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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231453/siderophore-transport-by-mmpl5-mmps5-protein-complex-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
Padmani Sandhu, Yusuf Akhter
Iron is an essential metal ion required for the various physiological activities of bacteria. The pathogenic bacteria remain dependent on the host cell for their iron requirements and evolved with specialized scavenging machinery in the form of iron chelating siderophores. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has two types of siderophore molecules, mycobactin and carboxymycobactin. These are synthesized inside bacterial cells and need to be transported outside by specialized membrane associated proteins. MmpL5-MmpS5 (mycobacterial membrane protein large5-mycobacterial membrane protein small5) complex has been linked to the export of non-ferrated siderophores to extracellular environment but the precise molecular mechanism involved was largely unknown...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230368/structural-electronic-and-optical-properties-of-k2sn3o7-with-an-offset-hollandite-structure
#2
Rebecca D McAuliffe, Christopher A Miller, Xiao Zhang, Benjamin S Hulbert, Ashfia Huq, Clarina Dela Cruz, André Schleife, Daniel P Shoemaker
We present the compound K2Sn3O7, a Sn(4+)-containing oxide with a unique structure type among oxides. The compound is orthorhombic and reminiscent of an offset hollandite, where open channels hold a row of four K(+) per channel per cell. UV-visible spectroscopy indicates a wide band gap semiconductor, which is confirmed by first-principles electronic-structure calculations of band structures, densities of states, and optical properties. The continued discovery of new structure types in ternary tin oxides should remain a priority for the identification of prospective ion conductors and transparent conducting compounds...
February 23, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227691/understanding-the-cochlear-implant-environment-by-mapping-perilymph-proteomes-from-different-species
#3
Jonathan C Palmer, Megan S Lord, Jeremy L Pinyon, Andrew K Wise, Nigel H Lovell, Paul M Carter, Ya Lang Enke, Gary D Housley, Rylie A Green, Jonathan C Palmer, Megan S Lord, Jeremy L Pinyon, Andrew K Wise, Nigel H Lovell, Paul M Carter, Ya Lang Enke, Gary D Housley, Rylie A Green, Ya Lang Enke, Rylie A Green, Jonathan C Palmer, Nigel H Lovell, Paul M Carter, Jeremy L Pinyon, Gary D Housley, Andrew K Wise, Megan S Lord
Cochlear implants operate within a bony channel of the cochlea, bathed in a fluid known as the perilymph. The perilymph is a complex fluid containing ions and proteins, which are known to actively interact with metallic electrodes. To improve our understanding of how cochlear implant performance varies in preclinical in vivo studies in comparison to human trials and patient outcomes, the protein composition (or perilymph proteome) is needed. Samples of perilymph were gathered from feline and guinea pig subjects and analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to produce proteomes and compare against the recently published human proteome...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226463/cardiac-katp-channel-modulation-by-16hz-magnetic-fields-a-theoretical-study
#4
Yuval Aharonovich, Mickey Scheinowitz, Sharon Zlochiver, Yuval Aharonovich, Mickey Scheinowitz, Sharon Zlochiver, Yuval Aharonovich, Sharon Zlochiver, Mickey Scheinowitz
Heart exposure to 16Hz magnetic fields (MFs) was shown to be cardio-protective for diseased hearts; still, the mechanism of this effect is unknown. We hypothesize that a possible one mechanism is an increased trans-membrane KATP channel open probability due to modulation of the degree of dissociation between K(+) ions, having a resonance frequency of 16Hz, and the channel selectivity filter. The Fan-Makielski Markovian KATP channel model was adopted, and the MF bio-effect was manifested by modulating the open probability of the channel using the predictive MF bio-effect parameter based on Binhi's quantum mechanics model...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226241/catsper%C3%AE-regulates-the-structural-continuity-of-sperm-ca-2-signaling-domains-and-is-required-for-normal-fertility
#5
Jean-Ju Chung, Kiyoshi Miki, Doory Kim, Sang-Hee Shim, Huanan F Shi, Jae Yeon Hwang, Xinjiang Cai, Yusuf Iseri, Xiaowei Zhuang, David E Clapham
We report that the Gm7068 (CatSperε) and Tex40 (CatSperζ) genes encode novel subunits of a 9-subunit CatSper ion channel complex. Targeted disruption of CatSperζ reduces CatSper current and sperm rheotactic efficiency in mice, resulting in severe male subfertility. Normally distributed in linear quadrilateral nanodomains along the flagellum, the complex lacking CatSperζ is disrupted at ~0.8 μm intervals along the flagellum. This disruption renders the proximal flagellum inflexible and alters the 3D flagellar envelope, thus preventing sperm from reorienting against fluid flow in vitro and efficiently migrating in vivo...
February 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226213/an-oscillatory-reaction-induced-periodic-c-quadruplex-dna-gating-of-artificial-ion-channels
#6
Jian Wang, Ruochen Fang, Jue Hou, Huacheng Zhang, Ye Tian, Huanting Wang, Lei Jiang
Many biological ion channels controlled by biochemical reactions have autonomous and periodic gating functions, which play important roles in continuous mass transport and signal transmission of living systems. Inspired by these functional biological ion channel systems, here we report an artificial self-oscillating nanochannel system that can autonomously and periodically control its gating process under constant conditions. The system is constructed by integrating a chemical oscillator, consisting of BrO3-, Fe(CN)64-, H+, and SO32-, into a synthetic proton-sensitive nanochannel modified with C-quadruplex (C4) DNA motors...
February 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224920/genetic-engineering-of-the-biosynthesis-of-glycinebetaine-leads-to-alleviate-salt-induced-potassium-efflux-and-enhances-salt-tolerance-in-tomato-plants
#7
Dandan Wei, Wen Zhang, Cuicui Wang, Qingwei Meng, Gang Li, Tony H H Chen, Xinghong Yang
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. 'Moneymaker') was transformed with the choline oxidase gene codA from Arthrobacter globiformis, which was modified to allow for targeting to both chloroplasts and the cytosol. Glycine betaine (GB) was accumulated in transformed plants, while no detectable GB was found in wild-type (WT) plants. Compared to WT plants, transgenic lines showed significantly higher photosynthetic rates (Pn) and antioxidant enzyme activities and lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in the leaves when exposed to salt stress...
April 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224710/extended-low-dose-exposure-to-saxitoxin-inhibits-neurite-outgrowth-in-model-neuronal-cells
#8
Katie O'Neill, Ian F Musgrave, Andrew Humpage
The potent neurotoxin saxitoxin (STX) belongs to a group of structurally related analogues produced by both marine and freshwater phytoplankton. The toxins act by blocking voltage-gated sodium channels stopping the inflow of sodium ions and the generation of action potentials. Exposure from marine sources occurs as a result of consuming shellfish which have concentrated the toxins, and freshwater exposure can occur from drinking water although there have been no acute poisonings from the latter source to date...
November 7, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223151/testosterone-rapidly-increases-ca-2-activated-k-currents-causing-hyperpolarization-in-human-coronary-artery-endothelial-cells
#9
Katesirin Ruamyod, Wattana B Watanapa, Chairat Shayakul
Testosterone has endothelium-dependent vasodilatory effects on the coronary artery, with some reports suggesting endothelial ion channel involvement. This study employed the whole-cell patch clamp technique to investigate the effect of testosterone on ion channels in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) and the mechanisms involved. We found that 0.03-3μM testosterone significantly induced a rapid, concentration-dependent increase in total HCAEC current (EC50, 71.96±1.66nM; maximum increase, 59...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223123/proarrhythmia-liability-assessment-and-the-comprehensive-in-vitro-proarrhythmia-assay-cipa-an-industry-survey-on-current-practice
#10
Simon Authier, Michael K Pugsley, John E Koerner, Bernard Fermini, William S Redfern, Jean-Pierre Valentin, Hugo M Vargas, Derek J Leishman, Krystle Correll, Michael J Curtis
INTRODUCTION: The Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS) has conducted a survey of its membership to identify industry practices related to testing considered in the Comprehensive In vitro Proarrhythmia Assay (CiPA). METHODS: Survey topics included nonclinical approaches to address proarrhythmia issues, conduct of in silico studies, in vitro ion channel testing methods used, drugs used as positive controls during the conduct of cardiac ion channel studies, types of arrhythmias observed in non-clinical studies and use of the anticipated CiPA ion channel assay...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223047/diversity-in-sequences-post-translational-modifications-and-expected-pharmacological-activities-of-toxins-from-four-conus-species-revealed-by-the-combination-of-cutting-edge-proteomics-transcriptomics-and-bioinformatics
#11
Michel Degueldre, Marion Verdenaud, Garikoitz Legarda, Rebeca Minambres, Sheila Zuniga, Mathieu Leblanc, Nicolas Gilles, Frederic Ducancel, Edwin De Pauw, Loic Quinton
Venomous animals have developed a huge arsenal of reticulated peptides for defense and predation. Based on various scaffolds, they represent a colossal pharmacological diversity, making them top candidates for the development of innovative drugs. Instead of relying on the classical, low-throughput bioassay-guided approach to identify innovative bioactive peptides, this work exploits a recent paradigm to access to venom diversity. This strategy bypasses the classical approach by combining high-throughput transcriptomics, proteomics and bioinformatics cutting-edge technologies to generate reliable peptide sequences...
February 18, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222129/heteromeric-slick-slack-k-channels-show-graded-sensitivity-to-cell-volume-changes
#12
Maria A Tejada, Nadia Hashem, Kirstine Calloe, Dan A Klaerke
Slick and Slack high-conductance K+ channels are found in the CNS, kidneys, pancreas, among other organs, where they play an important role in cell excitability as well as in ion transport processes. They are both activated by Na+ and Cl- but show a differential regulation by cell volume changes. Slick has been shown to be regulated by cell volume changes, whereas Slack is insensitive. α-subunits of these channels form homomeric as well as heteromeric channels. It is the aim of this work to explore whether the subunit composition of the Slick/Slack heteromeric channel affects the response to osmotic challenges...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221788/substituted-2-aminopyrimidines-selective-for-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-activation-and-association-with-acetylcholine-binding-proteins
#13
Katarzyna Kaczanowska, Gisela Andrea Camacho Hernandez, Larissa Bendiks, Larissa Kohs, Jose Manuel Cornejo Bravo, Michal Harel, M G Finn, Palmer Taylor
Through studies with ligand binding to the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), we previously identified a series of 4,6 substituted 2-aminopyrimidines that associate with this soluble surrogate of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in a cooperative fashion, not seen for classical nicotinic agonists and antagonists. To examine receptor interactions of this structural family on ligand-gated ion channels, we employed HEK cells transfected with cDNA's encoding three requisite receptor subtypes: α7-nAChR, α4β2-nAChR and a serotonin receptor (5-HT3AR), along with a fluorescent reporter...
February 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221363/premature-primary-tooth-eruption-in-cognitive-motor-delayed-adnp-mutated-children
#14
I Gozes, A Van Dijck, G Hacohen-Kleiman, I Grigg, G Karmon, E Giladi, M Eger, Y Gabet, M Pasmanik-Chor, E Cappuyns, O Elpeleg, R F Kooy, S Bedrosian-Sermone
A major flaw in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) management is late diagnosis. Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) is a most frequent de novo mutated ASD-related gene. Functionally, ADNP protects nerve cells against electrical blockade. In mice, complete Adnp deficiency results in dysregulation of over 400 genes and failure to form a brain. Adnp haploinsufficiency results in cognitive and social deficiencies coupled to sex- and age-dependent deficits in the key microtubule and ion channel pathways...
February 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220989/global-and-local-mechanisms-sustain-axonal-proteostasis-of-transmembrane-proteins
#15
REVIEW
Víctor Hugo Cornejo, Alejandro Luarte, Andrés Couve
The control of neuronal protein homeostasis or proteostasis is tightly regulated both spatially and temporally, assuring accurate and integrated responses to external or intrinsic stimuli. Local or autonomous responses in dendritic and axonal compartments are crucial to sustain function during development, physiology and in response to damage or disease. Axons are responsible for generating and propagating electrical impulses in neurons, and the establishment and maintenance of their molecular composition are subject to extreme constraints exerted by length and size...
February 21, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220789/stim1-activates-crac-channels-through-rotation-of-the-pore-helix-to-open-a-hydrophobic-gate
#16
Megumi Yamashita, Priscilla S-W Yeung, Christopher E Ing, Beth A McNally, Régis Pomès, Murali Prakriya
Store-operated Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels constitute a major pathway for Ca(2+) influx and mediate many essential signalling functions in animal cells, yet how they open remains elusive. Here, we investigate the gating mechanism of the human CRAC channel Orai1 by its activator, stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1). We find that two rings of pore-lining residues, V102 and F99, work together to form a hydrophobic gate. Mutations of these residues to polar amino acids produce channels with leaky gates that conduct ions in the resting state...
February 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220296/cross-species-communication-in-bacterial-world
#17
REVIEW
Sarangam Majumdar, Sukla Pal
Biofilms are the compact association of micro organisms and the communication processes in these biofilms are always a wonder. Electrical and chemical signaling mechanism are the key to understand the bacterial communication network. Quorum sensing so far has been able to explain the coordinated motion of bacteria through its chemical signaling mechanism. Bacteria residing within biofilm communities are trivial to communicate. But the recent observation in 2017 by Humphries et al. has revealed that the ion channels enabled electrical signaling mechanism can be as powerful as to attract the distant cells i...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220076/actions-and-mechanisms-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-voltage-gated-ion-channels
#18
REVIEW
Fredrik Elinder, Sara I Liin
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) act on most ion channels, thereby having significant physiological and pharmacological effects. In this review we summarize data from numerous PUFAs on voltage-gated ion channels containing one or several voltage-sensor domains, such as voltage-gated sodium (NaV), potassium (KV), calcium (CaV), and proton (HV) channels, as well as calcium-activated potassium (KCa), and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Some effects of fatty acids appear to be channel specific, whereas others seem to be more general...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219978/a-mutation-in-the-g-protein-gene-gnb2-causes-familial-sinus-node-and-atrioventricular-conduction-dysfunction
#19
Birgit Stallmeyer, Johanna Kuß, Stefan Kotthoff, Sven Zumhagen, Kirsty S Vowinkel, Susanne Rinne, Lina A Matschke, Corinna Friedrich, Ellen Schulze-Bahr, Stephan Rust, Guiscard Seebohm, Niels Decher, Eric Schulze-Bahr
Rationale: Familial sinus node and atrioventricular (AV) conduction dysfunction is a rare disorder that leads to paroxysmal dizziness, fatigue and syncope due to a temporarily or permanent reduced heart rate. To date, only a few genes for familial sinus and/or AV conduction dysfunction are known and the majority of cases remain etiologically unresolved. Objective: We aim to identify the disease gene in a large three-generation family (n=25) with autosomal dominant sinus node dysfunction (SND) and AV block (AVB) and to characterise the mutation-related pathomechanisms in familial SND+AVB...
February 20, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219789/acetazolamide-lowers-intracranial-pressure-and-modulates-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-secretion-pathway-in-healthy-rats
#20
Maria Uldall, Hannah Botfield, Inger Jansen-Olesen, Alexandra Sinclair, Rigmor Jensen
Acetazolamide is one of the most widely used drugs for lowering intracranial pressure (ICP) and is believed to reduce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) secretion via its action on the choroid plexus (CP). In the CP the main driving force for CSF secretion is primarily active transport of Na(+) ions facilitated by the Na/K ATPase. Transmembrane water channels, known as aquaporins (AQP), are also present in the CP and play an important role in the movement of water. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a single dose acetazolamide on the activity of the Na/K ATPase and ICP...
February 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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