AFPs) from Ascomycetes are small cysteine-rich proteins that are abundantly secreted and show antifungal activity against non-producer fungi. A gene coding for a class B AFP (AfpB) was previously identified in the genome of the plant pathogen Penicillium digitatum. However, previous attempts to detect the AfpB protein were not successful despite the high expression of the corresponding afpB gene. In this work, the structure of the putative AfpB was modeled. Based on this model, four synthetic cysteine-containing peptides, PAF109, PAF112, PAF118, and PAF119, were designed and their antimicrobial activity was tested and characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423971/intrauterine-infection-immune-system-and-premature-birth
#6
Fernanda Rodrigues Helmo, Eduardo Arthur Rodovalho Alves, Renata Alves de Andrade Moreira, Viviane Oliveira Severino, Laura Penna Rocha, Maria Luíza Gonçalves Dos Reis Monteiro, Marlene Antônia Dos Reis, Renata Margarida Etchebehere, Juliana Reis Machado, Rosana Rosa Miranda Corrêa
Preterm birth accounts for nearly one million deaths among children under five years of age, and although its etiopathogenesis is not fully elucidated, ascending intrauterine infection and fetal inflammatory response seem to be the main triggers. The intense inflammatory response mediated by IL-1β, TNF-α, PAF, IFN-γ and IL-6, PGE2 and MMP-1 and MMP-9 causes fetal membrane damage and rupture, increased uterine contractions and biochemical and structural changes in the cervix. Furthermore, preterm neonates have deficient innate and adaptive immune responses characterized by reduced levels of IgG, opsonization and phagocytosis, as well as increased activation of Th1 cells in relation to Th2 cells...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416971/a-multicenter-study-of-the-need-of-additional-freezing-for-cryoballoon-ablation-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-the-ad-balloon-study
#7
Koji Miyamoto, Atsushi Doi, Naoki Amaya, Yoshiaki Morita, Takashi Noda, Masanori Asakura, Toshimitsu Hamasaki, Hiroshi Tada, Masahiko Takagi, Satoshi Yasuda, Kengo Kusano
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is a cornerstone of catheter ablation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF), and balloon-based ablation has been recently performed worldwide. Ablation using the second-generation cryoballoon (CB2) (Arctic Front Advance(TM), Medtronic, MN, USA) is useful for PVI; however, there is some debate concerning the optimal freezing time and number of cycles after PVI is achieved. METHODS: The AD-Balloon study was designed as a prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical trial to evaluate the optimal strategy (freezing cycles) of CB2 ablation (UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000020130)...
April 2017: Journal of Arrhythmia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408637/a-new-player-in-interstitial-cystitis-bladder-pain-syndrome-platelet-activating-factor-paf-and-its-connection-to-smoking
#8
EDITORIAL
Florenta Aura Kullmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407821/-association-between-platelet-activating-factor-acetylhydrolase-gene-polymorphisms-and-gastrointestinal-bleeding-in-children-with-henoch-sch%C3%A3-nlein-purpura
#9
Bao-Xiang Wang, Hong Mei, Han-Ming Peng, Yuan Gao, Yan Ding
OBJECTIVE: To study the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ninth exon Val279Phe of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) gene and gastrointestinal bleeding in children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP). METHODS: A total 516 children with HSP were enrolled, among whom 182 had gastrointestinal bleeding and 334 had no gastrointestinal bleeding. PCR was used to investigate the distribution of genotypes and alleles in the SNPs of Val97Phe...
April 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402529/efficacy-and-safety-of-the-second-generation-cryoballoon-ablation-for-the-treatment-of-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-in-patients-over-75-years-a-comparison-with-a-younger-cohort
#10
Juan-Pablo Abugattas, Saverio Iacopino, Darragh Moran, Valentina De Regibus, Ken Takarada, Giacomo Mugnai, Erwin Ströker, Hugo Enrique Coutiño-Moreno, Rajin Choudhury, Cesare Storti, Yves De Greef, Gaetano Paparella, Pedro Brugada, Carlo de Asmundis, Gian-Battista Chierchia
Aims: In this double centre, retrospective study, we aimed to analyse the 1-year efficacy and safety of cryoballoon ablation (CB-A) in patients older than 75 years compared with those younger than 75-years old. Methods and results: Fifty-three consecutive patients aged 75 years or older with drug-resistant paroxysmal AF (PAF) who underwent pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) by the means of second generation CB-A, were compared with 106 patients aged <75 years. The mean age in the study group (>75 years) was 78...
April 10, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402442/risk-of-heterosexual-hiv-transmission-attributable-to-sexually-transmitted-infections-and-non-specific-genital-inflammation-in-zambian-discordant-couples-1994-2012
#11
Kristin M Wall, William Kilembe, Bellington Vwalika, Lisa B Haddad, Eric Hunter, Shabir Lakhi, Roy Chavuma, Naw Htee Khu, Ilene Brill, Cheswa Vwalika, Lawrence Mwananyanda, Elwyn Chomba, Joseph Mulenga, Amanda Tichacek, Susan Allen
Background: Studies have demonstrated the role of ulcerative and non-ulcerative sexually transmitted infections (STI) in HIV transmission/acquisition risk; less is understood about the role of non-specific inflammatory genital abnormalities. Methods: HIV-discordant heterosexual Zambian couples were enrolled into longitudinal follow-up (1994-2012). Multivariable models estimated the effect of genital ulcers and inflammation in both partners on time-to-HIV transmission within the couple...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390742/long-term-prognosis-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-patients-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#12
Guy Topaz, Nir Flint, Arie Steinvil, Arik Finkelstein, Shmuel Banai, Gad Keren, Yacov Shacham, Lior Yankelson
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a well-known complication in the setting of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Data on the long-term prognostic implications of New-Onset AF (NOAF) complicating STEMI in the era of complete revascularization remains controversial. Our aim therefore was to evaluate the long-term prognosis of prior AF (pAF) and new-onset AF (NOAF) in STEMI patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: We studied 1657 consecutive STEMI patients hospitalized in the cardiac intensive care unit during 2008-2014...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386101/engaging-in-a-tone-detection-task-differentially-modulates-neural-activity-in-the-auditory-cortex-amygdala-and-striatum
#13
Renjia Zhong, Lanlan Ma, Ling Qin
The relationship between attention and sensory coding is an area of active investigation. Previous studies have revealed that an animal's behavioral state can play a crucial role in shaping the characteristics of neural responses in the auditory cortex (AC). However, behavioral modulation of auditory response in brain areas outside the AC is not well studied. In this study, we used the same experimental paradigm to examine the effects of attention on neural activity in multiple brain regions including the primary auditory cortex (A1), posterior auditory field (PAF), amygdala (AMY), and striatum (STR)...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384511/osteoblast-specific-deletion-of-hrpt2-cdc73-results-in-high-bone-mass-and-increased-bone-turnover
#14
Casey J Droscha, Cassandra R Diegel, Nicole J Ethen, Travis A Burgers, Mitchell J McDonald, Kevin A Maupin, Agni S Naidu, PengFei Wang, Bin T Teh, Bart O Williams
Inactivating mutations that lead to loss of heterozygosity within the HRPT2/Cdc73 gene are directly linked to the development of primary hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid adenomas, and ossifying fibromas of the jaw (HPT-JT). The protein product of the Cdc73 gene, parafibromin, is a core member of the polymerase-associated factors (PAF) complex, which coordinates epigenetic modifiers and transcriptional machinery to control gene expression. We conditionally deleted Cdc73 within mesenchymal progenitors or within mature osteoblasts and osteocytes to determine the consequences of parafibromin loss within the mesenchymal lineage...
May 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383163/comparison-of-the-three-conventional-methods-for-the-postoperative-atrial-fibrillation-prediction
#15
Uğur Aksu, Oktay Gulcu, Emrah Aksakal, Selim Topcu, Serdar Sevimli, Ibrahim Halil Tanboga
INTRODUCTION: Although various risk factors have been defined for the development of postoperative atrial fibrillation (PAF), these parameters have not been adequately verified and validated. We investigated the atrial fibrillation detection capabilities of echocardiographic parameters in PAF developing and the determination of predictive values for clinical use. METHOD: We enrolled 60 consecutive patients with 234 lesions who underwent CABG surgery. All patients underwent preoperative echocardiographic evaluation...
April 6, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378212/cardiac-hyaluronan-may-be-associated-with-the-persistence-of-atrial-fibrillation
#16
Ayako Okada, Yuichiro Kashima, Takeshi Tomita, Takahiro Takeuchi, Yasutaka Oguchi, Koji Yoshie, Wataru Shoin, Morio Shoda, Kenichi Nitta, Koichiro Kuwahara, Hiroshi Imamura
Hyaluronan (HA), a primary component of the extracellular matrix, is associated with several cardiovascular diseases. However, its precise cardiac origin and role in atrial fibrillation (AF) remain unclear. We investigated chamber-specific HA levels in patients with paroxysmal AF (PAF) or persistent AF (PSAF). The levels of HA, a diacron-reactive oxygen metabolite (dROM) as a marker for oxidative stress, at different cardiac sites, and peripheral brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were measured in patients with PAF (n = 50) or PSAF (n = 35)...
April 4, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372171/effects-of-high-pressure-freezing-hpf-on-denaturation-of-natural-actomyosin-extracted-from-prawn-metapenaeus-ensis
#17
Lina Cheng, Da-Wen Sun, Zhiwei Zhu, Zhihang Zhang
Effects of protein denaturation caused by high pressure freezing, involving Pressure-Factors (pressure, time) and Freezing-Factors (temperature, phase transition, recrystallization, ice crystal types), are complicated. In the current study, the conformation and functional changes of natural actomyosin (NAM) under pressure assisted freezing (PAF, (100,150,300,400,500MPa)P-20°C/25min), pressure shift freezing (PSF, (200MPa)P-20°C/25min), and immersion freezing ((0.1MPa)P-20°C/5min) after pressure was released to 0...
August 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365271/dietary-and-lifestyle-risk-factors-associated-with-incident-kidney-stones-in-men-and-women
#18
Pietro Manuel Ferraro, Eric N Taylor, Giovanni Gambaro, Gary C Curhan
PURPOSE: Several dietary and lifestyle factors are associated with a higher risk of developing kidney stones. We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) and number needed to prevent (NNTP) for modifiable risk factors including body mass index (BMI), fluid intake, DASH-style diet, dietary calcium intake and intake of sugar-sweetened beverages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used data from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) and the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS) I and II cohorts...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362483/exploring-the-influence-of-domain-architecture-on-the-catalytic-function-of-diterpene-synthases
#19
Travis A Pemberton, Mengbin Chen, Golda G Harris, Wayne K W Chou, Lian Duan, Mustafa Köksal, Alex S Genshaft, David E Cane, David W Christianson
Terpenoid synthases catalyze isoprenoid cyclization reactions underlying the generation of more than 80,000 natural products. Such dramatic chemodiversity belies the fact that these enzymes generally consist of only three domain folds designated as α, β, and γ. Catalysis by class I terpenoid synthases occurs exclusively in the α domain, which is found with α, αα, αβ, and αβγ domain architectures. Here, we explore the influence of domain architecture on catalysis by taxadiene synthase from Taxus brevifolia (TbTS, αβγ), fusicoccadiene synthase from Phomopsis amygdali (PaFS, (αα)6), and ophiobolin F synthase from Aspergillus clavatus (AcOS, αα)...
April 11, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351358/change-in-lifestyle-behaviors-and-diabetes-risk-evidence-from-a-population-based-cohort-study-with-10%C3%A2-year-follow-up
#20
Adina L Feldman, Gráinne H Long, Ingegerd Johansson, Lars Weinehall, Eva Fhärm, Patrik Wennberg, Margareta Norberg, Simon J Griffin, Olov Rolandsson
BACKGROUND: Promoting positive changes in lifestyle behavior in the whole population may be a feasible and effective approach to reducing type 2 diabetes burden, but the impact of population shifts of modifiable risk factors remains unclear. Currently most of the evidence on modifiable lifestyle behavior and type 2 diabetes risk on a population level comes from studies of between-individual differences. The objective of the study was to investigate the association and potential impact on disease burden for within-individual change in lifestyle behavior and diabetes risk...
March 29, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
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