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Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and TMS

Lauren B Bolden, Joseph C Griffis, Rodolphe Nenert, Jane B Allendorfer, Jerzy P Szaflarski
Previously, we demonstrated an association between cortical hyperexcitability and mood disturbance in healthy adults. Studies have documented hyperexcitability in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs; long-interval intracortical inhibition [LICI]) and high prevalence of mood comorbidities. This study aimed to investigate the influences of cortical excitability and seizure control on mood state in patients with IGEs. Single and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied to 30 patients with IGEs (16 controlled IGEs [cIGEs], 14 with treatment-resistant IGEs [trIGEs]), and 22 healthy controls (HCs) to assess cortical excitability with LICI...
December 2, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Nicholas Paul Holmes, Luigi Tamè
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over human primary somatosensory cortex (S1), unlike over primary motor cortex (M1), does not produce an immediate, objective output. Researchers must therefore rely on one or more indirect methods to position the TMS coil over S1. The 'gold standard' method of TMS coil positioning is to use individual functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (F/SMRI) alongside a stereotactic navigation system. In the absence of these facilities, however, one common method used to locate S1 is to find the scalp location which produces twitches in a hand muscle (e...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Nicholas J Petrosino, Amin Zandvakili, Linda L Carpenter, Noah S Philip
Over half of those diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD), and rates are even higher among military veterans. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may be a safe and efficacious treatment for PTSD, both with and without comorbid MDD. Still, the mechanism of action of TMS is not fully understood, and it remains unclear which stimulation techniques (e.g., target regions, pulse strength/frequency, waveform) optimize treatment for these patients. Recent research indicated that a patient's unique individualized alpha frequency (IAF) may be used to guide brain stimulation treatment, and emerging data suggests that stimulation synchronized to the IAF may be efficacious for MDD...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Alícia Deitos, Matheus Dorigatti Soldatelli, Jairo Alberto Dussán-Sarria, Andressa Souza, Iraci Lucena da Silva Torres, Felipe Fregni, Wolnei Caumo
Background: The fibromyalgia (FM) physiopathology involves an intracortical excitability/inhibition imbalance as measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation measures (TMS). TMS measures provide an index that can help to understand how the basal neuronal plasticity state (i.e., levels of the serum neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and S100-B protein) could predict the effect of therapeutic approaches on the cortical circuitries. We used an experimental paradigm to evaluate if pregabalin could be more effective than a placebo, to improve the disinhibition in the cortical circuitries in FM patients, than in healthy subjects (HS)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Dennison Carreiro Monteiro, Amaury Cantilino
INTRODUCTION: Approximately 15% of all people will experience a depressive episode throughout their lives, and by 2020, depression will be the second largest cause of disability around the world. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been shown to be an effective option for treating this condition. Devices such as the double-cone coil may bring new insights regarding depression treatment. METHODS: A literature search was performed on PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane, LILACS, and Google Scholar by applying the descriptors "depression" AND "transcranial magnetic stimulation" AND "double cone-coil...
December 2, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Nya Mehnwolo Boayue, Gábor Csifcsák, Oula Puonti, Axel Thielscher, Matthias Mittner
During the past decade, it became clear that the effects of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are substantially influenced by variations in individual head and brain anatomy. In addition to structural variations in the healthy, several psychiatric disorders are characterized by anatomical alterations that are likely to further constrain the intracerebral effects of NIBS. Here, we present high-resolution realistic head models derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging data of 19 healthy adults and 19 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD)...
2018: F1000Research
Daphne Voineskos, Daniel M Blumberger, Reza Zomorrodi, Nigel C Rogasch, Faranak Farzan, George Foussias, Tarek K Rajji, Zafiris J Daskalakis
BACKGROUND: The neurophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) has become a particular focus of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) investigational studies. TMS combined with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) affords a window to directly measure evoked activity from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which is of considerable interest in MDD. Our study examined TMS-EEG responses from the DLPFC in persons with MDD compared with those in healthy participants. Specifically, we examined TMS-EEG markers linked to inhibitory and excitatory neurophysiological processes and their balance...
October 18, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
N F Miryutova, V A Vorobyev, I M Samoilova, A A Zaitsev, S V Alaitseva, O V Dostovalova, N N Minchenco
BACKGROUND: When choosing the algorithm of rehabilitative measures, the localization of the stroke, brain reserve, and neuroplasticity as well as clinical characteristics (motor, postural, speech, cognitive impairments), etc. are taken into consideration. Monitoring the health status of the patients is an integral component of and an important condition for the successful post-stroke rehabilitation. AIM: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical, functional and psychological status of the patients with stroke during the early and late restorative periods...
2018: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
Zeb D Jonker, Rick van der Vliet, Christopher M Hauwert, Carolin Gaiser, Joke H M Tulen, Jos N van der Geest, Opher Donchin, Gerard M Ribbers, Maarten A Frens, Ruud W Selles
BACKGROUND: Changes in transcranial magnetic stimulation motor map parameters can be used to quantify plasticity in the human motor cortex. The golden standard uses a counting analysis of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) acquired with a predefined grid. Recently, digital reconstruction methods have been proposed, allowing MEPs to be acquired with a faster pseudorandom procedure. However, the reliability of these reconstruction methods has never been compared to the golden standard. OBJECTIVE: To compare the absolute reliability of the reconstruction methods with the golden standard...
November 10, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Sara J Hussain, Leonardo Claudino, Marlene Bönstrup, Gina Norato, Gabriel Cruciani, Ryan Thompson, Christoph Zrenner, Ulf Ziemann, Ethan Buch, Leonardo G Cohen
Oscillatory activity within sensorimotor networks is characterized by time-varying changes in phase and power. The influence of interactions between sensorimotor oscillatory phase and power on human motor function, like corticospinal output, is unknown. We addressed this gap in knowledge by delivering transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the human motor cortex during electroencephalography recordings in 20 healthy participants. Motor evoked potentials, a measure of corticospinal excitability, were categorized offline based on the mu (8-12 Hz) and beta (13-30 Hz) oscillatory phase and power at the time of TMS...
October 11, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Kathy Ruddy, Joshua Balsters, Dante Mantini, Quanying Liu, Pegah Kassraian-Fard, Nadja Enz, Ernest Mihelj, Bankim Subhash Chander, Surjo R Soekadar, Nicole Wenderoth
To date there exists no reliable method to non-invasively upregulate or downregulate the state of the resting human motor system over a large dynamic range. Here we show that an operant conditioning paradigm which provides neurofeedback of the size of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), enables participants to self-modulate their own brain state. Following training, participants were able to robustly increase (by 83.8%) and decrease (by 30.6%) their MEP amplitudes...
November 29, 2018: ELife
Hiroshi Mitsumoto, Toyokazu Saito
Although we currently have two, approved, disease-modifying drugs for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we are in disperate need for more efficacious treatment. To aggressively test for newer therapies, we must develop reliable objective biomarkers to supplement clinical outcome measures. Many biomarker candidates have been actively and vigorously investigated. Among neurophysiological biomarkers, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-based biomarkers show potential in exploring disease mechanisms...
November 29, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Kentaro Kawamura, Seiji Etoh, Megumi Shimodozono
Background: In Patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) are often treated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the motor cortex and cerebellum. However, few reports have examined effective therapeutic modalities for diplopia in SCA6 patients. In the current case, we applied single-pulse TMS over the motor cortex and cerebellum to improve ataxia, and observed an unexpected improvement of diplopia. Case presentation: A 62-year-old Japanese male with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) was admitted to our hospital for exacerbation of ataxia...
2018: Cerebellum & Ataxias
Maíra C Lixandrão, James W Stinear, Tonya Rich, Chao-Ying Chen, Tim Feyma, Gregg D Meekins, Bernadette T Gillick
BACKGROUND: The cortical silent period is a transient suppression of electromyographic activity after a transcranial magnetic stimulation pulse, attributed to spinal and supraspinal inhibitory mechanisms. Electromyographic breakthrough activity has been observed in healthy adults as a result of a spinal reflex response within the cortical silent period. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this case series is to report the ipsilesional and contralesional cortical silent period and the electromyographic breakthrough activity of 7 children with congenital hemiparesis...
November 21, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
Yinming Sun, Daniel M Blumberger, Benoit H Mulsant, Tarek K Rajji, Paul B Fitzgerald, Mera S Barr, Jonathan Downar, Willy Wong, Faranak Farzan, Zafiris J Daskalakis
Therapeutic seizures may work for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) by producing neuroplasticity. We evaluated whether magnetic seizure therapy (MST) produces changes in suicidal ideation and neuroplasticity as indexed through transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-three patients with TRD were treated with MST. Changes in suicidal ideation was assessed through the Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI). Before and after the treatment course, neuroplasticity in excitatory and inhibitory circuits was assessed with TMS-EEG measures of cortical-evoked activity (CEA) and long-interval cortical inhibition (LICI) from the left DLPFC, and the left motor cortex as a control condition...
November 23, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
M Prabhavi N Perera, Neil W Bailey, Sally E Herring, Paul B Fitzgerald
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic disease that causes significant decline in the quality of life of those affected. Due to our limited understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of OCD, successful treatment remains elusive. Although many have studied the pathophysiology of OCD through electroencephalography (EEG), limited attempts have been made to synthesize and interpret their findings. To bridge this gap, we conducted a comprehensive literature review using Medline/PubMed and considered the 65 most relevant studies published before June 2018...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera, José V Martínez-Quiñones
Neuromodulation can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), and emotional/eating behavior is an exciting facet of that functioning. Therefore, it would be possible to offer an alternative (or complement) treatment to psychotropic medications and different psychological and nutritional approaches to both eating disorders (EDs) and obesity. Although there are a number of publications in these areas, a systematic review has not been conducted to date. Abstracts, letters, conference reports, dissertations, and reviews were excluded...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Caterina Motta, Francesco Di Lorenzo, Viviana Ponzo, Maria Concetta Pellicciari, Sonia Bonnì, Silvia Picazio, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Carlo Caltagirone, Alessandro Martorana, Giacomo Koch
OBJECTIVE: To determine the ability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in detecting synaptic impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and predicting cognitive decline since the early phases of the disease. METHODS: We used TMS-based parameters to evaluate long-term potentiation (LTP)-like cortical plasticity and cholinergic activity as measured by short afferent inhibition (SAI) in 60 newly diagnosed patients with AD and 30 healthy age-matched subjects (HS)...
December 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Leonardo Botelho, Letícia Angoleri, Maxciel Zortea, Alicia Deitos, Aline Brietzke, Iraci L S Torres, Felipe Fregni, Wolnei Caumo
Background: There is limited evidence concerning the effect of intramuscular electrical stimulation (EIMS) on the neural mechanisms of pain and disability associated with chronic Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS). Objectives: To provide new insights into the EIMS long-term effect on pain and disability related to chronic MPS (primary outcomes). To assess if the neuroplasticity state at baseline could predict the long-term impact of EIMS on disability due to MPS we examined the relationship between the serum brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor (BDNF) and by motor evoked potential (MEP)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Weronika Potok, Adam Maskiewicz, Gregory Króliczak, Mattia Marangon
The left supramarginal gyrus (SMG) is a critical structure in tool use actions, including such simple acts as selection of appropriate grasps and, if necessary, their on-line corrections. Yet, its temporal contribution to initial planning of functional grasps of tools is largely unknown. We used MRI-guided, event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to determine the time point when SMG involvement in processing of tools for functional grasp decision was affected most. In Exp. 1, with 15 participants, triple-pulse (10 Hz) TMS was applied to either the left anterior-to-mid SMG (amSMG; subdivisions PFt/PF) or vertex at three different time points: starting from 17 ms (i...
October 19, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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