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Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and TMS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113111/modulation-of-network-to-network-connectivity-via-spike-timing-dependent-noninvasive-brain-stimulation
#1
Emiliano Santarnecchi, Davide Momi, Giulia Sprugnoli, Francesco Neri, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Alessandro Rossi, Simone Rossi
Human cognitive abilities and behavior are linked to functional coupling of many brain regions organized in distinct networks. Gaining insights on the role those networks' dynamics play in cognition and pathology requires their selective, reliable, and reversible manipulation. Here we document the possibility to manipulate the interplay between two brain networks in a controlled manner, by means of a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) protocol inducing spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP). Pairs of TMS pulses at specific inter-stimulus intervals, repeatedly delivered over two negatively correlated nodes of the default mode network (DMN) and the task-positive network (TPN) defined on the basis of individual functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, induced a modulation of network-to-network connectivity, even reversing correlation from negative to slightly positive in 30% of cases...
August 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106684/individual-characterization-of-fast-intracortical-facilitation-with-paired-biphasic-wave-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#2
Ali Mohammadi, Mohammadhossein Ebrahimi, Siru Kaartinen, Gustaf Jarnefelt, Jari Karhu, Petro Julkunen
We characterized the short-interval intracortical facilitation (SICF) via modulation of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) induced motor evoked potentials (MEPs) using paired-pulse stimulation, and analyzed the interactions with known SICF I-wave behavior. The objective was to optimize individual SICF to enhance TMS effects in motor mapping and therapeutic stimulations. We applied navigated TMS in nine healthy volunteers to study SICF. MEPs were measured for baseline using single-pulse TMS, and subsequently, paired-pulse TMS was applied to study SICF...
August 8, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104968/in-standing-corticospinal-excitability-is-proportional-to-cop-velocity-whereas-m1-excitability-is-participant-specific
#3
Tulika Nandi, Claudine J C Lamoth, Helco G van Keeken, Lisanne B M Bakker, Iris Kok, George J Salem, Beth E Fisher, Tibor Hortobágyi
Reductions in the base of support (BOS) make standing difficult and require adjustments in the neural control of sway. In healthy young adults, we determined the effects of reductions in mediolateral (ML) BOS on peroneus longus (PL) motor evoked potential (MEP), intracortical facilitation (ICF), short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and long interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We also examined whether participant-specific neural excitability influences the responses to increasing standing difficulty...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098499/altered-transcallosal-inhibition-evidenced-by-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-highlights-neurophysiological-consequences-of-premature-birth-in-early-adulthood
#4
Véronique H Flamand, Annabelle Denis, Fannie Allen-Demers, Monica Lavoie, Réjean Tessier, Cyril Schneider
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A very preterm birth can induce deleterious neurophysiological consequences beyond childhood; alterations of the corpus callosum (CC) are reported in adolescents born very preterm along with cognitive impairments. The question remains whether neurophysiological alterations are still detectable in adulthood such as an alteration in CC inhibitory function. The aim of the present study was thus to examine transcallosal inhibition in young adults born very preterm compared to counterparts born at term...
July 30, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098329/observation-of-an-action-with-a-congruent-contextual-background-facilitates-corticospinal-excitability-a-combined-tms-and-eye-tracking-experiment
#5
Martin Riach, Paul S Holmes, Zoë C Franklin, David J Wright
Action observation produces activity in similar regions of the brain to those involved in action execution and can offer an effective intervention for motor (re)learning, although optimal viewing conditions for such interventions remain to be established. In this experiment, single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and eye-tracking were used simultaneously to investigate the effect of manipulating background context on both corticospinal excitability and visual attention during action observation...
August 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097641/ipl-m1-interaction-shapes-pre-reflective-social-differentiation-in-the-human-action-system-new-insights-from-tbs-and-tms-combined
#6
Luca F Ticini, Thomas Dolk, Florian Waszak, Simone Schütz-Bosbach
The conscious experience of being the author of our own actions is thought to be grounded in pre-reflective and low-level sensorimotor representations of the self as different from the other. It has been suggested that the inferior parietal lobe (IPL) is generally involved in self-other differentiation processes and in providing an explicit sense of action authorship. However, direct evidence for its causal and functional role in distinguishing self-related and other-related sensorimotor representations is lacking...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097615/associative-plasticity-in-supplementary-motor-area-motor-cortex-pathways-in-tourette-syndrome
#7
Jennifer Tübing, Bettina Gigla, Valerie Cathérine Brandt, Julius Verrel, Anne Weissbach, Christian Beste, Alexander Münchau, Tobias Bäumer
The important role of the supplementary motor area (SMA) in the generation of tics and urges in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is underscored by an increased SMA-motor cortex (M1) connectivity. However, whether plasticity is also altered in SMA-M1 pathways is unclear. We explored whether SMA-M1 plasticity is altered in patients with Tourette syndrome. 15 patients with GTS (mean age of 33.4 years, SD = 9.9) and 19 age and sex matched healthy controls were investigated with a paired association stimulation (PAS) protocol using three transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) coils stimulating both M1 and the SMA...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095164/fatigue-related-group-iii-iv-muscle-afferent-feedback-facilitates-intracortical-inhibition-during-locomotor-exercise
#8
Simranjit K Sidhu, Joshua C Weavil, Taylor S Thurston, Dorothea Rosenberger, Jacob E Jessop, Eivind Wang, Russell S Richardson, Chris J McNeil, Markus Amann
We investigated the influence of group III/IV muscle afferents in attenuating corticospinal excitability during cycling exercise and focused on GABAB neuron-mediated inhibition as a potential underlying mechanism. Both under control-conditions (CTRL) and with lumbar intrathecal fentanyl (FENT) impairing feedback from group III/IV leg muscle afferents, subjects (n = 11) cycled at a comparable vastus-lateralis electromyography signal (EMG) (∼0.26 mV) before (PRE; 100 W) and immediately after (POST; 90 ± 2 W) fatiguing constant-load cycling exercise (80% Wpeak; 221 ± 10 W; ∼8 min)...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094517/intracortical-facilitation-within-the-migraine-motor-cortex-depends-on-the-stimulation-intensity-a-paired-pulse-tms-study
#9
Giuseppe Cosentino, Salvatore Di Marco, Salvatore Ferlisi, Francesca Valentino, Walter M Capitano, Brigida Fierro, Filippo Brighina
INTRODUCTION: Connectivity within the primary motor cortex can be measured using the paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigm. This evaluates the effect of a first conditioning stimulus on the motor evoked potential (MEP) elicited by a second test stimulus when different interstimulus intervals are used. Aim of the present study was to provide, in patients suffering from migraine without aura (MwoA), additional information on intracortical facilitation (ICF), short intracortical inhibition (SICI), and long intracortical inhibition (LICI), using different intensities of the test stimulus (TS)...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093856/inhibit-my-disinhibition-the-role-of-the-inferior-frontal-cortex-in-sexual-inhibition-and-the-modulatory-influence-of-sexual-excitation-proneness
#10
Geraldine Rodriguez, Alexander T Sack, Marieke Dewitte, Teresa Schuhmann
Sexual behaviour is the result of an interplay between distinct neural inhibitory and excitatory mechanisms. Individual differences in sexual excitation and sexual inhibition are proposed to play an important role in the processes sustaining the regulation of sexual behaviour. While much research has focused on the neural correlates of response inhibition, highlighting a prominent role of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), very little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying different aspects of sexual inhibition...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093350/diminished-modulation-of-motor-cortical-reactivity-during-context-based-action-observation-in-schizophrenia
#11
Virupakshappa Irappa Bagewadi, Urvakhsh Meherwan Mehta, Shalini S Naik, Ramajayam Govindaraj, Shivarama Varambally, Shyam Sundar Arumugham, C Naveen Kumar, Jagadisha Thirthalli
BACKGROUND: Deficient mirror neuron system (MNS)-activity is associated with social cognition deficits in schizophrenia. However, it is not known how socio-emotional contexts modulate the MNS-response. In a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)-experiment, we aimed to compare putative MNS-responses to action observation stimuli with and without a context, in patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects. METHOD: TMS-evoked motor cortical reactivity was measured by single and paired [short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (ICF)] pulse-paradigms in schizophrenia patients (n = 39) and healthy subjects (n = 28) while they observed three experimental-blocks: a static image, a neutral hand action (NA) and a context-based hand action (CA)...
August 7, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093288/modulation-of-motor-learning-by-a-paired-associative-stimulation-protocol-inducing-ltd-like-effects
#12
Takuya Sasaki, Yuichiro Shirota, Satoshi Kodama, Naohiko Togashi, Yusuke Sugiyama, Shin-Ichi Tokushige, Satomi Inomata-Terada, Yasuo Terao, Yoshikazu Ugawa, Tatsushi Toda, Masashi Hamada
BACKGROUND: Paired associative stimulation (PAS) induces long-term potentiation (LTP)-like effects when interstimulus intervals (ISIs) between electrical peripheral nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to M1 are approximately 21-25 ms (PASLTP ). It was previously reported that two forms of motor learning (i.e., mode-free and model-based learning) can be differentially modulated by PASLTP depending on the different synaptic inputs to corticospinal neurons (CSNs), which relate to posterior-to-anterior (PA) or anterior-to-posterior (AP) currents induced by TMS (PA or AP inputs, respectively)...
July 31, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091002/tms-over-the-superior-temporal-sulcus-affects-expressivity-evaluation-of-portraits
#13
Chiara Ferrari, Susanna Schiavi, Zaira Cattaneo
When viewing a portrait, we are often captured by its expressivity, even if the emotion depicted is not immediately identifiable. If the neural mechanisms underlying emotion processing of real faces have been largely clarified, we still know little about the neural basis of evaluation of (emotional) expressivity in portraits. In this study, we aimed at assessing-by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-whether the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) and the right somatosensory cortex (SC), that are important in discriminating facial emotion expressions, are also causally involved in the evaluation of expressivity of portraits...
August 8, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30085357/deep-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-of-the-operculo-insular-cortex-selectively-affects-a%C3%AE-fiber-heat-pain
#14
Cédric Lenoir, Maxime Algoet, André Mouraux
KEY POINTS: Deep continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) of the right operculo-insular cortex delivered with a double cone coil selectively impairs the ability to perceive thermonociceptive input conveyed by Aδ-fiber thermonociceptors without concomitantly affecting the ability to perceive innocuous warm, cold or vibrotactile sensations. Unlike deep cTBS, superficial cTBS of the right operculum delivered with a figure-of-eight coil does not affect the ability to perceive thermonociceptive input conveyed by Aδ-fiber thermonociceptors...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30082198/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-and-environmental-enrichment-enhances-cortical-excitability-and-functional-outcomes-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Samuel S Shin, Vijai Krishnan, William Stokes, Courtney Robertson, Pablo Celnik, Yanrong Chen, Xiaolei Song, Hanzhang Lu, Peiying Liu, Galit Pelled
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic strategies for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the last three decades have failed to show significant benefit in large scale studies. Given the multitude of pathological mechanisms involved in TBI, strategies focusing on multimodality regimen have gained interest as promising future interventions. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that combining noninvasive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with rehabilitative training in an environmental enrichment (EE) can facilitate post-TBI recovery in rats via cortical excitability and reorganization...
July 25, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080968/on-chip-studies-of-magnetic-stimulation-effect-on-single-neural-cell-viability-and-proliferation-on-glass-and-nanoporous-surfaces
#16
Xiangchen Che, Joseph Boldrey, Xiaojing Zhong, Shalini Unnikandam-Veettil, Ian Christopher Schneider, David Jiles, Long Que
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique, an FDA-approved treatment method for various neurological disorders such as depressive disorder, Parkinson's disease, post-traumatic stress disorder, and migraine. However, information concerning the molecular/cellular-level mechanisms of neurons under magnetic simulation (MS), particularly at the single neural cell level, is still lacking, resulting in very little knowledge of the effects of MS on neural cells. In this paper, the effects of MS on the behaviors of neural cell N27 at the single-cell level on coverslip glass substrate and anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous substrate are reported for the first time...
August 6, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080715/neurophysiological-biomarkers-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#17
Steve Vucic, Seward B Rutkove
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the motor neurons, characterized by upper motor neuron (UMN) and lower motor neuron (LMN) dysfunction. There have been significant technological advances in the development of neurophysiological biomarkers of UMN and LMN dysfunction in ALS. In this review, we discuss major advances in development of neurophysiological biomarkers in ALS, critiquing their potential in diagnosis and prognosis of ALS, as well as utility in monitoring treatment effects...
August 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065211/cognitive-impairment-and-celiac-disease-is-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-a-trait-d-union-between-gut-and-brain
#18
REVIEW
Giuseppe Lanza, Rita Bella, Mariagiovanna Cantone, Giovanni Pennisi, Raffaele Ferri, Manuela Pennisi
Celiac disease is a systemic disorder with multifactorial pathogenesis and multifaceted symptomatology. In response to gluten exposure, a significant part of the general population produces antibodies that have been hypothesized to be deleterious to the brain. Among the well-known neurological manifestations, adult celiac patients often complain cognitive symptoms, ranging from the so-called "brain fog" till an overt dementia. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that can contribute to the assessment and monitoring of celiac patients, even in those without a clear neurological involvement...
July 31, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064396/combining-constraint-induced-movement-therapy-and-action-observation-training-in-children-with-unilateral-cerebral-palsy-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Cristina Simon-Martinez, Lisa Mailleux, Els Ortibus, Anna Fehrenbach, Giuseppina Sgandurra, Giovanni Cioni, Kaat Desloovere, Nicole Wenderoth, Philippe Demaerel, Stefan Sunaert, Guy Molenaers, Hilde Feys, Katrijn Klingels
BACKGROUND: Upper limb (UL) deficits in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (uCP) have traditionally been targeted with motor execution treatment models, such as modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (mCIMT). However, new approaches based on a neurophysiological model such as Action-Observation Training (AOT) may provide new opportunities for enhanced motor learning. The aim of this study is to describe a randomised controlled trial (RCT) protocol investigating the effects of an intensive treatment model, combining mCIMT and AOT compared to mCIMT alone on UL function in children with uCP...
July 31, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30057522/insights-into-auditory-cortex-dynamics-from-non-invasive-brain-stimulation
#20
REVIEW
Jamila Andoh, Reiko Matsushita, Robert J Zatorre
Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been widely used as a research tool to modulate cortical excitability of motor as well as non-motor areas, including auditory or language-related areas. NIBS, especially transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation, have also been used in clinical settings, with however variable therapeutic outcome, highlighting the need to better understand the mechanisms underlying NIBS techniques. TMS was initially used to address causality between specific brain areas and related behavior, such as language production, providing non-invasive alternatives to lesion studies...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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