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Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and TMS

Sara Parmigiani, Luigi Cattaneo
Being able to inhibit an impending movement in response to a contextual change is a distinctive feature of action control. Such inhibitory control relies on a complex cortical-subcortical network, including posterior prefrontal regions such as caudal inferior frontal gyrus and pre-supplementary motor area. According to hierarchical models of action control, both areas represent the intermediate level between prefronto-dependent and motor-related cortices. Going at a lower level, accumulating evidence speaks for an involvement of the primary motor cortex (M1) to dorsal premotor cortex (PMCd) or supplementary motor area proper (SMA-proper) pathways in producing inhibitory control...
October 17, 2018: Neuroscience
Xiang-Yu Zhang, Yan-Fang Sui, Tie-Cheng Guo, Sai-Hua Wang, Yan Hu, Yin-Shan Lu
Paired associative stimulation (PAS), combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with electrical peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) in pairs with an optimal interstimulus interval (ISI) in between, has been shown to influence the excitability of the motor cortex (MC) in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study was designed to explore an optimal protocol of PAS, which can modulate the excitability of MC in rats, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. The resting motor thresholds (RMTs) of TMS-elicited motor evoked potentials (MEPs) recorded from the gastrocnemius muscle and the latency of P1 component of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) induced by electrical tibial nerve stimulation were determined in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10)...
October 2018: Current medical science
Ellana Welsby, Michael Ridding, Susan Hillier, Brenton Hordacre
BACKGROUND: Stroke can have devastating consequences for an individual's quality of life. Interventions capable of enhancing response to therapy would be highly valuable to the field of neurological rehabilitation. One approach is to use noninvasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation, to induce a neuroplastic response. When delivered in combination with rehabilitation exercises, there is some evidence that transcranial direct current stimulation is beneficial...
October 18, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
R D Sanders, M I Banks, M Darracq, R Moran, J Sleigh, O Gosseries, V Bonhomme, J F Brichant, M Rosanova, A Raz, G Tononi, M Massimini, S Laureys, M Boly
BACKGROUND: Impaired consciousness has been associated with impaired cortical signal propagation after transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We hypothesised that the reduced current propagation under propofol-induced unresponsiveness is associated with changes in both feedforward and feedback connectivity across the cortical hierarchy. METHODS: Eight subjects underwent left occipital TMS coupled with high-density EEG recordings during wakefulness and propofol-induced unconsciousness...
November 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Haosu Zhang, Nico Sollmann, Gabriel Castrillón, Katarzyna Kurcyus, Bernhard Meyer, Claus Zimmer, Sandro M Krieg
PURPOSE: Although transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is routinely applied in neuroscience and clinical settings, not much is known about its effects on brain networks. Therefore, this pilot study was set up using repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) to explore frequency-dependent stimulation effects on an intranetwork and internetwork level. METHODS: Six healthy subjects (median age: 23...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Andre R Brunoni, Bernardo Sampaio-Junior, Adriano H Moffa, Luana V Aparício, Pedro Gordon, Izio Klein, Rosa M Rios, Lais B Razza, Colleen Loo, Frank Padberg, Leandro Valiengo
OBJECTIVE: Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), are increasingly being used to treat mental disorders, particularly major depression. The aim of this comprehensive review is to summarize the main advances, limitations, and perspectives of the field. METHODS: We searched PubMed and other databases from inception to July 2017 for articles, particularly systematic reviews and meta-analyses, evaluating the use of NIBS in psychiatric disorders...
October 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Luisa Perasso, Laura Avanzino, Giovanna Lagravinese, Alessandro Giannini, Emanuela Luisa Faelli, Ambra Bisio, Angelo Quartarone, Vincenzo Rizzo, Piero Ruggeri, Marco Bove
Tendon vibration of a limb elicits illusory movements in the direction that the vibrated muscle would be stretched, followed by a transient perception of movement in the opposite direction, that was demonstrated to correspond to a "cortical" aftereffect (Goodwin et al. Science 175:1382-1384, 1972). Primary motor cortex (M1) excitability of the non-vibrated antagonist muscle of the vibrated muscle increased during vibration and decreased thereafter. The cortical aftereffect is of interest when considering the possibility to use tendon vibration in rehabilitation for restoring unbalance activity between antagonistic muscles but, due to its short-lasting duration, has not been explored so far...
October 16, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Xi Chen, Jing-Na Jin, Fang Xiang, Zhi-Peng Liu, Tao Yin
An object can have multiple attributes, and visual feature-based attention (FBA) is the process of focusing on a specific one of them. During visual FBA, the frontal eye field (FEF) is considered to be an important brain area related to the choice of attribute. However, the study of the FEF in FBA remains inadequate. We applied single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the right FEF (rFEF), and designed two independent experimental FBA tasks that each involved two attributes (color and motion), to explore the action time of FEF and the spatial transmission of the FEF signal, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Raffaele Nardone, Francesco Brigo, Viviana Versace, Luca Sebastianelli, Monica Christova, Stefan Golaszewski, Leopold Saltuari, Eugen Trinka
BACKGROUND: Several studies have applied electrophysiological techniques to physiologically characterize corticobasal degeneration (CBD). METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search of these studies and reviewed all 25 identified articles. RESULTS: Conventional electroencephalography (EEG) is usually normal even in the late stages of disease. Quantitative EEG (qEEG) with spectral analysis revealed mainly lateralized abnormalities, such as an increase of slow wave activity and occasionally the occurrence of sharp waves, and a significant increase of coherence between left parietal-right premotor areas...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Eman M Khedr, Bastawy Al Fawal, Ahmed Abdelwarith, Mostafa Saber, John C Rothwell
Tardive syndromes (TDS) typically manifest 3 months or later after exposure to antipsychotic drugs, and unfortunately have no satisfactory medical treatment. We explored the possibility of using therapeutic repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Twenty-six patients were allocated to receive real or sham rTMS over the hand/arm area of motor cortex (M1). Each received a daily total of 2000 rTMS pulses (20 Hz at 100% rMT: 1000 stimuli per hemisphere) for 10 consecutive days. Outcome was assessed using the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) and TMS measures of M1 excitability...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Katherine R Naish, Lana Vedelago, James MacKillop, Michael Amlung
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in non-invasive brain stimulation techniques as treatments for addictive disorders. While multiple reviews have examined the effects of neuromodulation on craving and consumption, there has been no review of how neuromodulation affects cognitive functioning in addiction. This systematic review examined studies of the cognitive effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in individuals exhibiting addictive behavior...
October 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Antonio Granato, Jacopo Fantini, Fabrizio Monti, Giovanni Furlanis, Sara Musho Ilbeh, Mauro Semenic, Paolo Manganotti
Chronic migraine (CM) is often associated with medication overuse headache (MOH). Few small trials have been conducted on Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for CM treatment, but results are conflicting. Aim of the study was to investigate the effects of high frequency of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (hf-rTMS) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex combined with strongly suggesting to avoid medications overuse in patients suffering with CM and MOH. A six-month single-centre perspective randomized double-blinded study was conducted at the Headache Centre of Trieste...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Aakash V Sathappan, Bruce M Luber, Sarah H Lisanby
Pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS)1 each show efficacy in the treatment of psychiatric disorders; however, more efficacious interventions are needed as reflected by an overall unmet need in mental health care. While each modality has typically been studied and developed as a monotherapy, in practice they are typically used in combination. Research has begun to emerge studying the potential synergistic actions of multi-modal, combination therapies. For example, NIBS combined with rehabilitation strategies have demonstrated some success for speech and motor rehabilitation in stroke patients...
October 9, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
James Mathew, Frederic R Danion
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can interfere with smooth pursuit or with saccades initiated from a fixed position toward a fixed target, but little is known about the effect of TMS on catch-up saccade made to assist smooth pursuit. Here we explored the effect of TMS on catch-up saccades by means of a situation in which the moving target was driven by an external agent, or moved by the participants' hand, a condition known to decrease the occurrence of catch-up saccade. Two sites of stimulation were tested, the vertex and M1 hand area...
2018: PloS One
Alexander Whillier, Sina Hommel, Nicole E Neef, Alexander Wolff von Gudenberg, Walter Paulus, Martin Sommer
OBJECTIVES: Persistent developmental stuttering is a speech fluency disorder defined by its symptoms, where the underlying neurophysiological causes remain uncertain. This study examined the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms of the speech planning process, using facilitation in the motor cortex during speech preparation as an analogue. METHODS: transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses induced motor evoked potentials (MEPs), which were recorded from the tongue...
2018: PloS One
Paula Davila-Pérez, Ali Jannati, Peter J Fried, Javier Cudeiro Mazaira, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
The pulse waveform and current direction of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) influence its interactions with the neural substrate; however, their role in the efficacy and reliability of single- and paired-pulse TMS measures is not fully understood. We investigated how pulse waveform and current direction affect the efficacy and test-retest reliability of navigated, single- and paired-pulse TMS measures. 23 healthy adults (aged 18-35 years) completed two identical TMS sessions, assessing resting motor threshold (RMT), motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), cortical silent period (cSP), short- and long-interval intra-cortical inhibition (SICI and LICI), and intracortical facilitation (ICF) using either monophasic posterior-anterior (monoPA ; n = 9), monophasic anterior-posterior (monoAP ; n = 7), or biphasic (biAP-PA ; n = 7) pulses...
October 6, 2018: Neuroscience
Charles P Lewis, Deniz Doruk Camsari, A Irem Sonmez, Aiswarya Lakshmi Nandakumar, Marjorie A Gresbrink, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Paul E Croarkin
BACKGROUND: Suicide is a leading cause of death among youth. Prior research using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has implicated deficits in GABAergic cortical inhibition in adolescent suicidal behavior, yet no studies have assessed whether cortical inhibition varies over time in conjunction with changes in suicidal ideation (SI). This study examined dynamic changes in long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI), a TMS measure of GABAB -mediated inhibition, and their relationship with changes in SI in a small sample of adolescents undergoing pharmacologic treatment for depression...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Géza Gergely Ambrus, Catarina Amado, Laura Krohn, Gyula Kovács
Accumulating evidence suggests that besides its function in early facial feature processing, the role of the right occipital face area (rOFA) extends to higher level, image-independent processing. Recent studies hint at the possibility that the activity of this region can be modulated by semantic information as well. To test whether the OFA is sensitive to semantic information in a functionally relevant way, we implemented a cross-domain, name-face priming paradigm combined with state-dependent transcranial magnetic stimulation, whereby stimulation preferentially facilitates the processing of attributes encoded by less active neural populations...
October 5, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
He Wang, Jingna Jin, Xin Wang, Ying Li, Zhipeng Liu, Tao Yin
BACKGROUND: Robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) combines the benefits of neuro-navigation with automation and provides a precision brain stimulation method. Since the coil will normally remain unmounted between different clinical uses, hand/eye calibration and coil calibration are required before each experiment. Today, these two steps are still separate: hand/eye calibration is performed using methods proposed by Tsai/Lenz or Floris Ernst, and then the coil calibration is carried out based on the traditional TMS experimental step...
October 1, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Hsing-Ching Kuo, Ephrem Zewdie, Patrick Ciechanski, Omar Damji, Adam Kirton
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials are suggesting efficacy of intensive therapy combined with brain stimulation to improve hand function in hemiparetic children with perinatal stroke. However, individual variability exists and the underlying neuroplasticity mechanisms are unknown. Exploring primary motor cortex (M1) neurophysiology, and how it changes with such interventions, may provide valuable biomarkers for advancing personalized neurorehabilitation. METHODS: Forty-five children (age 6-19 years) with hemiparesis participated in PLASTIC CHAMPS, a blinded, sham-controlled, factorial clinical trial...
October 4, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
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